Fungal Infections: Types, Symptoms, and Treatments

Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, Symptoms, Cause, Treatment

Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, Symptoms, Cause, Treatment

Fungal Infections Information Including Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Causes, Videos, Lesions or sores that are raised, are yellow-white in color. Yellow fungus, also called mucor septic, is a fungal infection, which as per experts does not generally occur in humans but in lizards. The. Fungal eye infections are very rare. But if not treated, they can become serious and result in permanent vision loss or blindness.

Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, Symptoms, Cause, Treatment - opinion obvious

Doctor explains why white fungus is &#;more dangerous&#; than black fungus

But, instead of associating every fungal infection with COVID, one needs to look at the diverse range of other reasons responsible for the disease, he said. &#;COVID itself is aggravating the severity of already prevailing physical conditions but other responsible factors should not be ignored,&#; he told storycall.us

So what is yellow fungus, and how severe it can be?

Yellow fungus initially develops by the presence of moulds (a type of fungi) in the environment. It may be present with unnecessary fatigue, rashes, burning sensation on skin etc. It may not start from the lungs but it invades internal organs of the body and affects the entire functioning. It may be dangerous, but the focus should be on its prevention. As far as its severity and risk factors are concerned, like any other infection, yellow fungus can be severe if not treated early. Its sheer development and spread in the body depends upon the prevailing medical and physical condition of a patient.

Potential causes of yellow fungus

*Prolonged use of steroid,
*Contaminated environment
*Uncontrolled diabetes
*Unhygienic or dirty surroundings
*Unhygienic habits
*Lesser immunity
*Co-morbidities

&#;The need of the hour is to maintain the required level of hygiene during treatment. We are living amid a pandemic and the rush in hospitals is very high. Apart from right treatment, family members visiting patients in the hospitals should keep hygiene level in check,&#; mentioned Dr Sood.

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Mucormycosis

Fungal infection

Medical condition

Mucormycosis
Other namesZygomycosis,[1][2] black fungus[3][4]
storycall.us
Periorbital mucormycosis
SpecialtyInfectious disease
SymptomsDepends on location: runny nose, black area of skin, facial swelling, headache, fever, cough, blurred vision[5][6]
ComplicationsBlindness, thrombosis[7]
Usual onsetRapid[1]
DurationAround a week[1]
TypesSinuses and brain, lung, stomach and intestine, skin, disseminated, miscellaneous[8]
CausesFungi of the Mucorales type[8]
Risk factorsDiabetes, iron overload, low white cells, cancer, organ transplant, kidney problems, immunosuppressants, long-term steroids[7]
Diagnostic methodBiopsy, culture, medical imaging[5]
Differential diagnosisOrbital cellulitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, aspergillosis[9]
PreventionFace masks, avoiding contact with soil or water-damaged buildings, good diabetic control[7][10]
TreatmentAntifungals, surgical debridement, treat underlying medical conditions[7]
MedicationAmphotericin B, isavuconazole, posaconazole[8]
PrognosisPoor[9]
FrequencyRare[8]

Mucormycosis, also known as black fungus,[3][4] is a serious fungal infection, usually in people who are immunocompromised.[9][11] Symptoms depend on where in the body the infection occurs.[12][13] It most commonly infects the nose, sinuses, eye, and brain resulting in a runny nose, one-sided facial swelling and pain, headache, fever, blurred vision, bulging or displacement of the eye (proptosis), and tissue death.[1][6] Other forms of disease may infect the lungs, stomach and intestines, and skin.[6]

It is spread by spores of molds of the order Mucorales, most often through inhalation, contaminated food, or contamination of open wounds.[14] These fungi are common in soils, decomposing organic matter (such as rotting fruit and vegetables), and animal manure, but usually do not affect people.[15] It is not transmitted between people.[13] Risk factors include diabetes with persistently high blood sugar levels or diabetic ketoacidosis, low white cells, cancer, organ transplant, iron overload, kidney problems, long-term steroids or use of immunosuppressants, and to a lesser extent in HIV/AIDS.[7][9]

Diagnosis is by biopsy and culture, with medical imaging to help determine the extent of disease.[5] It may appear similar to aspergillosis.[16] Treatment is generally with amphotericin B and surgical debridement.[8] Preventive measures include wearing a face mask in dusty areas, avoiding contact with water-damaged buildings, and protecting the skin from exposure to soil such as when gardening or certain outdoor work.[10] It tends to progress rapidly and is fatal in about half of sinus cases and almost all cases of the widespread type.[2][17]

Mucormycosis is usually rare, affecting fewer than 2 people per million people each year in San Francisco,[8] but is now ~80 times more common in India.[18] People of any age may be affected, including premature infants.[8] The first known case of mucormycosis was possibly one described by Friedrich Küchenmeister in [1] The disease has been reported in natural disasters; Indian Ocean tsunami and the Missouri tornado.[19] During the COVID pandemic, an association between mucormycosis and COVID has been reported. This association is thought to relate to reduced immune function during the course of the illness and may also be related to glucocorticoid therapy for COVID[4][20] A rise in cases was particularly noted in India.[21]

Classification[edit]

Generally, mucormycosis is classified into five main types according to the part of the body affected.[13][22] A sixth type has been described as mucormycosis of the kidney,[1] or miscellaneous, that is mucormycosis at other sites, although less commonly affected.[22]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Periorbital fungal infection

Signs and symptoms of mucormycosis depend on the location in the body of the infection.[6] Infection usually begins in the mouth or nose and enters the central nervous system via the eyes.[5]

If the fungal infection begins in the nose or sinus and extends to brain, symptoms and signs may include one-sided eye pain or headache, and may be accompanied by pain in the face, numbness, fever, loss of smell, a blocked nose or runny nose. The person may appear to have sinusitis.[23] The face may look swollen on one side, with rapidly progressing "black lesions" across the nose or upper inside of mouth. One eye may look swollen and bulging, and vision may be blurred.[6][23][24]

Fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing, or coughing up blood, can occur when the lungs are involved.[6] A stomach ache, nausea, vomiting and bleeding can occur when the gastrointestinal tract is involved.[6][25] Affected skin may appear as a dusky reddish tender patch with a darkening centre due to tissue death.[11] There may be an ulcer and it can be very painful.[5][7][11]

Invasion into the blood vessels can result in thrombosis and subsequent death of surrounding tissue due to a loss of blood supply.[7] Widespread (disseminated) mucormycosis typically occurs in people who are already sick from other medical conditions, so it can be difficult to know which symptoms are related to mucormycosis. People with disseminated infection in the brain can develop mental status changes or coma.[26][27]

Cause[edit]

Mucormycosis is a fungal infection caused by fungi in the order Mucorales.[5] In most cases it is due to an invasion of the generaRhizopus and Mucor, common bread molds.[28] Most fatal infections are caused by Rhizopus oryzae.[16] It is less likely due to Lichtheimia, and rarely due to Apophysomyces.[29] Others include Cunninghamella, Mortierella, and Saksenaea.[5][30]

The fungal spores are in the environment, can be found on for instance moldy bread and fruit and are breathed in frequently, but cause disease only in some people.[5] In addition to being breathed in to be deposited in the nose, sinuses and lungs, the spores can also enter the skin via blood or directly through a cut or open wound, or grow in the intestine if eaten.[13][30] Once deposited, the fungus grows branch-like filaments which invade blood vessels, causing clots to form and surrounding tissues to die.[5] Other reported causes include contaminated wound dressings.[5] Mucormycosis has been reported following the use of elastoplast and the use of tongue depressors for holding in place intravenous catheters,[5] Outbreaks have also been linked to hospital bed sheets, negative-pressure rooms, water leaks, poor ventilation, contaminated medical equipment, and building works.[31]

Risk factors[edit]

Predisposing factors for mucormycosis include conditions where people are less able to fight infection, have a low neutrophil count or metabolic acidosis.[11][9] Risk factors include poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (particularly DKA), organ transplant, iron overload, cancers such as lymphomas, kidney failure, long term corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy, liver disease and severe malnutrition.[30][10] Other risk factors include tuberculosis (TB),[19]deferoxamine[1] and to a lesser extent HIV/AIDS.[1][7] Cases of mucormycosis in fit and healthy people are rare.[7]

Corticosteroids are commonly used in the treatment of COVID and reduce damage caused by the body's own immune system during a coronavirus infection. They are immunosuppressant and increase blood sugar levels in both diabetics and non-diabetic patients. It is thought that both these effects may contribute to cases of mucormycosis.[32][33][20]

Mechanism[edit]

Most people are frequently exposed to Mucorales without developing the disease.[30] Mucormycosis is generally spread by breathing in, eating food contaminated by, or getting spores of molds of the Mucorales type in an open wound.[14] It is not transmitted between people.[13]

The precise mechanism by which diabetics become susceptible is unclear. In vivo, a high sugar alone does not permit the growth of the fungus, but acidosis alone does.[1][7] People with high sugars frequently have higher iron levels, also known to be a risk factor for developing mucormycosis.[7] In people on deferoxamine, the iron removed is captured by siderophores on Rhizopus species, which uses the iron to grow.[34]

Diagnosis[edit]

There is no blood test that can confirm the diagnosis.[35] Diagnosis requires identifying the mold in the affected tissue by biopsy and confirming it with a fungal culture.[8] Because the causative fungi occur all around, a culture alone is not decisive.[5] Tests may also include culture and direct detection of the fungus in lung fluid, blood, serum, plasma and urine.[19] Blood tests include a complete blood count to look specifically for neutropenia.[35] Other blood tests include iron levels, blood glucose, bicarbonate, and electrolytes.[35] Endoscopic examination of the nasal passages may be needed.[35]

Imaging[edit]

Imaging is often performed, such as CT scan of lungs and sinuses.[36] Signs on chest CT scans, such as nodules, cavities, halo signs, pleural effusion and wedge-shaped shadows, showing invasion of blood vessels may suggest a fungal infection, but does not confirm mucormycosis.[16] A reverse halo sign in a person with a blood cancer and low neutrophil count, is highly suggestive of mucormycosis.[16] CT scan images of mucormycosis can be useful to distinguish mucormycosis of the orbit and cellulitis of the orbit, but imaging may look identical to those of aspergillosis.[16]MRI may also be useful.[37] Currently, MRI with gadolinium contrast is investigation of choice in rhinoorbito cerebral mucormycosis.[citation needed]

Culture and biopsy[edit]

To confirm the diagnosis, biopsy samples can be cultured.[12][35] Culture from biopsy samples does not always give a result as the organism is very fragile.[16] To precisely identify the species requires an expert.[16] The appearance of the fungus under the microscope will determine the genus and species.[35] The appearances can vary but generally show wide, ribbon-like filaments that generally don't have septa and that unlike in aspergillosis, branch at right angles, resembling antlers of a moose, which may be seen to be invading blood vessels.[11]

  • Ribbon-like hyphae which branch at 90°

Other[edit]

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may be used to identify the species.[35] A blood sample from an artery may be useful to assess for metabolic acidosis.[35]

Differential diagnosis[edit]

Other filamentous fungi may however look similar.[31] It may be difficult to differentiate from aspergillosis.[39] Other possible diagnoses include anthrax, cellulitis, bowel obstruction, ecthyma gangrenosum, lung cancer, clot in lungs, sinusitis, tuberculosis and fusariosis.[40]

Prevention[edit]

Preventive measures include wearing a face mask in dusty areas, washing hands, avoiding direct contact with water-damaged buildings, and protecting skin, feet, and hands where there is exposure to soil or manure such as gardening or certain outdoor work.[10] In high risk groups such as organ transplant, antifungal drugs may be given as a preventative.[10]

Treatment[edit]

Treatment involves a combination of antifungal drugs, surgically removing infecting tissue and correcting underlying medical problems such as diabetic ketoacidosis.[1]

Medication[edit]

Once mucormycosis is suspected, Amphotericin B at an initial dose of 1&#;mg is initially given slowly over 10–15 minutes into a vein, then given as a once daily dose according to body weight for the next 14 days.[41] It may need to be continued for longer.[39]Isavuconazole and Posaconazole are alternatives.[19][42]

Surgery[edit]

Surgery can be very drastic, and in some cases of disease involving the nasal cavity and the brain, removal of infected brain tissue may be required. Removal of the palate, nasal cavity, or eye structures can be very disfiguring.[25] Sometimes more than one operation is required.[30]

[edit]

The disease must be monitored carefully for any signs of reemergence.[30][43] Treatment also requires correcting sugar levels and improving neutrophil counts.[1][7]Hyperbaric oxygen may be considered as an adjunctive therapy, because higher oxygen pressure increases the ability of neutrophils to kill the fungus.[7] The efficacy of this therapy is uncertain.[31]

Prognosis[edit]

It tends to progress rapidly and is fatal in about half of sinus cases, two thirds of lung cases, and almost all cases of the widespread type.[17] Skin involvement carries the lowest mortality rate of around 15%.[30] Possible complications of mucormycosis include the partial loss of neurological function, blindness and clotting of blood vessels in the brain or lung.[25]

As treatment usually requires extensive and often disfiguring facial surgery, the effect on life after surviving, particularly sinus and brain involvement, is significant.[30]

Epidemiology[edit]

The true incidence and prevalence of mucormycosis may be higher than appears.[34] Mucormycosis is rare, affecting fewer than people per million population each year in San Francisco.[8][44] It is around 80 times more prevalent in India, where it is estimated that there are around cases per population,[18] and where its incidence has been rising.[45] Causative fungi are highly dependent on location. Apophysomyces variabilis has its highest prevalence in Asia and Lichtheimia spp. in Europe.[19] It is the third most common serious fungal infection to infect people, after aspergillosis and candidiasis.[46]

Diabetes is the main underlying disease in low and middle-income countries, whereas, blood cancers and organ transplantation are the more common underlying problems in developed countries.[18] As new immunomodulating drugs and diagnostic tests are developed, the statistics for mucormycosis have been changing.[18] In addition, the figures change as new genera and species are identified, and new risk factors reported such as tuberculosis and kidney problems.[18]

COVID–associated mucormycosis[edit]

&#;&#;India

&#;&#;Countries where COVID-associated mucormycosis has been detected as of June

During the COVID pandemic in India, the Indian government reported that more than 11, people were receiving care for mucormycosis as of 25 May Many Indian media outlets called it "black fungus" because of the black discoloration of dead and dying tissue the fungus causes. Even before the COVID pandemic, rates of mucormycosis in India were estimated to be about 70 times higher than in the rest of the world.[3][47] Due to its rapidly growing number of cases some Indian state governments have declared it an epidemic.[48] One treatment was a daily injection for eight weeks of anti-fungal intravenous injection of amphotericin B which was in short supply. The injection could be standard amphotericin B deoxycholate or the liposomal form. The liposomal form cost more but it was considered "safer, more effective and [with] lesser side effects".[49] The major obstacle of using antifungal drugs in black fungus is the lack of clinical trials.[27]

History[edit]

The first case of mucormycosis was possibly one described by Friedrich Küchenmeister in [1] Fürbringer first described the disease in the lungs in [50] In , Lichtheim established the development of the disease in rabbits and described two species; Mucor corymbifera and Mucor rhizopodiformis, later known as Lichtheimia and Rhizopus, respectively.[1] In , its association with poorly controlled diabetes was reported in three cases with severe sinus, brain and eye involvement.[1]

In , Saksenaea vasiformis, found to cause several cases, was isolated from Indian forest soil, and in , P. C. Misra examined soil from an Indian mango orchard, from where they isolated Apophysomyces, later found to be a major cause of mucormycosis.[1] Several species of mucorales have since been described.[1] When cases were reported in the United States in the mids, the author thought it to be a new disease resulting from the use of antibiotics, ACTH and steroids.[50][51] Until the latter half of the 20th century, the only available treatment was potassium iodide. In a review of cases involving the lungs diagnosed following flexible bronchoscopy between and , survival was found to be better in those who received combined surgery and medical treatment, mostly with amphotericin B.[50]

Naming[edit]

Arnold Paltauf coined the term "Mycosis Mucorina" in , after describing a case with systemic symptoms involving the sinus, brain and gastrointestinal tract, following which the term "mucormycosis" became popular.[1] "Mucormycosis" is often used interchangeably with "zygomycosis", a term made obsolete following changes in classification of the kingdomFungi. The former phylumZygomycota included Mucorales, Entomophthorales, and others. Mucormycosis describes infections caused by fungi of the order Mucorales.[39]

COVID–associated mucormycosis[edit]

A number of cases of mucormycosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis, linked to immunosuppressive treatment for COVID were reported during the COVID pandemic in India in and [4][37] One review in early relating to the association of mucormycosis and COVID reported eight cases of mucormycosis; three from the U.S., two from India, and one case each from Brazil, Italy, and the UK.[20] The most common underlying medical condition was diabetes.[20] Most had been in hospital with severe breathing problems due to COVID, had recovered, and developed mucormycosis 10–14 days following treatment for COVID Five had abnormal kidney function tests, three involved the sinus, eye and brain, three the lungs, one the gastrointestinal tract, and in one the disease was widespread.[20] In two of the seven deaths, the diagnosis of mucormycosis was made at postmortem.[20] That three had no traditional risk factors led the authors to question the use of steroids and immunosuppressive drugs.[20] Although, there were cases without diabetes or use of immunosuppressive drugs. There were cases reported even in children.[52] In May , the BBC reported increased cases in India.[32] In a review of COVIDrelated eye problems, mucormycosis affecting the eyes was reported to occur up to several weeks following recovery from COVID[37]

Other countries affected included Pakistan,[53] Nepal,[54] Bangladesh,[55] Russia,[56] Uruguay,[57] Paraguay,[58] Chile,[59] Egypt,[60] Iran,[61] Brazil,[62] Iraq,[63] Mexico,[64] Honduras,[65] Argentina[66] Oman,[67] and Afghanistan.[68] One explanation for why the association has surfaced remarkably in India is high rates of COVID infection and high rates of diabetes.[69] In May , the Indian Council of Medical Research issued guidelines for recognising and treating COVID&#;associated mucormycosis.[70] In India, as of 28 June , over 40, people have been confirmed to have mucormycosis, and 3, have died. From these cases, % (34,) had a history of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and % (21,) were on steroids, also % (26,) had diabetes.[71][72]

Society and culture[edit]

The disease has been reported in natural disasters and catastrophes; Indian Ocean tsunami and the Missouri tornado.[19][73] The first international congress on mucormycosis was held in Chicago in , set up by the Hank Schueuler 41 & 9 Foundation, which was established in for the research of children with leukaemia and fungal infections.[1] A cluster of infections occurred in the wake of the Joplin tornado. By July 19, , a total of 18&#;suspected cases of mucormycosis of the skin had been identified, of which 13 were confirmed. A confirmed case was defined as 1) necrotizing soft-tissue infection requiring antifungal treatment or surgical debridement in a person injured in the tornado, 2) with illness onset on or after May 22 and 3) positive fungal culture or histopathology and genetic sequencing consistent with a mucormycete. No additional cases related to that outbreak were reported after June Ten people required admission to an intensive-care unit, and five died.[74][75]

In , details of a lethal mucormycosis outbreak that occurred in emerged after television and newspaper reports responded to an article in a pediatric medical journal.[76][77] Contaminated hospital linen was found to be spreading the infection. A study found many freshly laundered hospital linens delivered to U.S. transplant hospitals were contaminated with Mucorales.[78] Another study attributed an outbreak of hospital-acquired mucormycosis to a laundry facility supplying linens contaminated with Mucorales. The outbreak stopped when major changes were made at the laundry facility. The authors raised concerns on the regulation of healthcare linens.[79]

Other animals[edit]

Mucormycosis in other animals is similar, in terms of frequency and types, as in people.[80] Cases have been described in cats, dogs, cows, horses, dolphin, bison, and seals.[80]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrChander J (). " Mucormycosis". Textbook of Medical Mycology (4th&#;ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd. pp.&#;– ISBN&#;.
  2. ^ ab"Orphanet: Zygomycosis". storycall.us. Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved May 13,
  3. ^ abcDyer O (May ). "Covid India sees record deaths as "black fungus" spreads fear". BMJ. : n doi/bmj.n PMID&#;
  4. ^ abcdQuarterly Current Affairs Vol. 4 - October to December for Competitive Exams. 4. Disha Publications. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  5. ^ abcdefghijklmGrossman ME, Fox LP, Kovarik C, Rosenbach M (). "1. Subcutaneous and deep mycoses: Zygomucosis/Mucormycosis". Cutaneous Manifestations of Infection in the Immunocompromised Host (2nd&#;ed.). Springer. pp.&#;51– ISBN&#;.
  6. ^ abcdefg"Symptoms of Mucormycosis". storycall.us. January 14, Retrieved May 25,
  7. ^ abcdefghijklmSpellberg B, Edwards J, Ibrahim A (July ). "Novel perspectives on mucormycosis: pathophysiology, presentation, and management". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 18 (3): – doi/CMR PMC&#; PMID&#;
  8. ^ abcdefghi"Mucormycosis". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Archived from the original on May 26, Retrieved May 25,
  9. ^ abcdeHernández, J. L.; Buckley, C. J. (January ). "Mucormycosis". PMID&#;
  10. ^ abcde"People at Risk For Mucormycosis and prevention". storycall.us. February 2, Retrieved May 25,
  11. ^ abcdeJohnstone RB (). " Mycoses and Algal infections". Weedon's Skin Pathology Essentials (2nd&#;ed.). Elsevier. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  12. ^ ab"ICD - ICD for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". storycall.us. Retrieved May 25,
  13. ^ abcdefghij"About Mucormycosis". storycall.us. May 25,
  14. ^ abReid G, Lynch JP, Fishbein MC, Clark NM (February ). "Mucormycosis". Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 41 (1): 99– doi/s PMID&#;
  15. ^"Where Mucormycosis Comes From". storycall.us. February 1, Retrieved May 25,
  16. ^ abcdefgThornton CR (). "1. Detection of the 'Big Five' mold killers of humans: Aspergillus, Fusarium, Lomentospora, Scedosporium and Mucormycetes". In Gadd GM, Sariaslani S (eds.). Advances in Applied Microbiology. Academic Press. pp.&#;4– ISBN&#;.
  17. ^ ab"Mucormycosis Statistics  Facebook: IE Lifestyle  Mucormycosis: Why are Covid patients being affected by black fungus infection?

    *Avoid extra moisture or humidity in the isolation area of the patient.
    *De-clutter the isolation area from unnecessary/unused things
    *Frequently clean the equipment and change bedsheets.
    *Always serve patients with clean hands.
    *Maintain hygiene at every level.
    *Ensure clean water availability for patient’s use
    *Keep comorbidities in check.

    &#;Always remember COVID is not a solely responsible aggravating factor for such fungal infections, other contributing factors should be considered and taken care of,&#; said Dr Sood.

    For more lifestyle news, follow us: Twitter: lifestyle_ie  10 points". India Today. Retrieved May 20,

  18. ^"Black fungus in India: Concern over drug shortage as cases rise". BBC News. May 19, Retrieved July 8,
  19. ^ abcYamin HS, Alastal AY, Bakri I (January ). "Pulmonary Mucormycosis Over Years: A Case Report and Literature Review". Turkish Thoracic Journal. 18 (1): 1–5. doi/TurkThoracJ PMC&#; PMID&#;
  20. ^Baker RD (March ). "Mucormycosis; a new disease?". Journal of the American Medical Association. (10): –8. doi/jama PMID&#;
  21. ^Meghanadh KR (May 15, ). "Mucormycosis / Black fungus in Post COVID patients". Medy Blog. Retrieved June 27,
  22. ^"'Cases of Black Fungus emerge across Pakistan'". The News International. May 12,
  23. ^"Focused COVID Media Monitoring, Nepal (May 24, )". ReliefWeb. May 24,
  24. ^"Bangladesh reports 1st death by black fungus". Anadolu Agency. May 25,
  25. ^"Russia Confirms Rare, Deadly 'Black Fungus' Infections Seen in India". The Moscow Times. May 17,
  26. ^"Paciente con COVID se infectó con el "hongo negro"". EL PAÍS Uruguay (in Spanish). May 25,
  27. ^"Confirman dos casos de "hongo negro" en Paraguay". RDN (in Spanish). May 27,
  28. ^"Detectan primer caso de "hongo negro" en Chile en paciente con Covid es el segundo reportado en Latinoamérica". El Mostrador (in Spanish). May 28,
  29. ^"Mansoura University Hospital reports black fungus cases". Egypt Independent. May 28,
  30. ^"Coronavirus in Iran: Power outages, black fungus, and warnings of a fifth surge". Track Persia. May 29,
  31. ^"Casos suspeitos de fungo preto são investigados no Brasil; entenda". Catraca Livre (in Portuguese). May 31,
  32. ^"Iraq detects five cases of the deadly "black fungus" among coronavirus patients". Globe Live Media. June 1,
  33. ^"Detectan en Edomex posible primer caso de hongo negro en México". Uno TV (in Spanish). June 3,
  34. ^"Salud confirma primer caso de hongo negro en Honduras". Diario El Heraldo (in Spanish). June 7,
  35. ^""Hongo negro": advierten que hay que estar atentos a la coinfección fúngica en pacientes con covid". Clarín (in Spanish). June 16,
  36. ^"'Black fungus' detected in 3 COVID patients in Oman". Al Jazeera. June 15,
  37. ^"Afghanistan finds deadly 'black fungus' in virus patients – latest updates". TRT World. Retrieved July 17,
  38. ^Runwal P (May 14, ). "A rare black fungus is infecting many of India's COVID patients—why?". National Geographic.
  39. ^"ICMR releases diagnosis and management guidelines for COVIDassociated Mucormycosis". Firstpost. May 17,
  40. ^"India reports 40, cases of black fungus so far". Mint. June 28, Retrieved July 16,
  41. ^"Delhi has more black fungus infections than active Covid cases: Govt data". Mint. July 14, Retrieved July 16,
  42. ^Fanfair, Robyn Neblett; et&#;al. (July 29, ). "Notes from the Field: Fatal Fungal Soft-Tissue Infections After a Tornado – Joplin, Missouri, ". MMWR Weekly. 60 (29):
  43. ^Williams, Timothy (June 10, ) Rare Infection Strikes Victims of a Tornado in Missouri. New York Times.
  44. ^Neblett Fanfair R, Benedict K, Bos J, Bennett SD, Lo YC, Adebanjo T, et&#;al. (December ). "Necrotizing cutaneous mucormycosis after a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, in ". The New England Journal of Medicine. (23): – doi/NEJMoa PMID&#;
  45. ^Catalanello, Rebecca (April 16, ). "Mother believes her newborn was the first to die from fungus at Children's Hospital in ". storycall.us.
  46. ^"5 Children's Hospital patients died in , after contact with deadly fungus".
  47. ^Sundermann AJ, Clancy CJ, Pasculle AW, Liu G, Cumbie RB, Driscoll E, et&#;al. (February ). "How Clean Is the Linen at My Hospital? The Mucorales on Unclean Linen Discovery Study of Large United States Transplant and Cancer Centers". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 68 (5): – doi/cid/ciy PMC&#; PMID&#;
  48. ^Sundermann, Alexander J.; Clancy, Cornelius J.; Pasculle, A. William; Liu, Guojun; Cheng, Shaoji; Cumbie, Richard B.; Driscoll, Eileen; Ayres, Ashley; Donahue, Lisa; Buck, Michael; Streifel, Andrew (July 20, ). "Remediation of Mucorales-contaminated Healthcare Linens at a Laundry Facility Following an Investigation of a Case Cluster of Hospital-acquired Mucormycosis". Clinical Infectious Diseases. doi/cid/ciab ISSN&#; PMID&#;
  49. ^ abSeyedmousavi S, Bosco SM, de Hoog S, Ebel F, Elad D, Gomes RR, et&#;al. (April ). "Fungal infections in animals: a patchwork of different situations". Medical Mycology. 56 (suppl_1): – doi/mmy/myx PMC&#; PMID&#;

Further reading[edit]

  • Cornely OA, Alastruey-Izquierdo A, Arenz D, Chen SC, Dannaoui E, Hochhegger B, et&#;al. (December ). "Global guideline for the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis: an initiative of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology in cooperation with the Mycoses Study Group Education and Research Consortium". The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 19 (12): e–e doi/S(19) PMID&#;

External links[edit]

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Mucormycosis

watch the thematic video

Yellow fungus disease/White \u0026 Black fungus disease -- Risk of fungal disease associated with Covid19 Mucormycosis

Mucormycosis

Fungal infection

Medical condition

Mucormycosis
Other namesZygomycosis,[1][2] black fungus[3][4]
storycall.us
Periorbital mucormycosis
SpecialtyInfectious disease
SymptomsDepends on location: runny Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, black area of skin, facial swelling, headache, fever, cough, blurred vision[5][6]
ComplicationsBlindness, thrombosis[7]
Usual onsetRapid[1]
DurationAround a Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection and brain, lung, stomach and intestine, skin, Cause, disseminated, miscellaneous[8]
CausesFungi of the Mucorales type[8]
Risk factorsDiabetes, iron overload, low white cells, cancer, organ transplant, kidney problems, immunosuppressants, long-term steroids[7]
Diagnostic methodBiopsy, culture, medical imaging[5]
Differential diagnosisOrbital cellulitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, aspergillosis[9]
PreventionFace masks, avoiding contact with soil or water-damaged buildings, good diabetic control[7][10]
TreatmentAntifungals, surgical debridement, treat underlying medical conditions[7]
MedicationAmphotericin B, isavuconazole, posaconazole[8]
PrognosisPoor[9]
FrequencyRare[8]

Mucormycosis, also known as black fungus,[3][4] is a serious fungal infection, usually in people who are immunocompromised.[9][11] Symptoms depend on where in the body the infection occurs.[12][13] It most commonly infects the nose, sinuses, eye, and brain resulting in a runny nose, one-sided facial swelling and pain, headache, fever, blurred vision, bulging or displacement of the eye (proptosis), and tissue death.[1][6] Other forms of disease may infect the lungs, stomach and intestines, and skin.[6]

It is spread by spores of molds of the order Mucorales, most often through inhalation, contaminated food, or contamination of open wounds.[14] These fungi are common in soils, decomposing organic matter (such as rotting fruit and vegetables), Symptoms, and animal manure, but usually do not affect people.[15] It is not transmitted between people.[13] Risk factors include diabetes with persistently high blood sugar levels or diabetic ketoacidosis, low white cells, cancer, organ transplant, iron overload, kidney problems, long-term steroids or use of immunosuppressants, and to a lesser extent in HIV/AIDS.[7][9]

Diagnosis is by biopsy and culture, with medical imaging to help determine the extent of disease.[5] It may appear similar to aspergillosis.[16] Treatment is generally with amphotericin B and surgical debridement.[8] Preventive measures include wearing a face mask in dusty areas, avoiding contact with water-damaged buildings, and protecting the skin from exposure to soil such as when gardening or certain outdoor work.[10] It tends to progress rapidly and is fatal in about half of Treatment cases and almost all cases of the widespread type.[2][17]

Mucormycosis is usually rare, Symptoms, affecting fewer than 2 people per million people each year in San Francisco,[8] but is now ~80 times more common in India.[18] People of Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection age may be affected, including premature infants.[8] The first known case of mucormycosis was possibly one described by Friedrich Küchenmeister in [1] The disease has been reported in natural disasters; Indian Ocean tsunami and the Missouri tornado.[19] During the COVID pandemic, an association between mucormycosis and COVID has been reported. This association is thought to relate to reduced immune function during the course Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection the illness and may also be related to glucocorticoid therapy for COVID[4][20] A rise in cases was particularly noted in India.[21]

Classification[edit]

Generally, mucormycosis is classified into five main types according to the part of the body affected.[13][22] A sixth type has been described as mucormycosis of the kidney,[1] or miscellaneous, that is mucormycosis at other sites, although less commonly affected.[22]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Periorbital fungal infection

Signs and symptoms of mucormycosis depend on the location in the body of the infection.[6] Infection usually begins in the mouth or nose and enters the central nervous system via the eyes.[5]

If the fungal infection begins in the nose or sinus and extends to brain, symptoms and signs may include one-sided eye pain or headache, and may be accompanied by pain in the face, numbness, fever, loss of smell, Cause, a blocked nose or runny nose. The person may appear to have sinusitis.[23] The face may look swollen on one side, with rapidly progressing "black lesions" across the nose or upper inside of mouth. One eye may look swollen and bulging, and vision may be blurred.[6][23][24]

Fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing, or coughing up blood, can occur when the lungs are involved.[6] A stomach ache, nausea, vomiting and bleeding can occur when the gastrointestinal tract is involved.[6][25] Affected skin may appear as a dusky reddish tender patch with a darkening centre due to tissue death.[11] There may be an ulcer and it can be very painful.[5][7][11]

Invasion into the blood vessels can result in thrombosis and subsequent death of surrounding tissue due to a loss of blood supply.[7] Widespread (disseminated) mucormycosis typically Cause in people who are already sick Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection other medical conditions, so it can be difficult to know which symptoms are related to mucormycosis. People Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection disseminated infection in the brain can develop mental status changes or Treatment is a fungal infection caused by fungi in the order Mucorales.[5] In most cases it is due to an invasion of the generaRhizopus and Mucor, common bread molds.[28] Most fatal infections are caused by Rhizopus oryzae.[16] It is less likely due to Lichtheimia, and rarely due Treatment Apophysomyces.[29] Others include Cunninghamella, Mortierella, and Saksenaea.[5][30]

The fungal spores are in the environment, can be found on for instance moldy bread and fruit and are breathed in frequently, but cause disease only in some people.[5] In addition to being breathed in to be deposited in the nose, sinuses and lungs, the spores can also enter the skin via blood or directly through a cut or open wound, or grow in the intestine if eaten.[13][30] Once deposited, the fungus grows branch-like filaments which invade blood vessels, causing clots to form and surrounding tissues to die.[5] Other reported causes include contaminated wound dressings.[5] Mucormycosis has been reported following the use of elastoplast and the use of tongue depressors for holding in place intravenous catheters,[5] Outbreaks have also been linked to hospital bed sheets, negative-pressure rooms, water leaks, poor ventilation, contaminated medical equipment, and building works.[31]

Risk factors[edit]

Predisposing factors for mucormycosis include conditions where people are less able to fight infection, have a low neutrophil count or metabolic acidosis.[11][9] Risk factors include poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (particularly DKA), organ transplant, iron overload, cancers such as lymphomas, kidney Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, long term corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy, liver disease and severe malnutrition.[30][10] Other risk factors include tuberculosis (TB),[19]deferoxamine[1] and to a lesser extent HIV/AIDS.[1][7] Cases of mucormycosis in fit and healthy people are rare.[7]

Corticosteroids are commonly used in the treatment Symptoms COVID and reduce damage caused by the body's Cause immune system during a coronavirus infection. They are immunosuppressant and increase blood sugar levels in both diabetics and non-diabetic patients. It is thought that both these effects may contribute to cases of mucormycosis.[32][33][20]

Mechanism[edit]

Most people are frequently exposed to Mucorales without developing the disease.[30] Mucormycosis is generally spread by breathing Symptoms, eating food contaminated by, or getting spores of molds of the Mucorales type in an open wound.[14] It is not transmitted between people.[13]

The precise mechanism by which diabetics become susceptible is unclear. In vivo, a high sugar alone does not permit the growth of the fungus, but acidosis alone does.[1][7] People with high sugars frequently have higher iron levels, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, also known to be a risk factor for developing mucormycosis.[7] In people on deferoxamine, the iron removed is Treatment by siderophores on Rhizopus species, which uses the iron to grow.[34]

Diagnosis[edit]

There is no blood test that can confirm the diagnosis.[35] Diagnosis requires identifying the mold in the affected tissue by biopsy and confirming it with a fungal culture.[8] Because the causative Treatment occur all around, a culture alone is not decisive.[5] Tests may also include culture and direct detection of the fungus in lung fluid, blood, serum, plasma and urine.[19] Blood tests include a complete blood count to look specifically for neutropenia.[35] Other blood tests include iron levels, blood glucose, Cause, Symptoms, and electrolytes.[35] Endoscopic examination of the nasal passages may be needed.[35]

Imaging[edit]

Imaging is often performed, such as CT scan of lungs and sinuses.[36] Signs on chest CT scans, such as nodules, Symptoms, cavities, halo signs, pleural effusion and wedge-shaped shadows, Cause, showing invasion of blood vessels may suggest a fungal infection, but does not confirm mucormycosis.[16] A reverse halo sign in a person with a blood cancer and low neutrophil count, is highly suggestive of mucormycosis.[16] CT scan images of mucormycosis can be useful to distinguish mucormycosis of the orbit and cellulitis of the orbit, but imaging may look identical to those of aspergillosis.[16]MRI may also be useful.[37] Currently, MRI with gadolinium contrast is investigation of choice in rhinoorbito cerebral mucormycosis.[citation needed]

Culture and biopsy[edit]

To confirm the diagnosis, biopsy samples can be cultured.[12][35] Culture from biopsy samples does not always give a result as the organism is very fragile.[16] To precisely Symptoms the species requires an expert.[16] The appearance of the fungus under the microscope will determine the genus and species.[35] The appearances can vary but generally show wide, ribbon-like filaments that generally don't have septa and Cause unlike in aspergillosis, branch at right angles, resembling antlers of a moose, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, which may be seen to be invading blood Symptoms alt="" src="storycall.us%2C_mucormycosis_storycall.us%2C_mucormycosis_storycall.us" width="" height="">

Ribbon-like hyphae which branch at 90°

  • Other[edit]

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may be used to identify the species.[35] A blood sample from an artery may be useful to assess for metabolic acidosis.[35]

    Differential diagnosis[edit]

    Other filamentous fungi may however look similar.[31] It may be difficult to differentiate from aspergillosis.[39] Other possible diagnoses include anthrax, cellulitis, bowel obstruction, ecthyma gangrenosum, lung cancer, clot in lungs, sinusitis, tuberculosis and fusariosis.[40]

    Prevention[edit]

    Preventive measures include wearing a face mask in dusty areas, washing hands, avoiding direct contact with water-damaged buildings, 5DFly Photo Design crack serial keygen protecting skin, feet, and hands where there is exposure to soil or manure Treatment as gardening or certain outdoor work.[10] In high risk groups such as organ transplant, antifungal drugs may be given as a preventative.[10]

    Treatment[edit]

    Treatment involves a combination of antifungal drugs, surgically removing infecting tissue and Treatment underlying medical problems such as diabetic ketoacidosis.[1]

    Medication[edit]

    Once mucormycosis is suspected, Amphotericin B at an initial dose of 1&#;mg is initially given slowly over 10–15 minutes into a vein, then given as a once daily dose according to body weight for the next 14 days.[41] It may need to be continued for longer.[39]Isavuconazole and Posaconazole are alternatives.[19][42]

    Surgery[edit]

    Surgery can be very drastic, and in some cases of disease involving the nasal cavity and the brain, removal of infected brain tissue may be required. Removal of the palate, nasal cavity, or eye structures can be very disfiguring.[25] Sometimes more than one operation is required.[30]

    [edit]

    The disease must be monitored carefully for any signs of reemergence.[30][43] Treatment also requires correcting sugar levels and improving neutrophil counts.[1][7]Hyperbaric oxygen may be considered as an adjunctive therapy, because higher oxygen pressure increases the ability of neutrophils to kill the fungus.[7] The efficacy of this therapy is uncertain.[31]

    Prognosis[edit]

    It tends to progress rapidly and is fatal in about half of sinus cases, two thirds of lung cases, and almost all cases of the widespread type.[17] Skin involvement carries the lowest mortality rate of around Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection Possible complications of mucormycosis include the partial loss of neurological function, blindness and Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection of blood vessels in the brain or lung.[25]

    As treatment usually requires extensive and often disfiguring facial surgery, the effect on life after surviving, particularly sinus and brain involvement, is significant.[30]

    Epidemiology[edit]

    The true incidence and prevalence of mucormycosis may be higher than appears.[34] Mucormycosis is rare, affecting fewer than people per million population each year in San Francisco.[8][44] It is around 80 times more prevalent in India, where it is estimated that there are around cases per population,[18] and where its incidence has been rising.[45] Causative fungi are highly dependent on location. Apophysomyces variabilis has its highest prevalence in Asia and Lichtheimia spp. in Europe.[19] It is the third most common serious fungal infection to infect people, after aspergillosis and candidiasis.[46]

    Diabetes is the main underlying disease in low and middle-income countries, whereas, blood cancers and organ transplantation are the more common underlying problems in developed countries.[18] As new immunomodulating drugs and diagnostic tests Symptoms developed, the statistics for mucormycosis have been changing.[18] In addition, Cause, the figures change as new genera and species are identified, and new risk factors reported such as tuberculosis and kidney problems.[18]

    COVID–associated mucormycosis[edit]

    &#;&#;India

    &#;&#;Countries where COVID-associated mucormycosis has been detected as of June

    During the COVID pandemic in India, the Indian government reported that more than 11, people were receiving care for mucormycosis as of 25 May Many Indian media outlets called it "black fungus" because of the black discoloration of dead and dying tissue the fungus causes. Even before the COVID pandemic, rates of mucormycosis in India were estimated to be about 70 times higher than in the rest of the world.[3][47] Due to its rapidly growing number of cases some Indian state governments have declared it an epidemic.[48] One treatment was a daily injection for eight weeks of anti-fungal intravenous injection of amphotericin B AnyTrans for iOS 8.8.2.202010610 Crack Full Version Download was in short supply. The injection could be standard amphotericin B deoxycholate or the liposomal form. The liposomal form cost more but it was considered "safer, more effective and [with] lesser side effects".[49] The major obstacle of using antifungal drugs in black fungus is the lack of clinical trials.[27]

    History[edit]

    The first case of mucormycosis was possibly one described by Friedrich Küchenmeister in [1] Fürbringer first described the disease in the lungs in [50] InLichtheim established the development of the disease in rabbits and described two species; Mucor corymbifera and Mucor rhizopodiformis, later known as Lichtheimia and Rhizopus, respectively.[1] Inits association with poorly controlled diabetes was reported in three cases with severe sinus, brain and eye involvement.[1]

    InCause, Saksenaea vasiformis, found to cause several cases, was isolated from Indian forest soil, and inP, Symptoms. C. Misra examined soil from an Indian mango Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, from where they isolated Apophysomyces, later found to be a major cause of mucormycosis.[1] Several species of mucorales have since been described.[1] When cases were reported in Cause United States in the mids, the author thought it to be a new disease resulting from the use of antibiotics, ACTH and steroids.[50][51] Until the latter half of the 20th century, the only available treatment was potassium iodide. In a review of cases involving the lungs Cause following flexible bronchoscopy between andsurvival was found to be better in those who received combined surgery and medical treatment, mostly with amphotericin B.[50]

    Naming[edit]

    Arnold Paltauf coined the term "Mycosis Mucorina" inafter describing a case with systemic symptoms involving the sinus, brain and gastrointestinal tract, following which the term "mucormycosis" became popular.[1] "Mucormycosis" is often Cause interchangeably with "zygomycosis", a term made obsolete Treatment changes in classification of the kingdomFungi. The former phylumZygomycota included Mucorales, Entomophthorales, Symptoms, and others. Mucormycosis describes infections caused by fungi of the order Mucorales.[39]

    COVID–associated mucormycosis[edit]

    A number of cases of mucormycosis, aspergillosis, Cause, and candidiasis, linked to immunosuppressive treatment for COVID were reported during the COVID pandemic in India in and [4][37] One review in early relating to the association of mucormycosis and COVID reported eight cases of mucormycosis; three from the U.S., Cause, two from India, and one case each from Brazil, Cause, Italy, and the UK.[20] The most common underlying medical condition was diabetes.[20] Most had been in hospital with severe breathing problems due to COVID, Symptoms, had recovered, and developed mucormycosis 10–14 days following treatment for COVID Five had abnormal kidney function tests, three involved the sinus, eye and brain, three Symptoms lungs, one the gastrointestinal tract, and in one the disease was widespread.[20] In two of the seven deaths, the diagnosis of mucormycosis was made at postmortem.[20] That three had no traditional risk factors led the authors to question the use of steroids and immunosuppressive drugs.[20] Although, there were cases without diabetes or use of immunosuppressive drugs. There were cases reported even in children.[52] In Maythe BBC reported increased cases in India.[32] In a review of COVIDrelated eye problems, Symptoms, mucormycosis affecting the Symptoms was reported to occur up to several weeks following recovery from COVID[37]

    Other countries affected included Pakistan,[53] Nepal,[54] Bangladesh,[55] Russia,[56] Uruguay,[57] Paraguay,[58] Chile,[59] Egypt,[60] Iran,[61] Treatment Iraq,[63] Mexico,[64] Honduras,[65] Argentina[66] Oman,[67] and Afghanistan.[68] One explanation for why the association has surfaced remarkably in India is high rates of COVID infection and high rates of diabetes.[69] In MayTreatment, the Indian Council of Medical Research issued guidelines for recognising and treating COVID&#;associated mucormycosis.[70] In India, as of 28 Juneover 40, Cause, people have been confirmed to have mucormycosis, and 3, have died. From these cases, % (34,) had a history of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and % (21,) were on steroids, also % (26,) had diabetes.[71][72]

    Society and culture[edit]

    The disease has been reported in natural disasters and catastrophes; Indian Ocean tsunami and the Missouri tornado.[19][73] The first international congress on mucormycosis was held in Chicago inset up by the Hank Schueuler 41 & 9 Foundation, which was established in for the research of children with leukaemia and fungal infections.[1] A cluster of infections occurred in the wake of the Joplin tornado. By July 19,a total of 18&#;suspected cases of mucormycosis of the skin had been identified, of which 13 were confirmed. A confirmed case was defined as 1) necrotizing soft-tissue infection requiring antifungal treatment or surgical debridement in a person injured in the tornado, 2) with illness onset on or after May 22 and 3) positive fungal culture or histopathology and genetic sequencing consistent with a mucormycete. No additional cases related to that outbreak were reported after June Ten people required admission to an intensive-care unit, and five died.[74][75]

    Indetails of a lethal mucormycosis outbreak that occurred in emerged after television and newspaper reports responded to an article in a pediatric medical journal.[76][77] Contaminated hospital linen Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection found to be spreading the infection. A study found many freshly laundered hospital linens delivered to U.S. transplant hospitals were contaminated with Mucorales.[78] Another study attributed an outbreak of hospital-acquired mucormycosis to a laundry facility supplying linens contaminated with Mucorales. The outbreak stopped when major changes were made at the laundry facility. The authors raised concerns on the regulation of healthcare linens.[79]

    Other animals[edit]

    Mucormycosis in other animals is similar, in terms of frequency and types, as in people.[80] Symptoms have been described in cats, dogs, cows, horses, dolphin, Symptoms, bison, and seals.[80]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrChander J (). " Mucormycosis", Symptoms. Textbook of Medical Mycology (4th&#;ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd. pp.&#;– ISBN&#.
    2. ^ ab"Orphanet: Zygomycosis". storycall.us, Cause. Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved May 13,
    3. ^ abcDyer O (May ). Treatment India sees record deaths as "black fungus" spreads fear". BMJ. : n doi/bmj.n PMID&#;
    4. ^ abcdQuarterly Current Affairs Vol. 4 - October to December for Competitive Symptoms. 4. Disha Publications. p.&#; ISBN&#.
    5. ^ abcdefghijklmGrossman ME, Fox LP, Kovarik C, Rosenbach M (). "1. Subcutaneous and deep mycoses: Zygomucosis/Mucormycosis". Cutaneous Manifestations of Infection in the Immunocompromised Host (2nd&#;ed.). Springer. pp.&#;51– ISBN&#.
    6. ^ abcdefg"Symptoms of Mucormycosis". storycall.us. January 14, Retrieved May 25,
    7. ^ abcdefghijklmSpellberg B, Edwards J, Ibrahim A (July ). "Novel perspectives on mucormycosis: pathophysiology, presentation, and management". Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Cause. Symptoms (3): – doi/CMR PMC&#; PMID&#;
    8. ^ abcdefghi"Mucormycosis". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Archived from the original on May 26, Retrieved May 25, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection,
    9. ^ abcdeHernández, J. L.; Buckley, C. J. (January ). "Mucormycosis". PMID&#;
    10. ^ abcde"People at Risk For Mucormycosis and prevention". storycall.us, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection. Cause 2, Retrieved May 25,
    11. ^ abcdeJohnstone RB (). " Mycoses and Algal infections". Weedon's Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection Pathology Essentials (2nd&#;ed.). Elsevier. p.&#; ISBN&#.
    12. ^ ab"ICD - ICD for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". storycall.us, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection. Retrieved May 25,
    13. ^ abcdefghij"About Mucormycosis". storycall.us. May 25,
    14. ^ abReid G, Lynch JP, Fishbein MC, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, Clark NM (February ). "Mucormycosis". Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 41 (1): 99– doi/s PMID&#;
    15. ^"Where Mucormycosis Comes From". storycall.us. February 1, Retrieved May 25,
    16. ^ abcdefgThornton CR (). "1. Detection of the 'Big Five' mold killers of humans: Aspergillus, Fusarium, Lomentospora, Scedosporium and Mucormycetes". In Gadd GM, Sariaslani S (eds.). Advances in Applied Microbiology. Academic Press, Treatment. pp.&#;4– ISBN&#.
    17. ^ Symptoms Statistics

      Fungal Infections

      Treatment of fungal infections begins with seeking regular medical care throughout your life. Regular medical care allows your health care professional to assess your risks of developing fungal infections and promptly order diagnostic testing for fungal infections and underlying conditions as needed, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection. These measures greatly increase the chances of diagnosing and treating underlying causes of fungal infections Cause their earliest stages.

      Fungal infection treatment includes:

      • Antiseptic mouth washes for oral thrush

      • Diagnosing and treating any underlying diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and diabetes. Treating the high blood sugar levels of diabetes may resolve a current infection and is critical to minimizing the risk of developing recurrent fungal infections.

      • Eating yogurt or taking acidophilus supplements, which can help to correct the abnormal balance of microorganisms in the mouth and digestive tract

      • Medications, including prescription topical or oral antifungal medications Symptoms as fluconazole

      In many cases, oral Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection infections (oral thrush) in infants can disappear within two weeks and may need no treatment other than watching the progress of the mouth lesions. Because oral thrush may be painful in the mouth and affect feedings, the pediatrician should still be notified if symptoms appear in an infant.

      What are the possible complications of fungal infections?

      Complications of fungal infections can be serious for people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those taking steroid medications or on chemotherapy, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection. In these cases, fungal infections can spread throughout the body, causing fungal infections in vital organs, such as the heart and the brain, Symptoms. This can result in critical, life-threatening complications, Treatment, such as:

      • Abscess formation

      • Endocarditis

      • Meningitis

      • Nephritis

      • Organ failure

      • Transplant rejection

      Seek prompt medical care if you are experiencing symptoms of fungal infections and you have diabetes or HIV/AIDS, are being treating with chemotherapy, or are taking steroid medications.

      Источник: [storycall.us]
      CDC". storycall.us. May 5, Retrieved May 25,
    18. ^ abcdeSkiada A, Pavleas I, Drogari-Apiranthitou M (November ). "Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Mucormycosis: An Update", Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection. Journal of Fungi. 6 (4): doi/jof PMC&#; PMID&#;
    19. ^ abcdefDannaoui E, Lackner M (December ). "Special Issue: Mucorales and Mucormycosis". Journal of Fungi. 6 (1): 6. doi/jof PMC&#; PMID&#;
    20. ^ abcdefgGarg D, Muthu V, Sehgal IS, Ramachandran R, Kaur H, Bhalla A, et&#;al. (May ). "Coronavirus Disease (Covid) Associated Mucormycosis (CAM): Case Report and Systematic Review of Literature". Mycopathologia, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection. (2): – doi/s PMC&#; PMID&#;
    21. ^Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, Misra A (May ). "Mucormycosis in COVID Symptoms systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India", Symptoms. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome. 15 (4): doi/storycall.us PMC&#; PMID&#;
    22. ^ abRiley TT, Muzny CA, Swiatlo E, Legendre DP (September ). "Breaking the Mold: A Review of Mucormycosis and Current Pharmacological Treatment Options". The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Cause. 50 (9): – doi/ PMID&#; S2CID&#;
    23. ^ abMcDonald PJ. "Mucormycosis (Zygomycosis) Clinical Presentation: History and Physical Examination". storycall.us. Retrieved May 28, Cause,
    24. ^Lee S (), Cause. BrainChip for Microbiology. Blackwell Science. p.&#; ISBN&#.
    25. ^ abc"MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Mucormycosis". Retrieved May 19,
    26. ^Lewis RE, Kontoyiannis DP (September ). "Epidemiology and treatment of mucormycosis". Future Microbiology. 8 (9): – doi/fmb PMID&#;
    27. ^ abSpellberg B, Edwards J, Ibrahim A (July ). "Novel perspectives on mucormycosis: pathophysiology, presentation, and management". Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Symptoms. 18 (3): – doi/cmr PMC&#; PMID&#;
    28. ^Lee SC, Idmurm A (). "8. Fingal sex: The Mucoromycota". In Heitman J, Howlett BJ, Symptoms, Crous PW, Stukenbrock EH, James TY, Gow NA Capture One Pro 13.1.1.31 Crack Archives. The Fungal Kingdom. Wiley. pp.&#;– ISBN&#.
    29. ^Martínez-Herrera E, Frías-De-León MG, Julián-Castrejón A, Cruz-Benítez L, Xicohtencatl-Cortes J, Hernández-Castro R (August ). "Rhino-orbital mucormycosis due to Apophysomyces ossiformis in a patient with diabetes mellitus: a case report". BMC Infectious Diseases. 20 (1): doi/s PMC&#; PMID&#;
    30. ^ abcdefghMcDonald PJ (September 10, ), Cause. "Mucormycosis (Zygomycosis): Background, Etiology and Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". Medscape.
    31. ^ abc"For Healthcare Professionals

      Symptoms, causes of yellow fungus, Cause, which is more dangerous than black fungus and white fungus

      Amid the rising cases of black fungus infection across India, the first case of yellow fungus, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, which is considered dangerous than black fungus and white fungus, has been reported from Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh. 

      The patient is currently undergoing treatment at a hospital in Ghazibad.

      Symptoms of Yellow Fungus

      Symptoms of yellow fungus are lethargy, low appetite, or no appetite at all and weight loss.

      In serious cases, yellow fungus can also cause leakage of pus and slow healing of the open wound and slow healing of all wounds, malnutrition and organ failure and sunken eyes due to eventual necrosis, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection.

      Yellow fungus is a fatal disease because it starts internally and therefore it is important that you seek medical treatment as soon as you notice any symptoms.

      Causes of Yellow fungus

      Yellow fungus infection is mainly caused by bad Cause. It is very important to clean Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection the enclosure around your home and keep it as clean as possible. Remove old foods and fecal Iobit Unistaller 10 Pro Keys crack serial keygen as soon as possible to help prevent the growth of bacteria and fungus.

      The humidity of the house is also important so it should be measured at all times as too much humidity can promote the growth of bacteria and fungus. The correct humidity level is 30% Cause 40%. Notably, it is easier to deal with low humidity than having too much moisture.

      Treatment of Treatment Fungus

      The only treatment for Yellow Fungus is Amphotericin B injection, which is a broad spectrum antifungal.

      Источник: [storycall.us]

      Everything You Need to Know About Fungal Infection

      We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

      What is fungal infection?

      Fungal infections can affect anyone, and they can appear on several Treatment of the body, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection. A jock with athlete’s foot, a baby with thrush, and a woman with a vaginal yeast infection are just a few examples.

      Fungi are microorganisms characterized by a substance in their cell walls called chitin. Some fungi, like many types of mushrooms, are edible. Other types of fungi, like aspergillus, can be extremely dangerous and lead to life-threatening diseases.

      Different types of fungi auto tune pro torrent Archives cause fungal infections. In some cases, fungi that aren’t typically found on or inside your body can colonize it and cause an infection. In other cases, fungi that are normally present on or inside your body can multiply out of control and cause an infection.

      Fungal infections can be contagious, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection. They can spread from one person to another. In some cases, you can also catch disease-causing fungi from infected animals or contaminated soil or surfaces.

      If you develop signs or symptoms of a fungal infection, make an appointment with your doctor.

      Common types

      A fungal infection is also known as mycosis. Although most fungi are harmless to humans, some of them are Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection of causing diseases under specific conditions.

      Fungi reproduce by releasing Cause that can be picked up by direct contact or even inhaled. That’s why fungal infections are most likely to affect your skin, nails, or lungs. Fungi can also penetrate your skin, affect your organs, and cause a body-wide systemic infection.

      Some common types of fungal infection include:

      • athlete’s foot
      • jock itch
      • ringworm
      • yeast infection
      • onychomycosis, or a fungal infection of the nail

      Some types of fungi don’t normally cause infections in Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection but can cause sickness in people with weakened immune systems. These are called opportunistic infections.

      Athlete’s foot

      Athlete’s foot is also known as tinea pedis. It’s a type of fungal infection that can Symptoms the skin on your feet, as well as your hands and nails. The infection is caused by dermatophytes, a group of fungi that can thrive in the warm and humid areas between your toes.

      It’s particularly common among athletes and can spread from one person to another. You can also catch it from contaminated surfaces, like a public shower or locker room floors.

      Symptoms

      Athlete’s foot can cause an itching, stinging, or burning Symptoms between your toes or on other parts of your foot. Your skin might also crack, peel, or blister.

      Diagnosis

      Your doctor may recognize athlete’s foot by looking at the symptoms on your skin. If the doctor isn’t sure, a small area of the skin can be scraped off and tested for the fungus.

      Treatment

      There are several topical over-the-counter (OTC) antifungal medications you can use to treat athlete’s foot. If those don’t provide relief, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, your doctor can prescribe something stronger. Get the information you need to stop athlete’s foot in its tracks.

      Shop for antifungal products on Amazon.

      Jock itch

      Jock itch is also known as tinea cruris. It’s a fungal infection that can affect the skin on your groin area, Symptoms, as well as your inner thighs and buttocks. Like athlete’s foot, it’s caused by dermatophytes, a group of fungi that thrive in warm and humid areas.

      This type of infection mostly affects men and boys, Symptoms women and girls can develop it too.

      Symptoms

      Common jock itch symptoms include:

      • redness
      • itchiness
      • a burning feeling
      • changes in skin color
      • flaking or Cause skin
      • a rash that gets worse when you exercise

      Diagnosis

      Often, a doctor will be able to Symptoms jock itch by looking at the affected skin. To help rule out other conditions, like psoriasis, they may take a scraping of skin cells and Driver Booster Crack Features: them examined.

      Treatment

      Jock itch can usually be treated at home by keeping the area clean and dry and applying OTC antifungal cream, powder, or spray.

      If your symptoms don’t improve after two weeks of home care, see your doctor. They can prescribe stronger antifungal medications. Learn how to recognize, treat, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, and prevent jock itch.

      Ringworm

      Ringworm is a fungal infection that can affect your skin and scalp. Similar to athlete’s foot and jock itch, it’s caused by dermatophytes. Ringworm is also part of Symptoms group of fungi that grow on skin, particularly in damp and humid parts of your body.

      Symptoms

      It usually starts as a reddish, itchy, scaly rash. Over time, patches of ringworm can spread and form red rings.

      Other signs include:

      • patches that Treatment blisters and start to ooze
      • bald patches on the scalp
      • patches that look like rings with a redder outside edge
      • thick, discolored, or cracked nails (if the infection is in the nails)

      Diagnosis

      A simple skin examination can find ringworm. The fungus glows under a black light, so your doctor can tell if you have it by shining the Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection light over the affected area. A small sample of the affected skin can also be scraped off and sent to a lab for testing.

      Treatment

      Like jock itch and athlete’s foot, ringworm is often able to be successfully treated with OTC antifungal creams, sprays, gels, or ointments.

      You may need a prescription if your case is more severe or the infection is located on the nails or scalp. Gain a better understanding of ringworm, including ways to prevent and treat it.

      Yeast infection

      Candida albicans is a type of fungus that can infect your skin, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, or Cause normal for small amounts of candida albicans to be present on your skin and in your body. But when these Treatment multiply too much, they can cause an infection known as a yeast infection.

      Symptoms

      If you get a yeast infection in your throat or mouth, it’s called oral thrush. Thrush causes white patches to form in your mouth and throat. People who undergo prolonged antibiotic therapy often develop this type of infection.

      In women, vaginal yeast Treatment are relatively common. They can cause:

      • pain
      • itchiness
      • clumpy discharge
      • swelling
      • redness

      Diagnosis

      To check for oral thrush, your doctor can use a throat swab to rub the affected areas, Symptoms. Throat swabs look like a cotton bud. Your doctor can send Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection swab to a lab, where technicians will culture it to learn what types of fungi or other microbes are present.

      Your doctor will perform a pelvic exam to diagnose a vaginal yeast infection, Cause. If they aren’t sure your symptoms are being caused by a yeast infection, they might swab the area and order a lab test.

      Treatment

      Your treatment options will depend on the type of yeast infection you have and whether or not you get yeast infections regularly.

      Thrush can be treated with oral antifungal medications. These can come in the form of lozenges, pills, or mouthwash, Symptoms. Find out more about oral thrush.

      If you catch a vaginal yeast infection early enough, you might be able to treat it with OTC products. Otherwise, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection doctor can prescribe antifungal medications that come as a cream, pill, or vaginal suppository.

      Your doctor might also recommend probiotics, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus. Probiotic supplements provide good bacteria that might help restore your body’s microbial balance. Learn more about the symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection and Cause early treatment is so important.

      Toenail fungus

      Onychomycosis is a Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection type of fungal infection that can affect your toenails, fingernails, Treatment, and nail beds. It’s also known as tinea unguium.

      Symptoms

      Toenail fungus usually starts as a small light-colored spot on your nail. As it spreads deeper, it changes the shape and color of your nail. Over time, it can cause your nail to become thicker and more brittle.

      Common signs include:

      • scaling under the nail
      • white or yellow streaks under the nail
      • flakiness or crumbling of the nail
      • thick or brittle nail
      • lifting off the nail bed

      Diagnosis

      To find out if you Treatment toenail fungus, your doctor will likely scrape off pieces of the affected nail. They will examine Treatment scrapings under a microscope.

      This can help them tell the difference between a fungal infection and other conditions that cause Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection symptoms.

      Treatment

      It can potentially take weeks to treat fingernail Treatment and months to treat toenail Treatment medications typically aren’t effective. Your doctor may prescribe a nail lacquer that’s brushed on like nail polish or an antibiotic you take by mouth.

      Since this type of infection can be so hard to treat, Cause, it’s important to avoid spreading it. Learn how to protect yourself from fungal infections of your nails and nail beds.

      Who is at risk?

      There several things that can increase your risk of developing a Cause infection. These include environmental factors as well as what’s going on in your body when you’re exposed to a fungus.

      Dampness and humidity

      Sweating heavily or working in a warm, humid environment can increase your risk of a fungal infection. Fungi need a warm and moist environment to grow.

      Walking barefoot in damp places, such as gyms, locker rooms, and showers, can also increase your risk. These public places are often rich in fungal spores.

      Poor blood circulation

      Any condition that causes poor blood circulation can raise your risk of infection. Poor circulation hinders your immune response and decreases your body’s ability to fight off an infection. Explore this list of causes of Symptoms circulation.

      Menopausal status

      If you’re a postmenopausal women, hormonal changes can reduce the acidity of your vagina, Symptoms. This might make you more vulnerable to vaginal yeast infections. Learn how to recognize the symptoms of menopause.

      Suppressed immune system

      If your immune system isn’t working properly, Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, it can leave you vulnerable to fungal infections.

      Many things can potentially weaken your immune system. For example, nutrient deficiencies, immunodeficiency disorders, smoking, and even stress can impair your immune function. Learn more about immunodeficiency disorders.

      Nail and skin injury or infection

      Even a small nail or skin injury or infection can allow fungi to get under your skin and affect deeper tissues. That’s why it’s important to wash Symptoms and cover them in a sterile dressing or bandage. Learn how to treat minor wounds and prevent infections.

      Certain medications

      Some types of medications can reduce your body’s Symptoms to ward off fungal infections. For example, Symptoms, antibiotics destroy helpful bacteria along with harmful bacteria. This can allow fungi to thrive, free of competition.

      Long-term use of corticosteroids can also increase your risk of fungal infection. Cancer treatments, Cause, including chemotherapy and radiation, may put you at higher risk too.

      If your immune system has been weakened, ask your doctor what steps you can take to limit your risk of fungal infections.

      How can fungal infections be prevented?

      Good hygiene is also critical for avoiding fungal infections.

      Try to:

      • keep your skin clean and dry, particularly the folds of your skin
      • wash Treatment hands often, especially after touching animals or other people
      • avoid using other people’s towels and other personal care products
      • wear shoes in locker rooms, community showers, Cause, and swimming pools
      • wipe gym equipment before and after using it

      Takeaway

      Fungal infections can be uncomfortable or even painful. In some cases, they can take weeks or months to effectively treat. If you think you have a fungal infection, Cause your doctor. They can diagnose the type of infection and Multimedia – Kali Software Crack an appropriate antifungal medication.

      In some cases, your doctor may also Treatment changes to your diet or other daily habits to help treat or prevent future fungal infections.

      Источник: [storycall.us]
      Yellow Fungus Disease - Infection, Symptoms, Cause, Treatment

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