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List of games containing time travel

Title Year Description The 7th Saga1993 One of the seven players can time travel from the present-day Ticondera to 5000 years into the past Ticondera right after defeating a resurrected Gariso and collecting all seven runes. There in the past the player must explore and walk all the way to the island of Melenam, explore the ice cave and go to Gorsia's castle to defeat Gorsia. Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors2009 The story protagonist Junpei is abducted and placed aboard a sinking cruise liner along with eight other people. It is eventually revealed that the antagonist Zero was placed into a death trap nine years prior and only survived by getting the answer from Junpei through a psychic connection through time; Zero now intends to recreate their vision to close the time loop and save themselves. Achron2011 This real-time strategy game offers single-player and multi-player free-form time travel. Players can play at different points in time simultaneously and can stop, slow, and fast forward through the flow of time. Players can also send units through time. Adventure in Time1981 A text adventure 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen which the player pursues Nostradamus through time in order to prevent the creation of a world destroying weapon. Ape Escape1999 In this 3D platform game, when a curious ape tries on a special helmet, his intelligence is boosted. This ape, Specter, uses a time machine to conquer different time periods and establish the apes as the most dominant race. The player must travel through time and recapture the apes.[3]Back to the Future1989 This NES game is based on the Back to the Future movie. In this game Marty Mcfly travels from 1985 to the year 1955 by mistake, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Marty now has to run up the street in a Paperboy game style and collect alarm clocks in order to prevent him 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen his brothers and sisters from being erased from the photograph. He also has 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen fight bullies at the malt shop, prevent Lorraine from kissing him by breaking her heart, play the electric guitar by catching music notes and attempt to drive up to 88 MPH in his Delorean time machine car to get back to 1985. Back to the Future II & III1990 This NES game is based on the Back to the Future II and III movies. In this game the old Biff 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen steals the 1950–2000 sports almanac and takes the Delorean time machine to 1955 and gives it to his younger self. As a result, Biff alters 1985, now ruling Hill Valley as a rich man. Marty Mcfly has to time travel in three different time periods, 1955, 1985, and 2015, to gather 30 items and solve the word puzzle for each item in order to get the sports almanac book and burn it. Later, Doc Brown and Marty are stuck in the year 1875, which should have been 1885. Marty has to gather 10 items and solve the word puzzle for each item. After the puzzles are solved, Marty and Doc can use the train to push the Delorean time machine car to get it to 88 MPH and get back to 1985. Back to the Future: The Game2010 This game is set seven months after Back to the Future Part III in May 1986. Doc gets trapped in 1931 and needs Marty McFly's help. Ben 10 Alien Force: Vilgax Attacks2009 Vilgax has successfully taken over Earth, so Professor Paradox sends Ben, Gwen and Kevin back far enough in time to destroy every power source for his Null Void Projector possible in the whole galaxy. Ben 10: Omniverse2012 When a modification for Ben's Omnitrix goes haywire, his new partner, Rook, gets sent back in time. Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure1989 Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure1991 This action-adventure game has an overhead perspective. When Bill & Ted's girlfriends are kidnapped they are forced to travel through time collecting musical notes in order to locate them.[4]Bill & Ted's Excellent Video Game Adventure1991 This action-adventure game has an isometric perspective. It is related to the film's plot; the duo must restore historical figures to their correct time periods by exploring the game world and collecting objects.[5]Bio Senshi Dan: Increaser to no Tatakai1987 Bioshock Infinite2013 Blinx 2: Masters of Time and Space2004 Blinx: The Time Sweeper2002 The titular character Blinx works for a Time Factory on the outskirts of reality. He is tasked with maintaining and repairing the flow of time whenever glitches and paradoxes occur. Bubsy 21994 Bugs Bunny & Taz: Time Busters2000 After Daffy Duck accidentally breaks Granny's time regulator, he is thrown into the past along with the parts needed to repair the machine. Bugs Bunny is then tasked with saving his friend and repairing the regulator. Bugs Bunny: Lost in Time1999 After mistaking a time machine for a carrot juice dispenser, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, the titular character Bugs Bunny is sent traveling through time key gom player plus Archives search of five magical carrots that can return him home. Call of Cthulhu: Dark Corners of the Earth2005 Call of Duty: Black Ops2010 Continuing from the World at War Zombies map "Der Riese," Edward Richtofen, Tank Dempsy, Nikolai Belinski, and Takeo travel from 1945 to 1963 in a WWII German theater using a teleporter overcharged with a Wunderwaffe DG-2, a fictional weapon. Causality2017 The game is about guiding a group of astronauts to safety. Chibi-Robo!2005 Chrono Cross1999 The sequel to Chrono Trigger. A boy named Serge accidentally arrives in an alternate universe where he died as a child, and ends up on a time-travelling adventure to avert catastrophe. Chrono Trigger1995 A group of heroes from different eras travel back and forth through time in an attempt to prevent the end of the world in the year 1999. Chronomaster1995 Adventure game by SF&F novelist Roger Zelazny. A designer of "pocket universes" investigates someone stopping time in several of them. Chronos Twins2007 City of Heroes2004 Clive Barker's Jericho2007 Clive Barker's Undying2001 Clock Tower 32003 An ordinary schoolgirl, oblivious to the knowledge that her female ancestors have been defending humanity from evil for centuries. During the game, Alyssa is hunted by serial killers who want to take her heart from her corpse. She travels through time to destroy supernatural killers after their final murders. Command & Conquer: Red Alert series 1996–present Albert Einstein travels back in time to kill Hitler, causing an alternative world war in the 1950s between the USSR and Allies. Time travel would later be used in the campaigns of Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 and its expansion pack, Yuri's Revenge, in Allied POV, they reset time where Soviets attack San Francisco to destroy the Psychic Dominator, foiling Yuri and signing a peace treaty with the Soviets, in the Soviet POV, they capture the Time Machine and use a base they built in the past, destroy the Dominator, eliminate Einstein's Lab in Black Forest and undoing their defeat in the present, and eliminate Yuri once and for all. In Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3, the events are further changed when the Soviets utilize their own time machine to kill Einstein in the past and erase him from history, which causes the Soviet Union to not be defeated in war against the Allies, Nuke and Prism technology are non-existent/ and, unintentionally creates a superpower named The Empire of the Rising Sun. Connections It's a Mind Game1995 Crash Bandicoot: Warped1998 The series' traditional wormholes to the various levels now transport Crash to different points in history. Cryostasis: Sleep of Reason2008 The main protagonist has the ability to penetrate other characters' memories and change the actions taken by them in the past. Daikatana2000 Dark Chronicle2002 The game's central story revolves around the protagonist Maxwell attempting to reconstruct the future by recreating events in the past that were destroyed by the story's antagonist Lord Griffon. Darkest of Days2009 Darkest of Days takes the player through time into historic battles in an effort to save key individuals from death. The battles range from 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen Last Stand at the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876 to fighting in Pompeii as ash and fire 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen down from an erupting Mt. Vesuvius in 79 AD. Other locations include the battles of Antietam and Tannenberg, and a German World War II P.O.W. camp. Day of the Tentacle1993 The player switches freely between three characters, each trapped in a different era (past, present and future). Gameplay requires sending items back and forth through time and altering historic events in one era to affect another. One humorous example involves altering Betsy Ross' plans for the American flag in order to turn it into a costume to disguise the player in a future controlled by sentient tentacles. Dino Eggs1983 Time Master Tim must be guided through prehistoric landscapes in order to collect dinosaur eggs and transport them through time to the present. Dishonored 22016 In a particular level the player can freely switch between past and present, and can see the past/present in realtime through the device. Dragon Age: Inquisition2014 A quest in the main timeline transports the main character into an apocalyptic future. The circumstances of the apocalypse are a direct result of the main character's abrupt disappearance earlier in time. Completing the quest by returning to the past allows the character to prevent the apocalyptic future they experienced from occurring. Dragon Ball Z: Kakarot2020 When Goku ends Frieza, a kid named Trunks (Vegeta's son) travels with a time machine from the future to tell Kakarot that Androids will come to destroy the Earth and its livings. After finishing Mecha Frieza, he leaves the past and returns to his present. Dragon Dragon Quest VII: Fragments of the Forgotten Past2000 Dragon Quest XI: Echoes of an Elusive Age2017 The Timekeeper gives the Luminary, the game's protagonist, the power to go back in time and defeats Mordegon before he can steal the Sword of Light and Yggdrasil's heart. EarthBound1994 The journey of main character Ness begins after a time traveler, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, Buzz Buzz, tells him about a future apocalypse which only he and his friends can stop. In the last part of the game, the protagonists travel to the past, when the villain Giygas is most vulnerable. One of Giygas' minions, Porky, escapes to another time period and becomes the main antagonist of Mother 3. Ecco the Dolphin: Defender of the Future2000 The player must travel through different times and time lines in order to restore history. The Elder Scrolls II: Daggerfall1996 The end of the game results in the Agent giving the Totem of Tiber Septim to one of eight factions. Somehow, all eight factions receive the Totem at the same time, and controlling the Numidium, a giant brass golem, with the Totem, achieved whatever goals they had. This event is called "The Warp" in the West, and is thought to have happened due to a "break" in time, in which multiple timelines converged into one. The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim2011 The Dovahkiin uses an Elder Scroll in a "time wound" to look back into time to when the time wound was created, which was when that particular Elder Scroll was last used. This is so the Dovahkiin can learn the "Dragonrend" shout, which was used as a key component in banishing Alduin, the main antagonist of the game. Empire Earth2001 During the game's Russiancampaign, Sergei Molotov/Molly Ryan must build a time machine to come back to the year 2018 and destroy Grigor Illyanich Stoyanovich's Empire, Novaya Russia. Enter the Gungeon2016 The titular Gungeon safeguards a time machine that allows its user to kill the past. The protagonists traverse the Gungeon with the intention of finding the time machine in order to undo their past mistakes. Escape 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen Monkey Island2000 At one point in the game, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, the protagonist Guybrush meets his future self, who gives him a key for a gate and some other (useless) items in a certain order, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, and answers a random question. A few screens later, in order to progress, the player must give his past self the items in the same order and answer the question just as Guybrush in the future did. EverQuest: Seeds of Destruction2008 Players must travel back in time to prevent the forces of Discord from altering the history of Norrath. Evil Dead: Hail to the King2000 Ash Williams travels to medieval Damascus (year 730). Evil Dead: A Fistful of Boomstick2003 Ash Williams travels through several time periods (the early 20th century, years 1863, 1695, and medieval Asia). Evoland 22015 Players travel between four different time periods, each with its own historical setting and graphical art style that match up with Game Boy graphics, 8-bit graphics, 16-bit graphics and 3D graphics. Exile1991 Console remake of XZR II. Final Fantasy1987 The villain Garland travels 2,000 years into the past with the help of the Four Fiends. Garland then sends the Four Fiends 2,000 years into the future to cause global destruction and send his present-day body into the past. Final Fantasy VIII1999 The character Ellone has the ability to send the consciousness of a person she knows back in time and junction it to another person she knows in the past. The plot of Final Fantasy VIII also deals with a sorceress from the future and "Time Compression", in which past, present, and future all mix together. Final Fantasy XI2002 Once the "Wings of the Goddess" expansion has been applied, players can travel between the present and past during play. Final Fantasy XIII-22011 Noel Kreiss comes from the distant future, where he is the last human who travels back in time to change the future. Gameplay heavily involves time travel, including visiting same locations in different eras and using time travel to complete quests and solve mysteries. Final Fantasy XIV2013 Louisoix sends the player character five years into the future at the conclusion of the original release. In the Heavensward expansion, the Alexander raid series involves the titular primal's ability to time travel as part of a secret society's efforts to rewrite history. In the Shadowbringers expansion, the Crystal Tower and its caretaker, the Crystal Exarch, were transported to the First from an alternate timeline where the Eighth Umbral Calamity decimated the Source. Final Fantasy Legend III1991 This game involves time traveling by boarding a Talon spaceship. To travel to the past, the player must find the past item unit in Elan Present, then use the Past Warp unit at the Talon controls to go to the past, then also find the future item in the Castle of Chaos, then use the Future Warp unit at the Talon controls to go to the future. Fire Emblem Awakening2013 Lucina, the daughter of the main protagonist, Chrom, travels back from a post-apocalyptic future where the dragon Grima has taken over. Lucina's friends also travel to the past with her. First Samurai1993 This game involves time traveling with the Samurai character, who is chasing after the Demon King through time in each level. Freedom Force2002 Both this game and its sequel, Freedom Force vs. the Third Reich, feature a villainous character named Time Master who has absolute power over time. Futurama2003 The crew must travel back to prevent the sale of Planet Express. They fail in doing so and get themselves killed which provides an infinite loop as the game starts all over again. Future Wars1989 A window cleaner is transported through time. Ghost Trick: Phantom Detective2011 The main character has the ability to change fate by traveling back in time to four minutes before a person's death. God of War II2007 The main character, Kratos, travels back in time to avoid being killed 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen Zeus. Later in the game, Kratos uses the power of the sisters of fate to travel to a time before the Olympian gods held power over the world and bring the Titans back to his time to destroy the gods. GrimGrimoire2007 Student from a magic school main character, Lillet Blan, mysteriously travels back to the past to stop a great demon and archmage from creating chaos. She travels back in time constantly at the end of the fifth day unknowingly without fail and attempts to find the root cause of how the archmage and great demon came to be, while saving her friends and teachers. Growlanser: Wayfarer of Time2012 Two angels from the future travel back in time: Achiel wants to annihilate humankind, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, while Youriel, sympathizes with the humans and wants to save them. Hyrule Warriors2014, 2016, 2018 Many characters from the past of the Legend of Zelda series are brought in. This has the effect of joining the three timeline branches into one. Hyrule Warriors: Age of Calamity2020 The robot Terrako travels back a few months to avert the return of Calamity Ganon and create an alternate timeline to the events of The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild. In a later scene of the game, it also brings several characters back a hundred years (from the original line) to aid the Champions. InFamous2009 The superpowered main character, Cole MacGrath, finds out that the main antagonist, Dr. Kessler, is actually a future version of himself from an alternate timeline, who, after his family was killed by an entity known as "The Beast", traveled back in time to prevent his past self from making the same mistakes he did. Jak II2003 The plot begins with the protagonist Jak being taken through the "precursor rift gate" to the same location 200 years in the future. Near the end of the game it is revealed that a young kid in this future is actually Jak while he was young, and that he was sent back in time to learn the skills necessary to defeat the antagonist, Kor. Jazz Jackrabbit 21998 The protagonists must chase the villainous Devan Shell through various points in time. Jazz Jackrabbit 32000 This canceled sequel would have seen Jazz traveling to a future ruled by Devan Shell. The Journeyman Project series 1992–1999 The player controls Gage Blackwood, Agent 5 of the Temporal Security Agency (TSA), a secret organization in charge of guarding the timestream from being altered, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Players have to bounce back and forth in time to solve puzzles and find clues, visiting real historical places (Leonardo da Vinci's workshop) or places of legend (Atlantis), 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Players were also encouraged to not be seen either by avoiding contact with citizens of that time period, appearing as another inhabitant or becoming invisible altogether. JumpStart Adventures 3rd Grade: Mystery Mountain1996 The goal of the game is to prevent a bratty girl from altering history so that her answers to a history quiz she failed will be correct. Kingdom Hearts II2005 Sora, Donald and Goofy travel to a past time period (called the Timeless River) when Disney Castle is being built. Black Pete tries to take the Cornerstone of Light that protects the castle from evil, but is stopped by Sora and company, along with Pete's past version. Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance2012 Sora and Riku are sent back in time by Master Yen Sid during the events of Kingdom Hearts to travel through Sleeping Worlds in order to fulfill their Mark of Mastery and become Keyblade Masters. Along the way, they encounter Ansem, Xemnas, and Young Xehanort who have also travelled through time and attempt to make Sora the thirteenth vessel needed for Master Xehanort to complete the real Organization XIII, or the 13 seekers of darkness, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Kingdom Hearts III2019 Master Xehanort, the main antagonist of the game, transferred the hearts of his younger self, Ansem, Xemnas, Vanitas, and Riku Replica from the past into Vexen’s incomplete replicas and his past heart from Birth by Sleep into Terra's recompleted body to fill in ranks for the Organization. Later in the Final World after being defeated by Terra-Xehanort, Sora uses the Power of Waking to save the Guardians of Light from the Lich Heartless and resets reality back right before their defeat. This action leads to an alternate history where the Guardians of Light defeat Xehanort and the Organization once and for all. Later, in the ReMind DLC episode, he uses the power once again to travel back at the final battle and travels through the hearts of Ventus, Aqua, Terra, Roxas, himself, Riku and King Mickey in order to revive Kairi after she was destroyed by Xehanort in order to create the X-Blade. Kingdom Hearts χ2017 Maleficent has travelled back in time after her first defeat from Sora in order change her destiny. After being thwarted again, she encounters “Darkness”, who takes her to the Ark inside the clock tower of Daybreak Town and she fights Lauriam. This device will enable her to travel back to her original time during the events of Kingdom Hearts II. Kokotoni Wilf1984 The eponymousprotagonist must travel through various time periods to recover the pieces of the Dragon Amulet. Last Epoch2018 The game takes place over the course of four eras. Characters travel through the eras to defeat "The Void", an unknown entity attempting to destroy the universe and time itself. Actions taken in one era affect future eras. Legacy of Kain series 1996–2003 The game series states that "history abhors a paradox". In the Kain series, the "Timestream" is immutable. Changes made by individuals have no effect on the general flow of time, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, but major changes can be made by introducing a paradox, at which point the Timestream is forced to reshuffle itself to accommodate the change in history. The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword2011 Time traveling is used in this Legend of Zelda game. A time gate portal in the Faron area in the Forest Temple allows the player to time travel 1000 years into the past. Lego Marvel Super Heroes 22017 After the time traveller Kang the Conqueror has plucked various realms from time and space (like Asgard and Wakanda) out of their time stream and fused them to his kingdom Chronopolis, several super heroes from the conquered realms (specifically the Avengers and the Guardians of the Galaxy) have to team up to attack Kang's citadell and end his reign. Life Is Strange2015 Life Is Strange is a graphic adventure game that tells the story of student Max Caulfield, a 12th-grade student in an Oregon private high school, and her attempts to alter future events using time travel. It appears as a gameplay element, allowing Max to alter events, and as a plot point, with her traveling back in time to try to solve dilemmas in her present. Looney Tunes: Acme Arsenal2007 Lost in Time1993 After exploring a shipwreck in the year 1992, a woman is transported back to 1840 where she begins to uncover mysteries about her past. The Lost Vikings series 1992 The Magic of Scheherazade1987 Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time2005 Mario and Luigi travel to the past to help their younger selves fight off an alien invasion. Mario's Time Machine1993 This educational video game involves Bowser stealing precious artifacts from history, such as Shakespeare's pen and Magellan's ship's steering wheel, and displaying them in his museum. Mario must go back in time to stop Bowser's plan. MediEvil 22000 Mia's Math Adventure: Just in Time!2001 Mia's house burns down and she travels back in time to investigate and prevent the fire. Millennia: Altered Destinies1995 Mortal Kombat2011 In the beginning of the story, a severely weakened Raiden is about to be killed by Shao Kahn, but casts a last-minute spell on the shattered pieces of his magical amulet, directing it to contact his past self with the vague message "He must win". The act eventually reboots the events of the franchise, though it is successful by the end of the story. The New Adventures of the Time Machine2000 An adaptation of H.G. Wells' works, you are a male protagonist thrown out of your own time period and only one can help you - a mythical being, the demi-god Khronos. A New Beginning2010 This point-and-click adventure game takes place in a post-apocalyptic scenario, where Earth has been destroyed by forces of nature. In the 26th century a group of people execute The Phoenix Plan, in which they travel into the past in an attempt to manipulate the fate of the future. No Time2019 After you escaped with a time machine from a secret facility you go on a trip through time while battling the illusive time agents under the control of Mr. Crimson, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Alternate timelines and funny characters. No Time to Explain2011 Side-scrolling platformer. Multiple versions of the protagonist from different times and alternate timelines are rescuing each other from kidnappings and trying to find the culprit. Ōkami2006 Omega Boost1999 A 3D shoot ‘em up released in 1999. The game was short (only 9 levels) but saw a pilot operating the Omega Boost mecha back in time to stop the artificial intelligence AlphaCore from implanting a virus into ENIAC as part of a war between humans and AlphaCore. Onimusha 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen Demon Siege2004 This game features two playable characters who have switched places in time due to the instability of an antagonist's time machine. A feudal Samurai was sent to modern-day Paris, while a modern-day French officer was transported to feudal Japan. Original War2001 In this RTS/RPG, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen and Russian troops are sent 2 million years back in time in order to secure the precious mineral "siberit" for themselves, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Each campaign features a different plot and several endings. Outcast1999 Outer Wilds2019 The player wakes up 22 minutes before the supernova of their sun and must relive the last moments of their home system, or explore the system to find a way to prevent the supernova, utilizing the time loop to buy virtually unlimited time to figure things out. Pac-In-Time1994 Pepper's Adventures in Time1993 A girl, Pepper, and her dog, Lockjaw, travel back in time to Philadelphia in 1764. Pepper is responsible for ensuring that history unfolds the way it should, as well as first locating and subsequently reuniting with Lockjaw. Plants vs. Zombies 22013 The player's neighbor Crazy Dave eats a taco and enjoys it so much he decides to travel back in time to eat it again, drawing the player into a time-hopping adventure. Please, Don't Touch Anything2015 Portal 22011 Aperture Science founder Cave Johnson mentions a (boarded up and unplayable) testing chamber that involves time travel, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. He explicitly mentions not to interact with the player's future self, even if he/she attempts to warn them against finishing the test. Pokémon Mystery Dungeon: Explorers of Sky2009 The fifth special episode added to the sister game is about saving the paralyzed future in Grovyle's path, following the player's adventure to the last dungeon. Pokémon Mystery Dungeon: Explorers of Time and Explorers of Darkness2007 The player travels back in time to save the future, in which time has stopped altogether. However, it travels to the future and the past with two partners as the events unfold. Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time series 2003 An unnamed Prince discovers a fabled artifact called the Dagger of Time, allowing him the ability to manipulate time. Prisoner of Ice1995 The protagonist 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen back in time to reveal crucial information to himself, and to prevent his own death. Professor Layton and the Unwound Future2008 The story is set in motion by a letter from ten years in the future and a failed time machine demonstration. Quantum Break2016 Radiant Historia2010 Raging Loop2015 The protagonist Haruaki finds himself participating in Feast, a Werewolf like game, where deaths happen in reality. He loops back in time whenever he dies, returning to the night before the game started. Haruaki retains his memories of previous loops and uses them to discover the truth behind the Feast and the time looping. Rascal1998 The protagonist travels through time to save his father from aliens. The main weapon of the game is a gun that transports enemies to different timelines, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Ratchet & Clank Future: A Crack in Time2009 Throughout the game, the protagonists make use of various time travel elements, using a gigantic mechanism known as the Great Clock, which regulates time across the universe. In one instance, Ratchet goes back in time two years to find out what happened to Clank's father, and in another the duo travel back ten years to alter the outcome of a large battle on planet Morklon. Rift2011 As part of the tutorial area of the Defiant faction. Robotrek1994 In this Super NES game, after the player fights the boss Blackmore at the air base, the base blows up, sending the player to the past of Rococo, with the option to alter the past, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Rock of Ages2011 This game follows the story of Sisyphus as he travels through time from ancient Greece through the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and more, ending up in the Romantic era. Sam & Max Beyond Time and Space2008, 2009, 2010 "Chariots of the Dogs" (and to a lesser extent "What's New, Beelzebub?" and "Ice Station Santa") all have time travel in them. Serious Sam series 2001–present The games First Encounter, Second Encounter, and Next Encounter involve a hero from the future sent back in time by means of ancient Sirian alien technology in order to find a means to reach the homeworld of the alien overlord Mental, who has ravaged Earth in the future. Sam visits ancient Egypt, Incan ruins, English villages, Chinese cities and Roman temples, albeit sometime after their respective civilizations have died off. Serious Sam 2 abandons the time travel theme in favor of various planets. Shadow of Memories2001 The main character has to travel back in time to prevent his own death and discover his assailant's identity and motive. Shiren the Wanderer 3: The Sleeping Princess and the Karakuri Mansion2008 Before Shiren, Koppa and Asuka enter the Karakuri Mansion for the first time, Shiren gets hallucinated by a mysterious girl. During it, both him and Koppa are sent 1,000 years in the past and get incarnated under a different body to discover the origins of the Karakuri Mansion. The Silent Age2012 A point-and-clickpuzzle video game, where Joe, a janitor working for the fictional multi-million corporation known as Archon, have to save mankind from an imminent plague by using time travel. Singularity2010 In the game, the main character (Captain Nathaniel Renko) acquires the TMD (Time Manipulation Device), created by Dr. Viktor Barisov. Using various time rifts around the island of Katorga-12, the player travels between 1955 and 2010 to save the timeline from the evils of Dr. Demichev. Sly Cooper: Thieves in Time2013 Sly, Bentley and Murray have to travel in time in order to save Sly's ancestors from an unknown threat. Sonic Generations2011 With some help, Eggman sends Sonic and his friends back in time. Several main characters meet up with their past selves to get through reimaginings of older games' stages, as well as to defeat Eggman and his past counterpart. The Time Eater brings them to their final destination as Sonic and his past self become Super Sonic to defeat it. Sonic the Hedgehog2006 The main antagonist is Solaris, a sun god with absolute control of time. In addition, one of its split forms, Mephiles, is capable of time travelling and has the additional ability of creating time portals when used by two users simultaneously. Sonic the Hedgehog CD1993 Sonic can travel to the past and future of each Zone in the game by running at top speed in tandem with energy of the time warp for a set amount of time. The goal in each stage is to destroy a machine that the antagonist, Robotnik "Eggman", 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, has placed in the past in order to conquer the future. The future of each Zone will change from "bad" (default, ruined future) to "good" (lively and happy) if the machines are destroyed. Space Quest IV: Roger Wilco and the Time Rippers1991 An unusual example, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, the titular protagonist is sent to past and future iterations of his own game series, including Space Quests I, III, X and XII. The game treats each time period as a separate location, and Roger is never in any danger of creating a paradox, though this changes in the next game, in which he has to ensure the safety of his future wife so that his yet-unborn son can travel back in time to save him at the start of Space Quest IV. Spider-Man: Edge of Time2011 Set between 2011 and 2099, Peter Parker and Miguel O'Hara, the Spider-Men of their respective eras, face a foe who has changed history to ensure his own rise to power, and find themselves working across time to undo the changes to history that will result in Peter Parker dying that night. During the game, the time portal created to change history results in actions in the past immediately affecting the future, such as Parker destroying the 2011 prototype of the robot guards currently attacking O'Hara in 2099 and thus erasing them from history. The final villain is revealed to be the corrupted version of Peter Parker in 2099, attempting to rewrite history, but he is defeated when the two Spider-Men work together. Star Ocean1996 Star Trek Online2010–Present Multiple uses of the slingshot method from the Video series, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. End game focuses on a Time War to keep the timeline intact. Steins;Gate2009 The protagonist, Rintaro Okabe, and his group of friends accidentally create a microwave that can send text messages into the past. Once the messages are sent, Okabe travels between "world lines" and enters the Alpha Timeline where he meets a person using the name John Titor as an alias. Okabe learns that in the year 2036, the world is a dystopia governed by SERN (fictional representation of the actual CERN) and Okabe has to redo the messages he sent to reach the Beta Timeline. As soon as he reverses the world and enters the Beta Timeline, he must travel into the Steins Gate world line in order to prevent World War III. Tales of Phantasia1995 This game features time travel both to 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen past and the future, using ancient technology. Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time1991 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen Turtles must battle their way through time before confronting Krang and Shredder. Thief: Deadly Shadows2004 This game features time travel to the past in the mission "Shalebridge Cradle." Time Commando1996 The game takes place in the near future. The military, with the help of a private corporation, has created a computer capable of simulating any form of combat from any point in history. However, a programmer from a rival corporation infects the system with a virus that creates a time-distortion vortex, which threatens to swallow the world if it is not destroyed. The player controls Stanley Opar, a S.A.V.E (Special Action for Virus Elimination) operative at the center who enters the vortex to try and stop the virus. In order to accomplish this, the player must combat various real-life enemies throughout different time periods. Time Gal1985 Time-Gate1983 The protagonist must travel back through the time-gates to the year before the Squarm invaded, then destroy them to retroactively prevent the invasion. Time Gate: Knight's Chase1996 The protagonist time travels from present-day Paris to medieval France to save his girlfriend. Time Hollow2008 Using his "Hollow Pen" the main character can draw holes in time to reach through to place or remove objects which affect past events, causing paradox. People who pass through these holes become displaced in time and suffer ill effects. Timeline2000 Based on Michael Crichton's 1999 novel of the same name, the game focuses on the main character traveling back to 14th century France to find another researcher that used the same machine. Time Lord1991 Time Pilot1982 The player assumes the role of a pilot of a futuristic fighter jet, trying to rescue fellow pilots trapped in different time eras. Timequest1991 The player must travel to various times and places to fix ten key historical events that have been altered by a rogue agent of the Temporal Corps, a branch of the military c. 2090 AD that is dedicated to preventing misuse of time travel technology. Events span from Babylon c. 1361 BC to World War II-era Rome, with several quests involving multiple trips to several different eras (e.g. using fireworks from 9th-century China, lit with a lighter from 1940, to convince Attila the Hun not to attack Rome in 452 Need for Speed Hot Pursuit 2.00 Retail crack serial keygen. Time Slip1993 A scientist has to go back in time to stop an alien invasion. Time Soldiers1987 Two soldiers must travel through various time periods to rescue their comrades. TimeSplitters series 2000 - 2005 The player must travel to the past and the future to destroy an evil race of beings called TimeSplitters. The most notable game in the series is TimeSplitters: Future Perfect, in which the player must help both their past and future selves solve puzzles and defeat enemies. Time Traveler1980 In this text adventure, the player has to travel back in time to different eras and places in order to obtain 14 rings. Time Traveler1991 Time Twist: Rekishi no Katasumi de.1991 Time Zone1982 Titanfall 22016 Jack Cooper recovers the time gauntlet off of Eli Anderson's body and uses it to switch from the past and present inside of the Complex. Titanic: Adventure Out of Time1996 A former British secret agent is sent back in time to the RMS Titanic and must complete a previously failed mission to prevent World War I, the Russian Revolution, and World War II. To the Moon2011 Where in Time Is Carmen Sandiego?1989 The game and its two derivative television series (Where in Time MiniTool Partition Wizard 12.5 Crack & License Key Full Free Download Carmen Sandiego? and Where on Earth Is Carmen Sandiego?) extensively feature time travel. World of Warcraft and its subsequent expansion 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen 2004–present In this MMORPG, players can visit the Caverns of Time, where they can travel in time to key historical periods of the world of Azeroth. During the Warlords of Draenor expansion, players ventured to an alternate-universe Draenor set 35 years into the past in order to stop the invasion of the Iron Horde into the present day, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen Azeroth. Worms 4: Mayhem2005 At the start of the second chapter, Professor Worminkle and his classmates, which are the player's worm team, board his time machine to escape the government agents, which they travel to the Medieval times, the Wild West, the Arabian Nights, and the Prehistoric period. XZR: Hakai no Gūzō1988 XZR II: Kanketsuhen1989 Zero Escape: Virtue's Last Reward2012 The protagonist Sigma's consciousness is transported 45 years into the future, where a viral pandemic has killed most of the Earth's population. The antagonist Zero III places him in a death game to train him so that he can go back in time and prevent the catastrophe. Zero Time Dilemma2016 Two characters are time travelers who have sent their consciousnesses back 45 years to prevent a viral pandemic from destroying human civilization. Most of the game's characters are powerful psychics capable of jumping between alternate timelines at will, and use this ability to survive a death game. Zoda's Revenge: StarTropics II1994
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An Overview of Cryptography


Does increased security provide comfort to paranoid people? Or does security provide some very basic protections that we are naive to believe that we don't need? During this time when the Internet provides essential communication between literally billions of people and is used as a tool for commerce, social interaction, and the exchange of an increasing amount of personal information, security has become a tremendously important issue for every user to deal with.

There are many aspects to security and many applications, ranging from secure commerce and payments to private communications and protecting health care information. One essential aspect for secure communications is that of cryptography. But it is important to note that while cryptography is necessary for secure communications, it is not by itself sufficient. The reader is advised, then, that the topics covered here only describe the first of many steps necessary for better security in any number of situations.

This paper has two major purposes. The first is to define some of the terms and concepts behind basic cryptographic methods, and to offer a way to compare the myriad cryptographic schemes in use today. The second StudioLine Photo Classic [4.2.61] Crack + Keygen (Latest 2021) Free Download to provide some real examples of cryptography in use today. (See Section A.4 for some additional commentary on this.)

DISCLAIMER: Several companies, products, and services are mentioned in this tutorial. Such mention is for example purposes only and, unless explicitly stated otherwise, should not be taken as a recommendation or endorsement by the author.


Cryptography — the science of secret writing — is an ancient art; the first documented use of cryptography in writing dates back to circa 1900 B.C. when an Egyptian scribe used non-standard hieroglyphs in an inscription. Some experts argue that cryptography appeared spontaneously sometime after writing was invented, with applications ranging from diplomatic missives to war-time battle plans. It is no surprise, then, that new forms of cryptography came soon after the widespread development of computer communications. In data and telecommunications, cryptography is necessary when communicating over any untrusted medium, which includes just about any network, particularly the Internet.

There are five primary functions of cryptography:

  1. Privacy/confidentiality: Ensuring that no one can read the message except the intended receiver.
  2. Authentication: The process of proving one's identity.
  3. Integrity: Assuring the receiver that the received message has not been altered in any way from the original.
  4. Non-repudiation: A mechanism to prove that the sender really sent this message.
  5. Key exchange: The method by which crypto keys are shared between sender and receiver.

In cryptography, we start with the unencrypted data, referred to as plaintext. Plaintext is encrypted into ciphertext, which will in turn (usually) be decrypted back into usable plaintext. The encryption and decryption is based upon the type of cryptography scheme being employed and some form of key. For those who like formulas, this process is sometimes written as:

C = Ek(P)
P = Dk(C)

      where P = plaintext, C = ciphertext, E = the encryption method, D = the decryption method, and k = the key.

Given this, there are other functions that might be supported by crypto and other terms that one might hear:

  • Forward Secrecy (aka Perfect Forward Secrecy): This feature protects past encrypted sessions from compromise even if the server holding the messages is compromised. This is accomplished by creating a different key for every session so that compromise of a single key does not threaten the entirely of the communications.
  • Perfect Security: A system that is unbreakable and where the ciphertext conveys no information about the plaintext or the key. To achieve perfect security, the key has to be at least as long as the plaintext, making analysis and even brute-force attacks impossible. One-time pads are an example of such a system.
  • Deniable Authentication (aka Message Repudiation): A method whereby participants in an exchange of messages can be assured in the authenticity of the messages but in such a way that senders can later plausibly deny their participation to a third-party.

In many of the descriptions below, two communicating parties will be referred to as Alice and Bob; this is the common nomenclature in the crypto field and literature to make it easier to identify the communicating parties. If there is a third and fourth party to the communication, they will 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen referred to as Carol and Dave, respectively. A malicious party 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen referred to as Mallory, an eavesdropper as Eve, and a 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen third party as Trent.

Finally, cryptography is most closely associated with the development and creation of the mathematical algorithms used to encrypt and decrypt messages, whereas cryptanalysis is the science of analyzing and breaking encryption schemes. Cryptology is the umbrella term referring to the broad study of secret writing, and encompasses both cryptography and cryptanalysis.


There are several ways of classifying cryptographic algorithms. For purposes of this paper, they will be categorized based on the number of keys that are employed for encryption and decryption, and further defined by their application and use. The three types of algorithms that will be discussed are (Figure 1):

  • Secret Key Cryptography (SKC): Uses a single key for both encryption and decryption; also called symmetric encryption. Primarily used for privacy and confidentiality.
  • Public Key Cryptography (PKC): Uses one key for encryption and another for decryption; also called asymmetric encryption. Primarily used for authentication, non-repudiation, and key exchange.
  • Hash Functions: Uses a mathematical transformation to irreversibly "encrypt" information, providing a digital fingerprint. Primarily used for message integrity.

FIGURE 1: Three types of cryptography: secret key, public key, and hash function.

3.1. Secret Key Cryptography

Secret key cryptography methods employ a single key for both encryption and decryption. As shown in Figure 1A, the sender uses the key to encrypt the plaintext and sends the ciphertext to the receiver. The receiver applies the same key to decrypt the message and recover the plaintext. Because a single key is used for both functions, secret key cryptography is also called symmetric encryption.

With this form of cryptography, it is obvious that the key must be known to both the sender and the receiver; that, in fact, is the secret. The biggest difficulty with this approach, of course, is the distribution of the key (more on that later in the discussion of public key cryptography).

Secret key cryptography schemes are generally categorized as being either stream ciphers or block 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen src="">

A) Self-synchronizing stream cipher. (From Schneier, 1996, Figure 9.8)

B) Synchronous stream cipher. (From Schneier, 1996, Figure 9.6)

FIGURE 2: Types of stream ciphers.

Stream ciphers operate on a single bit (byte or computer word) at a time and implement some form of feedback mechanism so that the key is constantly changing. Stream ciphers come in several flavors but two are worth mentioning here (Figure 2). Self-synchronizing stream ciphers calculate each bit in the keystream as a function of the previous n bits in the keystream. It is termed "self-synchronizing" because the decryption process can stay synchronized with the encryption process merely by knowing how far into the n-bit keystream it is. One problem is error propagation; a garbled bit in transmission will result in n garbled bits at the receiving side. Synchronous stream ciphers generate the keystream in a fashion independent of the message stream but by using the same keystream generation function at sender and receiver. While stream ciphers do not propagate transmission errors, they are, by their nature, periodic so that the keystream will eventually repeat.

FIGURE 3: Feistel cipher. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

A block cipher is so-called because the scheme encrypts one fixed-size block of data at a time. In a block cipher, a given plaintext block will always encrypt to the same ciphertext when using the same key (i.e., it is deterministic) whereas the same plaintext will encrypt to different ciphertext in a stream cipher. The most common construct for block encryption algorithms is the Feistel cipher, named for cryptographer Horst Feistel (IBM). As shown in Figure 3, a Feistel cipher combines elements of substitution, permutation (transposition), and key expansion; these features create a large amount of "confusion and diffusion" (per Claude Shannon) in the cipher. One advantage of the Feistel design is that the encryption and decryption stages are similar, sometimes identical, requiring only a reversal of the key operation, thus dramatically reducing the size of the code or circuitry necessary to implement the cipher in software or hardware, respectively. One of Feistel's early papers describing this operation is "Cryptography and Computer Privacy" (Scientific American, May 1973, 228(5), 15-23).

Block ciphers can operate in one of several modes; the following are the most important:

  • Electronic Codebook (ECB) mode is the simplest, most obvious application: the secret key is used to encrypt the plaintext block to form a ciphertext block. Two identical plaintext blocks, then, will always generate the same ciphertext block. ECB is susceptible to a variety of brute-force attacks (because of the fact that the same plaintext block will always encrypt to the same ciphertext), as well as deletion and insertion attacks. In addition, a single bit error in the transmission of the ciphertext results in an error in the entire block of decrypted plaintext.
  • Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode adds a feedback mechanism to the encryption scheme; the plaintext is exclusively-ORed (XORed) with the previous ciphertext block prior to encryption so that two identical plaintext blocks will encrypt differently. While CBC protects against many brute-force, deletion, and insertion attacks, a single bit error in the ciphertext yields an entire block error in the decrypted plaintext block and a bit error in the next decrypted plaintext block.
  • Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode is a block cipher implementation as a self-synchronizing stream cipher, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. CFB mode allows data to be encrypted in units smaller than the block size, which might be useful in some applications such as encrypting interactive terminal input. If we were using one-byte CFB mode, for example, each incoming character is placed into a shift register the same size as the block, encrypted, and the block transmitted. At the receiving side, the ciphertext is decrypted and the extra bits in the block (i.e., everything above and beyond the one byte) are discarded. CFB mode generates a keystream based upon the previous ciphertext (the initial key comes from an Initialization Vector [IV]). In this mode, a single bit error in the ciphertext affects both this block and the following one.
  • Output Feedback (OFB) mode is a block cipher implementation conceptually similar to a synchronous stream cipher. OFB prevents the same plaintext block from generating the same ciphertext block by using an internal feedback mechanism that generates the keystream independently of both the plaintext and ciphertext bitstreams. In OFB, a single bit error in ciphertext yields a single bit error in the decrypted plaintext.
  • Counter (CTR) mode is a relatively modern addition to block ciphers. Like CFB and OFB, CTR mode operates on the blocks as in a stream cipher; like ECB, CTR mode operates on the blocks independently. Unlike ECB, however, CTR uses different key inputs to different blocks so that two identical blocks of plaintext will not result in the same ciphertext. Finally, each block of ciphertext has specific location within the encrypted message. CTR mode, then, allows blocks to be processed in parallel — thus offering performance advantages when parallel processing and multiple processors are available — but is not susceptible to ECB's brute-force, deletion, and insertion attacks.

A good overview of these different modes can be found at CRYPTO-IT.

Secret key cryptography algorithms in use today — or, at least, important today even if not in use — include:

  • Data Encryption Standard (DES): One of the most well-known and well-studied SKC schemes, DES was designed by IBM in the 1970s and adopted by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) [now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)] in 1977 for commercial and unclassified government applications. DES is a Feistel block-cipher employing a 56-bit key that operates on 64-bit blocks, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. DES has a complex set of rules and transformations that were designed specifically to yield fast hardware implementations and slow software implementations, although this latter point is not significant today since the speed of computer processors is several orders of magnitude faster today than even twenty years ago. DES was based somewhat on an earlier cipher from Feistel called Lucifer which, some sources report, had a 112-bit key. This was rejected, partially in order to fit the algorithm onto a single chip and partially because of the National Security Agency (NSA). The NSA also proposed a number of tweaks to DES that many thought were introduced in order to weaken the cipher; analysis in the 1990s, however, showed that the NSA suggestions actually strengthened DES, including the removal of a mathematical back door by a change to the design of the S-box (see "The Legacy of DES" by Bruce Schneier [2004]). In April 2021, the NSA declassified a fascinating historical paper titled "NSA Comes Out of the Closet: The Debate over Public Cryptography in the Inman Era" that appeared in Cryptologic Quarterly, Uninstall Tool 3.5.10 Crack Full Torrent Download [Latest] 1996.

    DES was defined in American National Standard X3.92 and three Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS), all withdrawn in 2005:

    • FIPS PUB 46-3: DES (Archived file)
    • FIPS PUB 74: Guidelines for Implementing and Using the NBS Data Encryption Standard
    • FIPS PUB 81: DES Modes of Operation

    Information about vulnerabilities of DES can be obtained from the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

    Two important variants that strengthen DES are:

    • Triple-DES (3DES): A variant of DES that employs up to three 56-bit keys and makes three encryption/decryption passes over the block; 3DES is also described in FIPS PUB 46-3 and was an interim replacement to DES in the late-1990s and early-2000s.

    • DESX: A variant devised by Ron Rivest. By combining 64 additional key bits to the plaintext prior to encryption, effectively increases the keylength to 120 bits.

    More detail about DES, 3DES, and DESX can be found below in Section 5.4.

  • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): In 1997, NIST initiated a very public, 4-1/2 year process to develop a new secure cryptosystem for U.S. government applications (as opposed to the very closed process in the adoption of DES 25 years earlier). The result, the Advanced Encryption Standard, became the official successor to DES in December 2001. AES uses an SKC scheme called Rijndael, a block cipher designed by Belgian cryptographers Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. The algorithm can use a variable block length and key length; the latest specification allowed any combination of keys lengths of 128, 192, or 256 bits and blocks of length 128, 192, or 256 bits. NIST initially selected Rijndael in October 2000 and formal adoption as the AES standard came in December 2001. FIPS PUB 197 describes a 128-bit block cipher employing a 128- 192- or 256-bit key. AES is also part of the NESSIE approved suite of protocols. (See also the entries for CRYPTEC and NESSIE Projects in Table 3.)

    The AES process and Rijndael algorithm are described in more detail below in Section 5.9.

  • CAST-128/256: CAST-128 (aka CAST5), described in Request for Comments (RFC) 2144, is a DES-like substitution-permutation crypto algorithm, employing a 128-bit key operating on a 64-bit block. CAST-256 (aka CAST6), described in RFC 2612, is an extension of CAST-128, using a 128-bit block size and a variable length (128, 160, 192, 224, or 256 bit) key. CAST is named for its developers, Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares, and is available internationally. CAST-256 was one of the Round 1 algorithms in the AES process.

  • International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA): Secret-key cryptosystem written by Xuejia Lai and James Massey, in 1992 and patented by Ascom; a 64-bit SKC block cipher using a 128-bit key.

  • Rivest Ciphers (aka Ron's Code): Named for Ron Rivest, a series of SKC algorithms.

    • RC1: Designed on paper but never implemented.

    • RC2: A 64-bit block cipher using variable-sized keys designed to replace DES. It's code has not been made public although many companies have licensed RC2 for use in their products. Described in RFC 2268.

    • RC3: Found to be breakable during development.

    • RC4: A stream cipher using variable-sized keys; it is widely used in commercial cryptography products. An update to RC4, called Spritz (see also this article), was designed by Rivest and Jacob Schuldt, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. More detail about RC4 (and a little about Spritz) can be found below in Section 5.13.

    • RC5: A block-cipher supporting a variety of block sizes (32, 64, or 128 bits), key sizes, and number of encryption passes over the data. Described in RFC 2040.

    • RC6: A 128-bit block cipher based upon, and an improvement over, RC5; RC6 was one of the AES Round 2 algorithms.

  • Blowfish: A symmetric 64-bit block cipher invented by Bruce Schneier; optimized for 32-bit processors with large data caches, it is significantly faster than DES on a Pentium/PowerPC-class machine. Key lengths can vary from 32 to 448 bits in length. Blowfish, available freely and intended as a substitute for DES or IDEA, is in use in a large number of products.

  • Twofish: A 128-bit block cipher using 128- 192- or 256-bit keys. Designed to be highly secure and highly flexible, well-suited for large microprocessors, 8-bit smart card microprocessors, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, and dedicated hardware. Designed by a team led by Bruce Schneier and was one of the Round 2 algorithms in the AES process.

  • Threefish: A large block cipher, supporting 256- 512- and 1024-bit blocks and a key size that matches the block size; by design, the block/key size can grow in increments of 128 bits. Threefish only uses XOR operations, addition, and rotations of 64-bit words; the design philosophy is that an algorithm employing many computationally simple rounds is more secure than one employing highly complex — albeit fewer — rounds. The specification for Threefish is part of the Skein Hash Function Family documentation.

  • Anubis: Anubis is a block cipher, co-designed by Vincent Rijmen who was one of the designers of Rijndael. Anubis is a block cipher, performing substitution-permutation operations on 128-bit blocks and employing keys of length 128 to 3200 bits (in 32-bit increments). Anubis works very much like Rijndael, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Although submitted to the NESSIE project, it did not make the final cut for inclusion.

  • ARIA: A 128-bit block cipher employing 128- 192- and 256-bit keys to encrypt 128-bit blocks in 12, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, 14, and 16 rounds, depending on the key size. Developed by large group of researchers from academic institutions, research institutes, and federal agencies in South Korea in 2003, and subsequently named a national standard. Described in RFC 5794.

  • Camellia: A secret-key, block-cipher crypto algorithm developed jointly by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) Corp. and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MEC) in 2000. Camellia has some characteristics in common with AES: a 128-bit block size, support for 128- 192- and 256-bit key lengths, and suitability for both software and hardware implementations on common 32-bit processors as well as 8-bit processors (e.g., smart cards, cryptographic hardware, and embedded systems). 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen described in RFC 3713. Camellia's application in IPsec is described in RFC 4312 and application in OpenPGP in RFC 5581. Camellia is part of the NESSIE suite of protocols.

  • CLEFIA: Described in RFC 6114, CLEFIA is a 128-bit block cipher employing key lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits (which is compatible with AES). The CLEFIA algorithm was first published in 2007 by Sony Corporation. CLEFIA is one of the new-generation lightweight blockcipher algorithms designed after AES, offering high performance in software and hardware as well as a lightweight implementation in hardware.

  • FFX-A2 and FFX-A10: FFX (Format-preserving, Feistel-based encryption) is a type of Format Preserving Encryption (FPE) scheme that is designed so that the ciphertext has the same format as the plaintext. FPE schemes are used for such purposes as encrypting social security numbers, credit card numbers, limited size protocol traffic, etc.; this means that an encrypted social security number, for example, would still be a nine-digit string. FFX can theoretically encrypt strings of arbitrary length, although it is intended for message sizes smaller than that of AES-128 (2128 points). The FFX version 1.1 specification describes FFX-A2 and FFX-A10, which are intended for 8-128 bit binary strings or 4-36 digit decimal strings.

  • GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spécial Mobile) encryption: GSM mobile phone systems use several stream ciphers for over-the-air communication privacy. A5/1 was developed in 1987 for use in Europe and the U.S. A5/2, developed in 1989, is a weaker algorithm and intended for use outside of Europe and the U.S. Significant flaws were found in both ciphers after the "secret" specifications were leaked in 1994, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, and A5/2 has been withdrawn from use. The newest version, A5/3, employs the KASUMI block cipher. NOTE: Unfortunately, although A5/1 has been repeatedly "broken" (e.g., see "Secret code protecting cellphone calls set loose" [2009] and "Cellphone snooping now easier and cheaper than ever" [2011]), this encryption scheme remains in widespread use, even in 3G 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen 4G mobile phone networks. Use of this scheme is reportedly one of the reasons that the National Security Agency (NSA) can easily decode voice and data calls over mobile phone networks.

  • GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) encryption: GSM mobile phone systems use GPRS for data applications, and GPRS uses a number of encryption methods, offering different levels of data protection. GEA/0 offers no encryption at all. GEA/1 and GEA/2 are proprietary stream ciphers, employing a 64-bit key and a 96-bit or 128-bit state, respectively. GEA/1 and GEA/2 are most widely used by network service providers today although both have been reportedly broken. GEA/3 is a 128-bit block cipher employing a 64-bit key that is used by some carriers; GEA/4 is a 128-bit clock cipher with a 128-bit key, but is not yet deployed.

  • KASUMI: A block cipher using a 128-bit key that is part of the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3gpp), formerly known as the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). KASUMI is the intended confidentiality and integrity algorithm for both message content and signaling data for emerging mobile communications systems.

  • KCipher-2: Described in RFC 7008, KCipher-2 is a stream cipher with a 128-bit key and a 128-bit initialization vector, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Using simple arithmetic operations, the algorithms offers fast encryption and decryption by use of efficient implementations. KCipher-2 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen been used for industrial applications, especially for mobile health monitoring and diagnostic services in Japan.

  • KHAZAD:KHAZAD is a so-called legacy block cipher, operating on 64-bit blocks à la older block ciphers such as DES and IDEA. KHAZAD uses eight rounds of substitution and permutation, with a 128-bit key.

  • KLEIN: Designed in 2011, KLEIN is a lightweight, 64-bit block cipher supporting 64- 80- and 96-bit keys. KLEIN is designed for highly resource constrained devices such as wireless sensors and RFID tags.

  • Light Encryption Device (LED): Designed in 2011, LED is a lightweight, 64-bit block cipher supporting 64- and 128-bit keys. LED is designed for RFID tags, sensor networks, and other applications with devices constrained by memory or compute power.

  • MARS:MARS is a block cipher developed by IBM and was one of the five finalists in the AES development process. MARS employs 128-bit blocks and a variable key length from 128 to 448 bits. The MARS document stresses the ability of the algorithm's design for high speed, high security, and the ability to efficiently and effectively implement the scheme on a wide range of computing devices.

  • MISTY1: Developed at Mitsubishi Electric Corp., a block cipher using a 128-bit key and 64-bit blocks, and a variable number of rounds. Designed for hardware and software implementations, and is resistant to differential and linear cryptanalysis. Described in RFC 2994, MISTY1 is part of the NESSIE suite.

  • Salsa and ChaCha: Salsa20 is a stream cipher proposed for the eSTREAM project by Daniel Bernstein. Salsa20 uses a pseudorandom function based on 32-bit (whole word) addition, bitwise addition (XOR), and rotation operations, aka add-rotate-xor (ARX) operations. Salsa20 uses a 256-bit key although a 128-bit key variant also exists. In 2008, Bernstein published ChaCha, a new family of ciphers related to Salsa20. ChaCha20, originally defined in RFC 7539 (now obsoleted), is employed (with the Poly1305 authenticator) in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) protocols, most notably for IPsec and Internet Key Exchange (IKE), per RFC 7634, and Transaction Layer Security 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, per RFC 7905. In 2014, Google adopted ChaCha20/Poly1305 for use in OpenSSL, and they are also a part of OpenSSH. RFC 8439 replaces RFC 7539, and provides an implementation guide for both the ChaCha20 cipher and Poly1305 message authentication code, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, as well as the combined CHACHA20-POLY1305 Authenticated-Encryption with Associated-Data (AEAD) algorithm.

  • Secure and Fast Encryption Routine (SAFER): A series of block 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen designed by James Massey for implementation in software and employing a 64-bit block. SAFER K-64, published in 1993, used a 64-bit key and SAFER K-128, published in 1994, employed a 128-bit key. After weaknesses were found, new versions were released called SAFER SK-40, SK-64, and SK-128, using 40- 64- and 128-bit keys, respectively. SAFER+ (1998) used a 128-bit block and was an unsuccessful candidate for the AES project; SAFER++ (2000) was submitted to the NESSIE project.

  • SEED: A block cipher using 128-bit blocks and 128-bit keys. Developed by the Korea Information Security Agency (KISA) and adopted as a national standard encryption algorithm in South Korea, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Also described in RFC 4269.

  • Serpent:Serpent is another of the AES finalist algorithms. Serpent supports 128- 192- or 256-bit keys and a block size of 128 bits, and is a 32-round substitution–permutation network operating on a block of four 32-bit words. The Serpent developers opted for a high security margin in the design of the algorithm; they determined that 16 rounds would be sufficient against known attacks but require 32 rounds in an attempt to future-proof the algorithm.

  • SHACAL: SHACAL is a pair of block ciphers based upon the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) and the fact that SHA is, at heart, a compression algorithm. As a hash function, SHA repeatedly calls on a compression scheme to alter the state of the data blocks. While SHA (like other hash functions) is irreversible, the compression function can be used for encryption by maintaining appropriate state information. SHACAL-1 is based upon SHA-1 and uses a 160-bit block size while SHACAL-2 is based upon SHA-256 and employs a 256-bit block size; both support key sizes from 128 to 512 bits. SHACAL-2 is one of the NESSIE block ciphers.

  • Simon and Speck: Simon and Speck are a pair of lightweight block ciphers proposed by the NSA in 2013, designed for highly constrained software or hardware environments. (E.g., per the specification, AES requires 2400 gate equivalents and these ciphers require less than 2000.) While both cipher families perform well in both hardware and software, Simon has been optimized for high performance on hardware devices and Speck for performance in software. Both are Feistel ciphers and support ten combinations of block and key size:

  • Skipjack: SKC scheme proposed, along with the Clipper chip, as part of the never-implemented Capstone project. Although the details of the algorithm were never made public, Skipjack was a block cipher using an 80-bit key and 32 iteration cycles per 64-bit block. Capstone, proposed by NIST and the NSA as a standard for public and government use, met with great resistance by the crypto community largely because the design of Skipjack was classified (coupled with the key escrow requirement of the Clipper chip).

  • SM4: Formerly called SMS4, SM4 is a 128-bit block cipher using 128-bit keys and 32 rounds to process a block. Declassified in 2006, SM4 is used in the Chinese National Standard for Wireless Local Area Network (LAN) Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure (WAPI). SM4 had been a proposed cipher for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11i standard on security mechanisms for wireless LANs, but has yet to be accepted by the IEEE or International Organization for Standardization (ISO). SM4 is described in SMS4 Encryption Algorithm for Wireless Networks (translated by Whitfield Diffie and George Ledin, 2008) and at the SM4 (cipher) page. SM4 is issued by the Chinese State Cryptographic Authority as GM/T 0002-2012: SM4 (2012).

  • Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA): A family of block ciphers developed by Roger Needham and David Wheeler. TEA was originally developed in 1994, and employed a 128-bit key, 64-bit block, and 64 rounds of operation. To correct certain weaknesses in TEA, eXtended TEA (XTEA), aka Block TEA, was released in 1997. To correct weaknesses in XTEA and add versatility, Corrected Block TEA (XXTEA) was published in 1998. XXTEA also uses a 128-bit key, but block size can be any multiple of 32-bit words (with a minimum block size of 64 bits, or two words) and the number of rounds is a function of the block size (~52+6*words), as shown in Table 1.

  • Block Size
    Key Size
    Word Size
    Key Words
  • TWINE: Designed by engineers at NEC in 2011, TWINE is a lightweight, 64-bit block cipher supporting 80- and 128-bit keys. TWINE's design goals included maintaining a small footprint in a hardware implementation (i.e., fewer than 2,000 gate equivalents) and small memory consumption in a software implementation.

Although not an SKC scheme, check out Section 5.17 about Shamir's Secret Sharing (SSS).

There are several other references that describe interesting algorithms and even SKC codes dating back decades. Two that leap to mind are the Crypto Museum's Crypto List and John J.G. Savard's (albeit old) A Cryptographic Compendium page.

3.2. Public Key Cryptography

Public key cryptography has been said to be the most significant new development in cryptography in the last 300-400 years. Modern PKC was first described publicly by Stanford University professor Martin Hellman and graduate student Whitfield Diffie in 1976. Their paper described a two-key crypto system in which two parties could engage in a secure communication over a non-secure communications channel without having to share a secret key.

PKC depends upon the existence of so-called one-way functions, or mathematical functions that are easy to compute whereas their inverse function is relatively difficult to compute. Let me give you two simple examples:

  1. Multiplication vs. factorization: Suppose you have two prime numbers, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, 3 and 7, and you need to calculate the product; it should take almost no time to calculate that value, which is 21. Now suppose, instead, that you have a number that is a product of two primes, 21, and you need to determine those prime factors. You will eventually come up with the solution but whereas calculating the product took milliseconds, factoring will take longer. The problem becomes much harder if we start with primes that have, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, say, 400 digits or so, because the product will have ~800 digits.
  2. Exponentiation vs. logarithms: Suppose you take the number 3 to the 6th power; again, it is relatively easy to calculate 36 = 729. But if you start with the number 729 and need to determine the two integers, x and y so that logx 729 = y, it will take longer to find the two values.

While the examples above are trivial, they do represent two of the functional pairs that are used with PKC; namely, the ease of multiplication and exponentiation versus the relative difficulty of factoring and calculating logarithms, respectively. The mathematical "trick" 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen PKC is to find a trap door in the one-way function so that the inverse calculation becomes easy given knowledge of some item of information.

Generic PKC employs two keys that are mathematically related although knowledge of one key does not allow someone to easily determine the other key. One key is used to encrypt the plaintext and the other key is used to decrypt the ciphertext. The important point here is that it does not matter which key is applied first, but that both keys are required for the process to work (Figure 1B). Because a pair of keys are required, this approach is also called asymmetric cryptography.

In PKC, one of the keys is designated the public key and may be advertised as widely as the owner wants. The other key is designated the private key and is never revealed to another party. It is straight-forward to send messages under this scheme. Suppose Alice wants to send Bob 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen message. Alice encrypts some information using Bob's public key; Bob decrypts the ciphertext using his private key. This method could be also used to prove who sent a message; Alice, for example, could encrypt some plaintext with her private key; when Bob decrypts using Alice's public key, he knows that Alice sent the message (authentication) and Alice cannot deny having sent the message (non-repudiation).

Public key cryptography algorithms that are in use today for key exchange or digital signatures include:

  • RSA: The first, and still most common, PKC implementation, named for the three MIT mathematicians who developed it — Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman. RSA today is used in hundreds of software products and can be used for key exchange, digital signatures, or encryption of small blocks of data. RSA uses a variable size encryption block and a variable size key. The key-pair is derived from a very large number, n, that is the product of two prime numbers chosen according to special rules; these primes may be 100 or more digits in length each, yielding an n with roughly twice as many digits as the prime factors. The public key 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen includes n and a derivative of one of the factors of n; an attacker cannot determine the prime factors of n (and, therefore, the private key) from this information alone and that is what makes the RSA algorithm so secure. (Some descriptions of PKC erroneously state that RSA's safety is due to the difficulty in factoring large prime numbers. In fact, large prime numbers, like small prime numbers, only have two factors!) The ability for computers to factor large numbers, and therefore attack schemes such as RSA, is rapidly improving and systems today can find the prime factors of numbers with more than 200 digits. Nevertheless, if a large number is created from two prime factors that are roughly the same size, there is no known factorization algorithm that will solve the problem in a reasonable amount of time; a 2005 test to factor a 200-digit number took 1.5 years and over 50 years of compute time. In 2009, Kleinjung et al. reported that factoring 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen 768-bit (232-digit) RSA-768 modulus utilizing hundreds of systems took two years and they estimated that a 1024-bit RSA modulus would take about a thousand times as long. Even so, they suggested that 1024-bit RSA be phased out by 2013. (See the Wikipedia article on integer factorization.) Regardless, one 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen protection of RSA is that users can easily increase the key size to always stay ahead of the computer processing curve. As an aside, the patent for RSA expired in September 2000 which does not appear to have affected RSA's popularity one way or the other. A detailed example of RSA is presented below in Section 5.3.

  • Diffie-Hellman: After the RSA algorithm was published, Diffie and Hellman came up with their own algorithm. Diffie-Hellman is used for secret-key key exchange only, and not for authentication or digital signatures. More detail about Diffie-Hellman can be found below in Section 5.2.

  • Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA): The algorithm specified in NIST's Digital Signature Standard (DSS), provides digital signature capability for the authentication of messages. Described in FIPS PUB 186-4.

  • ElGamal: Designed by Taher Elgamal, ElGamal is a PKC system similar to Diffie-Hellman and used for key exchange. ElGamal is used in some later version of Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) as well as GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) and other cryptosystems.

  • Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC): A PKC algorithm based upon elliptic curves. ECC can offer levels of security with small keys comparable to RSA and other PKC methods. It was designed for devices with limited compute power and/or memory, such as smartcards and PDAs. More detail about ECC can be found below in Section 5.8. Other references include the Elliptic Curve Cryptography page and the Online ECC Tutorial page, both from Certicom, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. See also RFC 6090 for a review of fundamental ECC algorithms and The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) for details about the use of ECC for digital signatures.

  • Identity-Based Encryption (IBE): IBE is a novel scheme first proposed by Adi Shamir in 1984. It is a PKC-based key authentication system where the public key can be derived from some unique information based upon the user's identity, allowing two users to exchange encrypted messages without having an a priori relationship. In 2001, Dan Boneh (Stanford) and Matt Franklin (U.C., Davis) developed a practical implementation of IBE based on elliptic curves and a mathematical construct called the Weil Pairing. In that year, Clifford Cocks (GCHQ) also described another IBE solution based on quadratic residues in composite groups. RFC 5091: Identity-Based Cryptography Standard (IBCS) #1 describes an implementation of IBE using Boneh-Franklin (BF) and Boneh-Boyen (BB1) Identity-based Encryption. More detail about Identity-Based Encryption can be found below in Section 5.16.

  • Public Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS): A set of interoperable standards and guidelines for public key cryptography, designed by RSA Data Security Inc. (These documents are no longer easily available; all links in this section are from

  • Cramer-Shoup: A public key cryptosystem 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen by R. Cramer and V. Shoup of IBM in 1998.

  • Key Exchange Algorithm (KEA): A variation on Diffie-Hellman; proposed as the key exchange method for the NIST/NSA Capstone project.

  • LUC: A public key cryptosystem designed by P.J. Smith and based on Lucas sequences. Can be used for encryption and signatures, using integer factoring.

  • McEliece: A public key cryptosystem based on algebraic coding theory.

For additional information on PKC algorithms, see "Public Key Encryption" (Chapter 8) in Handbook of Applied Cryptography, by A. Menezes, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, P. van Oorschot, and S. Vanstone (CRC Press, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, 1996).

A digression: Who invented PKC? I tried to be careful in the first paragraph of this section to state that Diffie and Hellman "first described publicly" a PKC scheme. Although I have categorized PKC as a two-key system, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, that has been merely for convenience; the real criteria for a PKC scheme is that it allows two parties to exchange a secret even though the communication with the shared secret might be overheard. There seems to be no question that Diffie and Hellman were first to publish; their method is described in the classic paper, "New Directions in Cryptography," published in the November 1976 issue of IEEE Transactions on Information Theory (IT-22(6), 644-654). As shown in Section 5.2, Diffie-Hellman uses the idea that finding logarithms is relatively harder than performing exponentiation. And, indeed, it is the precursor to modern PKC which does employ two keys. Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman described an implementation that extended this idea in their paper, "A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public Key Cryptosystems," published in the February 1978 issue of the Communications of the ACM (CACM), (21(2), 120-126). Their method, of course, is based upon the relative ease of finding the product of two large prime numbers compared to finding the prime factors of a large number.

Diffie and Hellman (and other sources) credit Ralph Merkle with first describing a public key distribution system that allows two parties to share a secret, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, although it was not a two-key system, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, per se. A Merkle Puzzle works where Alice creates a large number of encrypted keys, sends them all to Bob so that Bob chooses one at random and then lets Alice know which he has selected. An eavesdropper (Eve) will see all of the keys but can't learn which key Bob has selected (because he has encrypted the response with the chosen key). In this case, Eve's effort to break in is the square of the effort of Bob to choose a key. While this difference may be small it is often sufficient. Merkle apparently took a computer science course at UC Berkeley in 1974 and described his method, but had difficulty making people understand it; frustrated, he dropped the course. Meanwhile, he submitted the paper "Secure Communication Over Insecure Channels," which was published in the CACM in April 1978; Rivest et al.'s paper even makes reference to it. Merkle's method certainly wasn't published first, but he is often credited to have had the idea first.

An interesting question, maybe, but who really knows? For some time, it was a quiet secret that a team at the UK's Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) had first developed PKC in the early 1970s. Because of the nature of the work, GCHQ kept the original memos classified. In 1997, however, the GCHQ changed their posture when they realized that there was nothing to gain by continued silence. Documents show that a GCHQ mathematician named James Ellis started research into the key distribution problem in 1969 and that by 1975, James Ellis, Clifford Cocks, and Malcolm Williamson had worked out all of the fundamental details of PKC, yet couldn't talk about their work. (They were, of course, barred from challenging the RSA patent!) By 1999, Ellis, Cocks, and Williamson began to get their due credit in a break-through article in WIRED Magazine. And the National Security Agency (NSA) claims to have knowledge of this type of algorithm as early as 1966. 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen some additional insight on who knew what when, see Steve Bellovin's "The Prehistory of Public Key Cryptography."

3.3. Hash Functions

Hash functions, also called message digests and one-way encryption, are algorithms that, in essence, use no key (Figure 1C). Instead, a fixed-length hash value is computed based upon the plaintext that makes it impossible for either the contents or length of the plaintext to be recovered. Hash algorithms are typically used to provide a digital fingerprint of a file's contents, often used to ensure that the file has not been altered by an intruder or virus. Hash functions are also commonly employed by many operating systems to encrypt passwords. Hash functions, then, provide a mechanism to ensure the integrity of a file.

Hash functions are also designed so that small changes in the input produce significant differences in the hash value, for example:

Hash string 1: The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog
Hash string 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.

MD5 [hash string 1] = 37c4b87edffc5d198ff5a185cee7ee09
MD5 [hash string 2] = 0d7006cd055e94cf614587e1d2ae0c8e

SHA1 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen string 1] = be417768b5c3c5c1d9bcb2e7c119196dd76b5570
SHA1 [hash string 2] = 9c04cd6372077e9b11f70ca111c9807dc7137e4b

RIPEMD160 [hash string 1] = ee061f0400729d0095695da9e2c95168326610ff
RIPEMD160 [hash string 2] = 99b90925a0116c302984211dbe25b5343be9059e

Let me reiterate that hashes are one-way encryption. You cannot take a hash and "decrypt" it to find the original string that created it, despite the many web sites that claim or suggest otherwise, such as CrackStation,, MD5 Online, md5thiscracker, OnlineHashCrack, and RainbowCrack.

Note that these sites search databases and/or use rainbow tables to find a suitable string that produces the hash in question but one can't definitively guarantee what string originally produced the hash. This is an important distinction. Suppose that you want to crack someone's password, where the hash of the password is stored on the server. Indeed, all you then need is a string that produces the correct hash and you're in! However, you cannot prove that you have discovered the user's password, only a "duplicate key."

Hash algorithms in common use today include:

  • Message Digest (MD) algorithms: A series of byte-oriented algorithms that produce a 128-bit hash value from an arbitrary-length message.

    • MD2 (RFC 1319): Designed for systems with limited memory, such as smart cards. (MD2 has been relegated to historical status, per RFC 6149.)

    • MD4 (RFC 1320): Developed by Rivest, similar to MD2 but designed specifically for fast processing in software. (MD4 has been relegated to historical status, per RFC 6150.)

    • MD5 (RFC 1321): Also developed by Rivest after potential weaknesses were reported in MD4; this scheme is similar to MD4 but is slower because more manipulation is made to the original data. MD5 has been implemented in a large number of products although several weaknesses in the algorithm were demonstrated by German cryptographer Hans Dobbertin in 1996 ("Cryptanalysis of MD5 Compress"). (Updated security considerations for MD5 can be found in RFC 6151.)

  • Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA): Algorithm for NIST's Secure Hash Standard (SHS), described in FIPS PUB 180-4 The status of NIST hash algorithms can be found on their "Policy on Hash Functions" page.

    • SHA-1 produces a 160-bit hash value and was originally published as FIPS PUB 180-1 and RFC 3174. SHA-1 was deprecated by NIST as of the end of 2013 although it is still widely used.

    • SHA-2, originally described in FIPS PUB 180-2 and eventually replaced by FIPS PUB 180-3 (and FIPS PUB 180-4), comprises five algorithms in the SHS: SHA-1 plus SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512 which can produce hash values that are 224, 256, 384, or 512 bits in length, respectively. SHA-2 recommends use of SHA-1, SHA-224, and SHA-256 for messages less than 264 bits in length, and employs a 512 bit block size; SHA-384 and SHA-512 are recommended for messages less than 2128 bits in length, and employs a 1,024 bit block size. FIPS PUB 180-4 also introduces the concept of a truncated hash in SHA-512/t, a generic name referring to a hash value based upon the SHA-512 algorithm that has been truncated to t bits; SHA-512/224 and SHA-512/256 are specifically described. SHA-224, -256, -384, and -512 are also described in RFC 4634.

    • SHA-3 is the current SHS algorithm. Although there had not been any successful attacks on SHA-2, NIST decided that having an alternative to SHA-2 using a different algorithm would be prudent. In 2007, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, they launched a SHA-3 Competition to find that alternative; a list of submissions can be found at The SHA-3 Zoo. In 2012, NIST announced that after reviewing 64 submissions, the winner was Keccak (pronounced "catch-ack"), a family of hash algorithms based on sponge functions. The NIST version can support hash output sizes of 256 and 512 bits.

  • RIPEMD: A series of message digests that initially came from the RIPE (RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation) project. RIPEMD-160 was designed by Hans Dobbertin, Antoon Bosselaers, and Bart Preneel, and optimized for 32-bit processors to replace the then-current 128-bit hash functions. Other versions include RIPEMD-256, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, RIPEMD-320, and RIPEMD-128.

  • eD2k: Named for the EDonkey2000 Network (eD2K), 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, the eD2k hash is a root hash of an MD4 hash list of a given file. A root hash is used on peer-to-peer file transfer networks, where a file is broken into chunks; each chunk has its own MD4 hash associated with it and the server maintains a file that contains the hash list of all of the chunks. The root hash is the hash of the hash list file.

  • HAVAL (HAsh of VAriable Length): Designed by Y. Zheng, J. Pieprzyk and J. Seberry, a hash algorithm with many levels of security. HAVAL can create hash values that are 128, 160, 192, 224, or 256 bits in length, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. More details can be found in "HAVAL - A one-way hashing OctoPlus Box v2.9.6 license key Archives with variable length output" by Zheng, Pieprzyk, and Seberry (AUSCRYPT '92).

  • The Skein Hash Function Family: The Skein Hash Function Family was proposed to NIST in their 2010 hash function competition. Skein is fast due to using just a few simple computational primitives, secure, and very flexible — per the specification, it can be used as a straight-forward hash, MAC, HMAC, digital signature hash, key derivation mechanism, stream cipher, or pseuo-random number generator. Skein supports internal state sizes of 256, 512 and 1024 bits, and arbitrary output lengths.

  • SM3: SM3 is a 256-bit hash function operating on 512-bit input blocks. Part of a Chinese National Standard, SM3 is issued by the Chinese State Cryptographic Authority as GM/T 0004-2012: SM3 cryptographic hash algorithm (2012) and GB/T 32905-2016: Information security techniques—SM3 cryptographic hash algorithm (2016). More information can also be found at the SM3 (hash function) page.

  • Tiger: Designed by Ross Anderson and Eli Biham, Tiger is designed to be secure, run efficiently on 64-bit processors, and easily replace MD4, MD5, SHA and SHA-1 in other applications. Tiger/192 produces a 192-bit output and is compatible with 64-bit architectures; Tiger/128 and Tiger/160 produce a hash of length 128 and 160 bits, respectively, to provide compatibility with the other hash functions mentioned above.

  • Whirlpool: Designed by V. Rijmen (co-inventor of Rijndael) and P.S.L.M. Barreto, Whirlpool is one of two hash functions endorsed by the NESSIE competition (the other being SHA). Whirlpool operates on messages less than 2256 bits in length and produces a message digest of 512 bits. The design of this hash function is very different than that of MD5 and SHA-1, making it immune to the types of attacks that succeeded on those hashes.

Readers might be interested in HashCalc, a Windows-based program that calculates hash values using a dozen algorithms, including MD5, SHA-1 and several variants, RIPEMD-160, and Tiger. Command line utilities that calculate hash values include sha_verify by Dan Mares (Windows; supports MD5, SHA-1, SHA-2) and md5deep (cross-platform; supports MD5, SHA-1, SHA-256, Tiger, and Whirlpool).

A digression 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen hash collisions. Hash functions are sometimes misunderstood and some sources claim that no two files can have the same hash value. This is in theory, if not in fact, incorrect. Consider a hash function that provides a 128-bit hash value. There are, then, 2128 possible hash values. But there are an infinite number of possible files and ∞ >> 2128. Therefore, there have to be multiple files — in fact, there have to be an infinite number of files! — that have the same 128-bit hash value. (Now, while even this is theoretically correct, it is not true in practice because hash algorithms are designed to work with a limited message size, as mentioned above. For example, SHA-1, SHA-224, and SHA-256 produce hash values that are 160, 224, and 256 bits in length, respectively, and limit the message length to less than 264 bits; SHA-384 and all SHA-256 variants limit the message length to less than 2128 bits. Nevertheless, hopefully you get my point — and, alas, even if you don't, do know that there are multiple files that have the same MD5 or SHA-1 hash values.)

The difficulty is not necessarily in finding two files with the same hash, but in finding a second file that has the same hash value as a given first file. Consider this example. A human head has, generally, no more than ~150,000 hairs. Since there are more than 7 billion people on earth, we know that there are a lot of people with the same number of hairs on their head. Finding two people with the same number of hairs, then, would be 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen simple. The harder problem is choosing one person (say, you, the reader) and then finding another person who has the same number of hairs on their head as you have on yours.

This is somewhat similar to the Birthday Problem. We know from probability that if you choose a random group of ~23 people, the probability is about 50% that two will share a birthday (the probability goes up to 99.9% with a group of 70 people). However, if you randomly select one person in a group of 23 and try to find a match to that person, the probability is only about 6% of finding a match; you'd need a group of 253 for a 50% probability of a shared birthday to one of the people chosen at random (and a group of more than 4,000 to obtain a 99.9% probability).

What is hard to do, then, is to try to create a file that matches a given hash value so as to force a hash value collision — which is the reason that hash functions are used extensively for information security and computer forensics applications. 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, researchers as far back as 2004 found that practical collision attacks could be launched on MD5, SHA-1, and other hash algorithms and, today, it is generally recognized that MD5 and SHA-1 are pretty much broken. Readers interested in this problem should read the following:

  • AccessData. (2006, April). MD5 Collisions: The Effect on Computer Forensics. AccessData White Paper.
  • Burr, W. (2006, March/April). Cryptographic hash standards: Where do we go from here?IEEE Security & Privacy, 4(2), 88-91.
  • Dwyer, D. (2009, June 3). SHA-1 Collision Attacks Now 252. SecureWorks Research blog.
  • Gutman, P., Naccache, D., & Palmer, C.C. (2005, May/June). When hashes collide. Youtube song downloader 2011 Security & Privacy, 3(3), 68-71.
  • Kessler, G.C. (2016). The Impact of MD5 File Hash Collisions on Digital Forensic Imaging. Journal of Digital Forensics, Security & Law, 11(4), 129-138.
  • Kessler, G.C. (2016). The Impact of SHA-1 File Hash Collisions on Digital Forensic Imaging: A Follow-Up Experiment. Journal of Digital Forensics, Security & Law, 11(4), 139-148.
  • Klima, V. (2005, March). Finding MD5 Collisions - a Toy For a Notebook.
  • Lee, R. (2009, January 7). Law Is Not A Science: Admissibility of Computer Evidence and MD5 Hashes. SANS Computer Forensics blog.
  • Leurent, G. & Peyrin, T. (2020, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, January). SHA-1 is a Shambles: First Chosen-Prefix Collision on SHA-1 and Application to the PGP Web of Trust. Real World Crypto 2020.
  • Leurent, G. & Peyrin, T, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. (2020, January), 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. SHA-1 is a Shambles: First Chosen-Prefix Collision on SHA-1 and Application to the PGP Web of Trust.(paper)
  • Stevens, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, M., Bursztein, E., Karpman, P., Albertini, A., & Markov, Y. (2017). The first collision for full 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, M., Karpman, P., & Peyrin, T. (2015, October 8). Freestart collision on full SHA-1. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2015/967.
  • Thompson, E. (2005, February). MD5 collisions and the impact on computer forensics. Digital Investigation, 2(1), 36-40.
  • Wang, X., Feng, D., Lai, X., & Yu, H. (2004, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, August). Collisions for Hash Functions MD4, MD5, HAVAL-128 and RIPEMD.
  • Wang, X., Yin, Y.L., & Yu, H. (2005, February 13). Collision Search Attacks on SHA1.

Readers are also referred to the Eindhoven University of Technology HashClash Project Web site. for For additional information on hash functions, see David Hopwood's MessageDigest Algorithms page and Peter Selinger's MD5 Collision Demo page. For historical purposes, take a look at the situation with hash collisions, circa 2005, in RFC 4270.

In October 2015, the SHA-1 Freestart Collision was announced; see a report by Bruce Schneier and the developers of the attack (as well as the paper above by Stevens et al. (2015)). In February 2017, the first SHA-1 collision was announced on the Google Security Blog and Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica's Shattered page. See also the paper by Stevens et al. (2017), listed above. If ths isn't enough, see the SHA-1 is a Shambles Web page and the Leurent & Peyrin paper, listed above.

For an interesting twist on this discussion, read about the Nostradamus attack reported at Predicting the winner of the 2008 US Presidential Elections using a Sony PlayStation 3 (by M. Stevens, A.K. Lenstra, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, and B. de Weger, November 2007).

Finally, note that certain extensions of hash functions are used for a variety of information security and digital forensics applications, such as:

  • Hash libraries, aka hashsets, are sets of hash values corresponding to known files. A hashset containing the hash values of all files known to be a part of a given operating system, for example, could form a set Rubymine 2018.3.3 Crack Archives known good files, and could be ignored in an investigation for malware or other suspicious file, whereas as hash library of known child pornographic images could form a set of known bad files and be the target of such an investigation.
  • Rolling hashes refer to a set of hash values that are computed based upon a fixed-length "sliding window" through the input. As an example, a hash value might be computed on bytes 1-10 of a file, then on bytes 2-11, 3-12, 4-13, etc.
  • Fuzzy hashes are an area of intense research and represent hash values that represent two inputs that are similar. Fuzzy hashes are used to detect documents, images, or other files that are close to each other with respect to content. See "Fuzzy Hashing" by Jesse Kornblum for a good treatment of this topic.

3.4. Why Three Encryption Techniques?

So, why are there so many different types of cryptographic schemes? Why can't we do everything we need with just one?

The answer is that each scheme is optimized for some specific cryptographic application(s). Hash functions, for example, are well-suited for ensuring data integrity because any change made to the contents of a message will result in the receiver calculating a different hash value than the one placed in the transmission by the sender. Since it is highly unlikely that two different messages will yield the same hash value, data integrity is ensured to a high degree of confidence.

Secret key cryptography, on the other hand, is ideally suited to encrypting messages, thus providing privacy and confidentiality. The sender can generate a session key on a per-message 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen to encrypt the message; the receiver, of course, needs the same session key in order to decrypt the message.

Key exchange, of course, is a key application of public key cryptography (no pun intended). Asymmetric schemes can also be used for non-repudiation and user authentication; if the receiver can obtain the session key encrypted with the sender's private key, then only this sender could have sent the message. Public key cryptography could, theoretically, also be used to encrypt messages although this is rarely done because secret key cryptography values can generally be computed about 1000 times faster than public key cryptography values.

FIGURE 4: Use of the three cryptographic techniques for secure communication.

Figure 4 puts all of this together and shows how a hybrid cryptographic scheme combines all of these functions to form a secure transmission comprising a digital signature and digital envelope. In this example, the sender of the message is Alice and the receiver is Bob.

A digital envelope comprises an encrypted message and an encrypted session key. Alice uses secret key cryptography to encrypt her message using the session key, which she generates at random with each session. Alice then encrypts the session key using Bob's public key. The encrypted message and encrypted session key together form the digital envelope. Upon receipt, Bob recovers the session secret key using his private key and then decrypts the encrypted message.

The digital signature is formed in two steps. First, Alice computes the hash value of her message; next, she encrypts the hash value with her private key. Upon receipt of the digital signature, Bob recovers the hash value calculated by Alice by decrypting the digital signature with Alice's public key. Bob can then apply the hash function to Alice's original message, which he has already decrypted (see previous paragraph). If the resultant hash value is not the same as the value supplied by Alice, then Bob knows that the message has been altered; if the hash values are the same, Bob should believe that the message he received is identical to the one that Alice sent.

This scheme also provides nonrepudiation since it proves that Alice sent the message; if the hash value recovered by Bob using Alice's public key proves that the message has not been altered, then only Alice could have created the digital signature. Bob also has proof that he is the intended receiver; if he can correctly decrypt the message, then he must have correctly decrypted the session key meaning that his is the correct private key.

This diagram purposely suggests a cryptosystem where the session key is used for just a single session. Even if this session key is somehow broken, only this session will be compromised; the session key for the next session is not based upon the key for this session, just as this session's key was not dependent on the key from the previous session. This is known as Perfect Forward Secrecy; you might lose one session key due to a compromise but you won't lose all of them. (This was an issue in the 2014 OpenSSL vulnerability known as Heartbleed.)

3.5. The Significance of Key Length

In a 1998 article in the industry literature, a writer made the claim that 56-bit keys did not provide as adequate protection for DES at that time as they did in 1975 because computers were 1000 times faster in 1998 than in 1975. Therefore, the writer went on, we needed 56,000-bit keys in 1998 instead of 56-bit keys to provide Advanced SystemCare 14.6.0 Pro Key 2021 [Cracked] protection. The conclusion was then drawn that because 56,000-bit keys are infeasible (true), we should accept the fact that we have to live with weak cryptography (false!). The major error here is that the writer did not take into account that the number of possible key values double whenever a single bit is added to the key length; thus, a 57-bit key has twice as many values as a 56-bit key (because 257 is two times 256). In fact, a 66-bit key would have 1024 times more values than a 56-bit key.

But this does bring up the question — "What is the significance of key length as it affects the level of protection?"

In cryptography, size does matter. The larger the key, the harder it is to crack a block of encrypted data. The reason that large keys offer more protection is almost obvious; computers have made it easier to attack ciphertext by using brute force methods rather than by attacking the mathematics (which are generally well-known anyway). With a brute force attack, the attacker merely generates every possible key and applies it to the ciphertext. Any resulting plaintext that makes sense offers a candidate for a legitimate key. 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen was the basis, of course, of the EFF's attack on DES.

Until the mid-1990s or so, brute force attacks were beyond the capabilities of computers that were within the budget of the attacker community. By that time, however, significant compute power was typically available and accessible. General-purpose computers such as PCs were already being used for brute force attacks. For serious attackers with money to spend, such as some large companies or governments, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) or Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) technology offered the ability to build specialized chips that could provide even faster and cheaper solutions than a PC. As an example, the AT&T Optimized Reconfigurable Cell Array (ORCA) FPGA chip cost about $200 and could test 30 million DES keys per second, while a $10 ASIC chip could test 200 million DES keys per second; compare that to a PC which might be able to test 40,000 keys per second. Distributed attacks, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, harnessing the power of up to tens of thousands of powerful CPUs, are now commonly employed to try to brute-force crypto keys.

Type of AttackerBudgetToolTime and Cost
Per Key Recovered
Key Length Needed
For Protection
In Late-1995
40 bits56 bits
Pedestrian HackerTinyScavenged
1 weekInfeasible45
$400FPGA5 hours
38 years
Small Business$10,000FPGA12 minutes
18 months
Corporate Department$300KFPGA24 seconds
19 days
ASIC0.18 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen hours
Big Company$10MFPGA7 seconds
13 hours
ASIC0.005 seconds
6 minutes
Intelligence Agency$300MASIC0.0002 seconds
12 seconds

Table 2 — from a 1996 article discussing both why exporting 40-bit keys was, in essence, no crypto at all and why DES' days were numbered — shows what DES key sizes were needed to protect data from attackers with different time and financial resources. This information was not merely academic; one of the basic tenets of any security system is to have an idea of what you are protecting and from whom are you protecting it! The table clearly shows that a 40-bit key was essentially worthless against even the most unsophisticated attacker. On the other hand, 56-bit keys were fairly strong unless you might be subject to some pretty serious corporate or government espionage. But note that even 56-bit keys were clearly on the decline in their value and that the times in the table were worst cases.

So, how big is big enough? DES, invented in 1975, was still in use at the turn of the century, nearly 25 years later. If we take that to be a design criteria (i.e., a 20-plus year lifetime) and we believe Moore's Law ("computing power doubles every 18 months"), then a key size extension of 14 bits (i.e., a factor of more than 16,000) should be adequate. The 1975 DES proposal suggested 56-bit keys; by 1995, a 70-bit key would have been required to offer equal protection and an 85-bit key necessary by 2015.

A 256- or 512-bit SKC key will probably suffice for some time because that length keeps us ahead of the brute force capabilities of the attackers. Note that while a large key is good, a huge key may not always be better; for example, expanding PKC keys beyond the current 2048- or 4096-bit lengths doesn't add any necessary protection at this time. Weaknesses in cryptosystems are largely based upon key management rather than weak keys.

Much of the discussion above, including the table, is based on the paper "Minimal Key Lengths for Symmetric Ciphers to Provide Adequate Commercial Security" by M. Blaze, W. Diffie, R.L. Rivest, B. Schneier, T. Shimomura, E. Thompson, and M. Wiener (1996).

The most effective large-number factoring methods today use a mathematical Number Field Sieve to find a certain number of relationships and then uses a matrix operation to solve a linear equation to produce the two prime factors. The sieve step actually involves a large number of operations that can be performed in parallel; solving the linear equation, however, requires a supercomputer. Indeed, finding the solution to the RSA-140 challenge in February 1999 — factoring a 140-digit (465-bit) prime number — required 200 computers across the Internet about 4 weeks for the first step and a Cray computer 100 hours and 810 MB of memory to do the second step.

In early 1999, Shamir (of RSA fame) described a new machine that could increase factorization speed by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Although no detailed plans were provided nor is one known to have been built, the concepts of TWINKLE (The Weizmann Institute Key Locating Engine) could result in a specialized piece of hardware that would cost about $5000 and have the processing power of 100-1000 PCs. There still appear to be many engineering details that have to be worked out before such a machine could be built. Furthermore, the hardware improves the sieve step only; the matrix operation is not optimized at all by this design and the complexity of this step grows rapidly with key length, both in terms of processing time and memory requirements. Nevertheless, this plan conceptually puts 512-bit keys within reach of being factored. Although most PKC schemes allow keys that are 1024 bits and longer, Shamir claims that 512-bit RSA keys "protect 95% of today's E-commerce on the Internet." (See Bruce Schneier's Crypto-Gram (May 15, 1999) for more information.)

It is also interesting to note that while cryptography is good and strong cryptography is better, long keys may disrupt the nature of the randomness of data files. Shamir and van Someren ("Playing hide and seek with stored keys") have noted that a new generation of viruses can be written that will find files encrypted with long keys, making them easier to find by intruders and, therefore, more prone to attack.

Finally, U.S. government policy has tightly controlled the export of crypto products since World War II. Until the mid-1990s, export outside of North America of cryptographic products using keys greater than 40 bits in length was prohibited, which made those products essentially worthless in the marketplace, particularly for electronic commerce; today, crypto products are widely available on the Internet without restriction. The U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security maintains an Encryption FAQ web page with more information about the current state of encryption registration.

Without meaning to editorialize too much in this tutorial, a bit of historical context might be helpful. In the mid-1990s, the U.S. Department of Commerce still classified cryptography as a munition and limited the export of any products that contained crypto. For that reason, browsers in the 1995 era, such as Internet Explorer and Netscape, had a domestic version with 128-bit encryption (downloadable only in the U.S.) and an export version with 40-bit encryption. Many cryptographers felt that the export limitations should be lifted because they only applied to U.S. products and seemed to have been put into place by policy makers who believed that only the U.S. knew how to build strong crypto algorithms, ignoring the work ongoing in Australia, Canada, Israel, South Africa, the U.K., and other locations in the 1990s. Those restrictions were lifted by 1996 or 1997, but there is still a prevailing attitude, apparently, that U.S. crypto algorithms are the only strong ones around; consider Bruce Schneier's blog in June 2016 titled "CIA Director John Brennan Pretends Foreign Cryptography Doesn't Exist." Cryptography is a decidedly international game today; note the many countries mentioned above as having developed various algorithms, not the least of which is the fact that NIST's Advanced Encryption Standard employs an algorithm submitted by cryptographers from Belgium. For more evidence, see Schneier's Worldwide Encryption Products Survey (February 2016).

On a related topic, public key crypto schemes can be used for several purposes, including key exchange, digital signatures, authentication, and more, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. In those PKC systems used for SKC key exchange, the PKC key lengths are chosen so as to be resistant to some selected level of attack. The length of the secret keys exchanged via that system have to have at least the same level of attack resistance. Thus, the three parameters of such a system — system strength, secret key strength, and public key strength — must be matched. This topic is explored in more detail in Determining Strengths For Public Keys Used For Exchanging Symmetric Keys (RFC 3766).


Secure use of cryptography requires trust. While secret key cryptography can ensure message confidentiality and hash codes can ensure integrity, none of this works without trust. In SKC, Alice and Bob had to share a secret key. PKC solved the secret distribution problem, but how does Alice really know that Bob is who he says he is? Just because Bob has a public and private key, and purports to be "Bob," how does Alice know that a malicious person (Mallory) is not pretending to be Bob?

There are a number of trust models employed by various cryptographic schemes. This section will explore three of them:

  • The web of trust employed by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) users, who hold their own set of trusted public keys.
  • Kerberos, a secret key distribution scheme using a trusted third party.
  • Certificates, which allow a set of trusted third parties to authenticate each other and, by implication, each other's users.

Each of these trust models differs in complexity, general applicability, scope, and scalability.

4.1. PGP Web of Trust

Pretty Good Privacy (described more below in Section 5.5) is a widely used private e-mail scheme based on public key methods. A PGP user maintains a local keyring of all their known and trusted public keys. The user makes their own determination about the trustworthiness of a key using what is called a "web of trust."

FIGURE 5: GPG keychain.

Figure 5 shows a PGP-formatted keychain from the GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) software, an implementation of the OpenPGP standard. This is a section of my keychain, so only includes public keys from individuals whom I know and, presumably, trust. Note that keys are associated with e-mail addresses rather than individual names.

In general, the PGP Web of trust works as follows. Suppose that Alice needs Bob's public key. Alice could just ask Bob for it directly via e-mail or download the public key from a PGP key 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen this server might a well-known PGP key repository or a site that Bob maintains himself. In fact, Bob's public key might be stored or listed in many places. (My public key, for example, can be found at or at several public PGP key servers, including Alice is prepared to believe that Bob's public key, as stored at these locations, is valid.

Suppose Carol claims to hold Bob's public key and offers to give the key to Alice. How does Alice know that Carol's version of Bob's key is valid or if Carol is actually giving Alice a key that will allow Mallory access to messages? The answer is, "It depends." If Alice trusts Carol and Carol says that she thinks that her version of Bob's key is valid, then Alice may — at her option — trust that key. And trust is not necessarily transitive; if Dave has a copy of Bob's key and Carol trusts Dave, it does not necessarily follow that Alice trusts Dave even if she does trust Carol.

The point here is that who Alice trusts and how she makes that determination is strictly up to Alice. PGP makes no statement and has no protocol about how one user determines whether they trust another user or not. In any case, encryption and signatures based on public keys can only be used when the appropriate public key is on the user's keyring.

4.2. Kerberos

Kerberos is a commonly used authentication scheme on the Internet. Developed by MIT's Project Athena, Kerberos is named for the three-headed dog who, according to Greek mythology, guards the entrance of Hades (rather than the exit, for some reason!).

Kerberos employs a client/server architecture and provides user-to-server authentication rather than host-to-host authentication. In this model, security and authentication will be based on secret key technology where every host on the network has its own secret key. It would clearly be unmanageable if every host had to know the keys of all other hosts so a secure, trusted host somewhere on the network, known as a Key Distribution Center (KDC), knows the keys for all of the hosts (or at least some of the hosts within a portion of the network, called a realm). In this way, when a new node is brought online, only the KDC and the 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen node need to be configured with the node's key; keys can be distributed physically or by some other secure means.

FIGURE 6: Kerberos architecture.

The Kerberos Server/KDC has two main functions (Figure 6), known as the Authentication Server (AS) and Ticket-Granting Server (TGS). The steps in establishing an authenticated session Navicat Premium 15.0.18 Crack Archives an application client and the application server are:
  1. The Kerberos client software establishes a connection with the Kerberos server's AS function. The AS first authenticates that the client is who it purports to be. The AS then provides the client with a secret key for this login session (the TGS session key) and a ticket-granting ticket (TGT), which gives the client permission to talk to the TGS. The ticket has a finite lifetime so that the authentication process is repeated periodically.
  2. The client now communicates with the TGS to obtain the Application Server's key so that it (the client) can establish a connection to the service it wants. The client supplies the TGS with the TGS session key and TGT; the TGS responds with an application session key (ASK) and an encrypted form of the Application Server's secret key; this secret key is never sent on the network in any other form.
  3. The client has now authenticated itself and can prove its identity to the Application Server by supplying the Kerberos ticket, application session key, and encrypted Application Server secret key. The Application Server responds with similarly encrypted information to authenticate itself to the client. At this point, the client can initiate the intended service requests (e.g., Telnet, FTP, HTTP, or e-commerce transaction session establishment).

The current version of this protocol is Kerberos V5 (described in RFC 1510). While the details of their operation, functional capabilities, and message formats are different, the conceptual overview above pretty much holds for both. One primary difference is that Kerberos V4 uses only DES to generate keys and encrypt messages, while V5 allows other schemes to be employed (although DES is still the most widely algorithm used).

4.3. Public Key Certificates and Certificate Authorities

Certificates and Certificate Authorities (CA) are necessary for widespread use of cryptography for e-commerce applications. While a combination of secret and public key cryptography can solve the business issues discussed above, crypto cannot alone address the trust issues that must exist between a customer and vendor in the very fluid, very dynamic e-commerce relationship. How, for example, does one site obtain another party's public key? How does a recipient determine if a public key really belongs to the sender? How does the recipient know that the sender is using their public key for a legitimate purpose for which they are authorized? When does a public key expire? How can a key be revoked in case of compromise or loss?

The basic concept of a certificate is one that is familiar to all of us. A driver's license, credit card, or SCUBA certification, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen example, identify us to others, indicate something that we are authorized to do, have an expiration date, and identify the authority that granted the certificate.

As complicated as this may sound, it really isn't. Consider driver's licenses. I have one issued by the State of Florida. The license establishes my identity, indicates the type of vehicles that I can operate and the fact that I must wear corrective lenses while doing so, identifies the issuing authority, and notes that I am an organ donor. When I drive in other states, the other jurisdictions throughout the U.S. recognize the authority of Florida to issue this "certificate" and they trust the information it contains. When I leave the U.S., everything changes. When I am in Aruba, Australia, Canada, Israel, and many other countries, they will accept not the Florida license, per se, but any license issued in the U.S. This analogy represents the certificate trust chain, where even certificates carry certificates.

For purposes of electronic transactions, certificates are digital documents. The specific functions of the certificate include:

  • Establish identity: Associate, or bind, a public key to an individual, organization, corporate position, or other entity.
  • Assign authority: Establish what actions the holder may or may not take based upon this certificate.
  • Secure confidential information (e.g., encrypting the session's symmetric key for data confidentiality).

Typically, a certificate contains a public key, a name, an expiration date, the name of the authority that issued the certificate (and, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, therefore, is vouching for the identity of the user), a serial number, any pertinent policies describing how the certificate was issued and/or how the certificate may be used, the digital signature of the certificate issuer, and perhaps other information.

FIGURE 7: VeriSign Class 3 certificate.

A sample abbreviated certificate is shown in Figure 7. This is a typical certificate found in a browser, in this case, Mozilla Firefox (MacOS). While this is a certificate issued by VeriSign, many root-level certificates can be found shipped with browsers. When the browser makes a connection to a secure Web site, the Web server sends its public key certificate to the browser. The browser then checks the certificate's signature against the public key that it has stored; if there is a match, the certificate is taken as valid and the Web site verified by this certificate is considered to be "trusted."

The most widely accepted certificate format is the one defined in International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) Recommendation X.509. Rec. X.509 is a specification used around the world and any applications complying with X.509 can share certificates. Most certificates today comply with X.509 Version 3 and contain the following information:

  • Version number
  • Certificate serial number
  • Signature algorithm identifier
  • Issuer's name and unique identifier
  • Validity (or operational) period
  • Subject's name and unique identifier
  • Subject public key information
  • Standard extensions
    • Certificate appropriate use definition
    • Key usage limitation definition
    • Certificate policy information
  • Other extensions
    • Application-specific
    • CA-specific

Certificate authorities are the repositories for public keys and can be any agency that issues certificates. A company, for example, may issue certificates to its employees, a college/university to its students, a store to its customers, an Internet service provider to its users, or a government to its constituents.

When a sender needs an intended receiver's public key, the sender must get that key from the receiver's CA. That scheme is straight-forward if the sender and receiver have certificates issued by 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen same CA. If not, how does the sender know to trust the foreign CA? One industry wag has noted, about trust: "You are either born with it or have it granted upon you." Thus, some CAs will be trusted because they are known to be reputable, such as the CAs operated by AT&T Services, Comodo, DigiCert (formerly GTE Cybertrust), 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, EnTrust, Broadcom (formerly Symantec, formerly VeriSign), and Thawte. CAs, in turn, form trust relationships with other CAs. Thus, if a user queries a foreign CA for information, the user may ask to see a list of CAs that establish a "chain of trust" back to the user.

One major feature to look for in a CA is their identification policies and procedures. When a user generates a key pair and forwards the public key to a CA, the CA has to check the sender's identification and takes any steps necessary to assure itself that the request is really coming from the Drastic DS Emulator no root Archives sender. Different CAs have different identification policies and will, therefore, be trusted differently by other CAs. Verification of identity is just one of many issues that are part of a CA's Certification Practice Statement (CPS) and policies; other issues include how the CA protects the public keys in its care, how lost or compromised keys are revoked, and how the CA protects its own private keys.

As a final note, CAs are not immune to attack and certificates themselves are able to be counterfeited. One of the first such episodes occurred at the turn of the century; on January 29 and 30, 2001, two VeriSign Class 3 code-signing digital certificates were issued to an individual who fraudulently claimed to be a Microsoft employee (CERT/CC CA-2001-04 and Microsoft Security Bulletin MS01-017 - Critical). Problems have continued over the years; good write-ups on this can be found at "Another Certification Authority Breached (the 12th!)" and "How Cybercrime Exploits Digital Certificates." Readers are also urged to read "Certification Authorities Under Attack: A Plea for Certificate Legitimation" (Oppliger, R., January/February 2014, IEEE Internet Computing, 18(1), 40-47).

As a partial way to address this issue, the Internet Security Research Group (ISRG) designed the Automated Certificate Management Environment (ACME) protocol. ACME is a communications protocol that streamlines the process of deploying a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) by automating interactions between CAs and Web servers that wish to obtain a certificate. More information can be found at the Let's Encrypt Web site, an ACME-based CA service provided by the ISRG.

4.4. Summary

The paragraphs above 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen three very different trust models. It is hard to say that any one is better than the others; it depends upon your application. One of the biggest and fastest growing applications of cryptography today, though, is electronic commerce (e-commerce), a term that itself begs for a formal definition.

PGP's web of trust is easy to maintain and very much based on the reality of users as people. The model, however, is limited; just how many public keys can a single user reliably store and maintain? And what if you are using the "wrong" computer when you want to send a message and can't access your keyring? How easy it is to revoke a key if it is compromised? PGP may also not scale well to an e-commerce scenario of secure communication between total strangers on short-notice.

Kerberos overcomes many of the problems of PGP's web of trust, in that it is scalable and its scope can be very large. However, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, it also requires that the Kerberos server have a priori knowledge of all client systems prior to any transactions, which makes it unfeasible for "hit-and-run" client/server relationships as seen in e-commerce.

Certificates and the collection of CAs will form a PKI. In the early days of the Internet, every host had to maintain a list of every other host; the Domain Name System (DNS) introduced the idea of a distributed database for this purpose and the DNS is one of the key reasons that the Internet has grown as it has. A PKI will fill a similar void in the e-commerce and PKC realm.

While certificates and the benefits of a PKI are most often associated with electronic commerce, the applications for PKI are much broader and include secure electronic mail, payments and electronic checks, Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), secure transfer of Domain Name System (DNS) and routing information, electronic forms, and digitally signed documents. A single "global PKI" is still many years away, that is the ultimate goal of today's work as international electronic commerce changes the way in which we do business in a similar way in which the Internet has changed the way in which we communicate.


The paragraphs above have provided an overview of the different types of cryptographic algorithms, as well as some examples of some available protocols and schemes. Table 3 provides a list of some other noteworthy schemes and cryptosystems employed — or proposed — for a variety of functions, most notably electronic commerce and secure communication. The paragraphs below will show several real cryptographic applications that many of us employ (knowingly or not) everyday for password protection and private communication. Some of the schemes described below never were widely deployed but are still historically interesting, thus remain included here. This list is, by no means, exhaustive but describes items that are of significant current and/or historic importance (a subjective judgement, to be sure).

BitmessageA decentralized, encrypted, peer-to-peer, trustless communications protocol for message exchange. The decentralized design, outlined in "Bitmessage: A Peer-to-Peer Message Authentication and Delivery System" (Warren, 2012), is conceptually based on the Bitcoin model.
CapstoneA now-defunct U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and National Security Agency (NSA) project under the Bush Sr. and Clinton administrations for publicly available strong cryptography with keys escrowed by the government (NIST and the Treasury Dept.). Capstone included one or more tamper-proof computer chips for implementation (Clipper), a secret key encryption algorithm (Skipjack), digital signature algorithm (DSA), key exchange algorithm (KEA), and hash algorithm (SHA).
Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)An authentication scheme that allows one party to prove who they are to a second party by demonstrating knowledge of a shared secret without actually divulging that shared secret to a third party who might be listening. Described in RFC 1994.
Chips-Message Robust Authentication (CHIMERA)A scheme proposed for authenticating navigation data and the spreading code of civilian signals in the Global Positioning System (GPS). This is an anti-spoofing mechanism to protect the unencrypted civilian signals; GPS military signals are encrypted.
ClipperThe computer chip that would implement the Skipjack encryption scheme. The Clipper chip was to have had a deliberate backdoor so that material encrypted with this device would not be beyond the government's reach, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Described in 1993, Clipper was dead by 1996. See also EPIC's The Clipper Chip Web page.
Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committees (CRYPTEC)Similar in concept to the NIST AES process and NESSIE, CRYPTEC is the Japanese government's process to evaluate algorithms submitted for government and industry applications. CRYPTEX maintains a list of public key and secret key ciphers, hash functions, MACs, and other crypto algorithms approved for various applications 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen government environments.
Derived Unique Key Per Transaction (DUKPT)A key management scheme used for debit and credit card verification with point-of-sale (POS) transaction systems, automated teller machines (ATMs), and other financial applications. In DUKPT, a unique key is derived for each transaction based upon a fixed, shared key in such a way that knowledge of one derived key does not easily yield knowledge of other keys (including the fixed key). Therefore, if one of the derived keys is compromised, neither past nor subsequent transactions are endangered. DUKPT is specified in American National Standard (ANS) ANSI X9.24-1:2009 (Retail Financial Services Symmetric Key Management Part 1: Using Symmetric Techniques) and can be purchased at the ANSI X9.24 Web page.
ECRYPT Stream Cipher Project (eSTREAM)The eSTREAM project came about as a result of the failure of the NESSIE project to produce a stream cipher that survived cryptanalysis. eSTREAM ran from 2004 to 2008 with the primary purpose of promoting the design of efficient and compact stream ciphers. As of September 2008, the eSTREAM suite contains seven sciphers.
Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES)Largely unused, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, a controversial crypto scheme employing the SKIPJACK secret key crypto algorithm and a Law Enforcement Access Field (LEAF) creation method, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. LEAF was one part of the key escrow system and allowed for decryption of ciphertext messages that had been intercepted by law enforcement agencies. Described more in FIPS PUB 185 (archived; no longer in force).
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)These computer security- and crypto-related FIPS PUBs are produced by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as standards for the U.S. Government. Current Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) related to crytography include:
FortezzaA PCMCIA card developed by NSA that implements the Capstone algorithms, intended for use with the Defense Messaging Service (DMS), 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Originally called Tessera.
GOSTGOST is a family of algorithms defined in the Russian cryptographic standards. Although most of the specifications are written in Russian, a series of RFCs describe some of the aspects so that the algorithms can be used effectively in Internet applications:
  • RFC 4357: Additional Cryptographic Algorithms for Use with GOST 28147-89, GOST R 34.10-94, GOST R 34.10-2001, and GOST R 34.11-94 Algorithms
  • RFC 4490: Using the GOST 28147-89, GOST R 34.11-94, GOST R 34.10-94, and GOST R 34.10-2001 Algorithms with Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)
  • RFC 4491: Using the GOST 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen 34.10-94, GOST R 34.10-2001, and GOST R 34.11-94 Algorithms with the Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and CRL Profile
  • RFC 5830: GOST 28147-89: Encryption, Decryption, and Message Authentication Code (MAC) Algorithms
  • RFC 6986: GOST R 34.11-2012: Hash Function Algorithm
  • RFC 7091: GOST R 34.10-2012: Digital Signature Algorithm (Updates RFC 5832: GOST R 34.10-2001)
  • RFC 7801: GOST R 34.12-2015: Block Cipher "Kuznyechik"
  • RFC 7836: Guidelines on the Cryptographic Algorithms to Accompany the Usage of Standards GOST R 34.10-2012 and GOST R 34.11-2012
  • RFC 8891: GOST R 34.12-2015: Block Cipher "Magma"
IP Security (IPsec)The IPsec protocol suite is used to provide privacy and authentication services at the IP layer. An overview of the protocol suite and of the documents comprising IPsec can be found in RFC 2411. Other documents include:
  • RFC 4301: IP security architecture.
  • RFC 4302: IP Authentication Header (AH), one of the two primary IPsec functions; AH provides connectionless integrity and data origin authentication for IP datagrams and protects against replay attacks.
  • RFC 4303: IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), the other primary IPsec function; ESP provides a variety of security services within IPsec.
  • RFC 4304: Extended Sequence Number (ESN) Addendum, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, allows for negotiation of a 32- or 64- bit sequence number, used to detect replay attacks.
  • RFC 4305: Cryptographic algorithm implementation requirements for ESP and AH.
  • RFC 5996: The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol, version 2, providing for mutual authentication and establishing and maintaining security associations.
    • IKE v1 was described in three separate documents, RFC 2407 (application of ISAKMP to IPsec), RFC 2408 (ISAKMP, a framework for key management and security associations), and RFC 2409 (IKE, using part of Oakley and part of SKEME in conjunction with ISAKMP to obtain authenticated keying material for use with ISAKMP, and for other security associations such as AH and ESP). IKE v1 is obsoleted with the introduction of IKEv2.
  • RFC 4307: Cryptographic algorithms used with IKEv2.
  • RFC 4308: Crypto suites for IPsec, IKE, and IKEv2.
  • RFC 4309: The use of AES in CBC-MAC mode with IPsec ESP.
  • RFC 4312: The use of the Camellia cipher algorithm in IPsec.
  • RFC 4359: The Use of RSA/SHA-1 Signatures within Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and Authentication Header (AH).
  • RFC 4434: Describes AES-XCBC-PRF-128, a pseudo-random function derived from the AES for use with IKE.
  • RFC 2403: Describes use of the HMAC with MD5 algorithm for data origin authentication and integrity protection in both AH and ESP, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen.
  • RFC 2405: Describes use of DES-CBC (DES in Cipher Block Chaining Mode) for confidentiality in ESP.
  • RFC 2410: Defines use of the NULL encryption algorithm (i.e., provides authentication and integrity without confidentiality) in ESP.
  • RFC 2412: Describes OAKLEY, a key determination and distribution protocol.
  • RFC 2451: Describes use of Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode cipher algorithms with ESP.
  • RFCs 2522 and 2523: Description of Photuris, a session-key management protocol for IPsec.

In addition, RFC 6379 describes Suite B Cryptographic Suites for IPsec and RFC 6380 describes the Suite B profile for IPsec.

IPsec was first proposed for use with IP version 6 (IPv6), but can also be employed with the current IP version, IPv4.

(See more detail about IPsec below in Section 5.6.)

Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP/OAKLEY)ISAKMP/OAKLEY provide an infrastructure for Internet secure communications. ISAKMP, designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and described in RFC 2408, is a framework for key management and security associations, independent of the key generation and cryptographic algorithms actually employed. The OAKLEY Key Determination Protocol, described in RFC 2412, is a key determination and distribution protocol using a variation of Diffie-Hellman.
KerberosA secret key encryption and authentication system, designed to authenticate requests for network resources within a user domain rather than to authenticate messages. Kerberos also uses a trusted third-party approach; 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen client communications with the Kerberos server to obtain "credentials" so that it may access services at the application server. Kerberos V4 used DES to generate keys and encrypt messages; Kerberos V5 uses DES and other schemes for key generation.

Microsoft added support for Kerberos V5 — with some proprietary extensions — in Windows 2000 Active Directory. There are many Kerberos articles posted at Microsoft's Knowledge Base, notably "Kerberos Explained."
Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC)A message authentication scheme based upon secret key cryptography and the secret key shared between two parties rather than public key methods. Described in FIPS PUB 198 and RFC 2104. (See Section 5.19 below for details on HMAC operation.)
Message Digest Cipher (MDC)Invented by Peter 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, MDC turns a one-way hash function into a block cipher.
MIME Object Security Services (MOSS)Designed as a successor to PEM to provide PEM-based security services to MIME messages, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Described in RFC 1848. Never widely implemented and now defunct.
Mujahedeen SecretsA Windows GUI, PGP-like cryptosystem. Developed by supporters of Al-Qaeda, the program employs the five finalist AES algorithms, namely, MARS, RC6, Rijndael, Serpent, and Twofish. Also described in Inspire Magazine, Issue 1, pp, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. 41-44 and Inspire Magazine, Issue 2, pp. 58-59. Additional related information can also be found in "How Al-Qaeda Uses Encryption Post-Snowden (Part 2)."
New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption (NESSIE)NESSIE was an independent project meant to augment the work of NIST during the AES adoption process by putting out an open call for new cryptographic primitives. The NESSIE project ran from about 2000-2003. While several new block ciper, PKC, MAC, and digital signature algorithms were found during the NESSIE process, no new stream cipher survived cryptanalysis. As a result, the ECRYPT Stream Cipher Project (eSTREAM) was created.
NSA Suite B CryptographyAn NSA standard for securing information at the SECRET level. Defines use of:
  • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with key sizes of 128 and 256 bits, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, per FIPS PUB 197 for encryption
  • The Ephemeral Unified Model and the One-Pass Diffie Hellman (referred to as ECDH) using the curves with 256 and 384-bit prime moduli, per NIST Special Publication 800-56A for key exchange
  • Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen the curves with 256 and 384-bit prime moduli, per FIPS PUB 186-3 for digital signatures
  • Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) using 256 and 384 bits, per FIPS PUB 180-3 for hashing

RFC 6239 describes Suite B Cryptographic Suites for Secure Shell (SSH) and RFC 6379 describes Suite B Cryptographic Suites for Secure IP (IPsec).

RFC 8423 reclassifies the RFCs related to the Suite B cryptographic algorithms as Historic, and it discusses the reasons for doing so.

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)A family of cryptographic routines for e-mail, file, and disk encryption developed by Philip Zimmermann. PGP 2.6.x uses RSA for key management and digital signatures, IDEA for message encryption, and MD5 for computing the message's hash value; more information can also be found in RFC 1991. PGP 5.x (formerly known as "PGP 3") uses Diffie-Hellman/DSS for key management and digital signatures; IDEA, CAST, or 3DES for message encryption; and MD5 or SHA for computing the message's hash value. OpenPGP, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, described in RFC 2440, is an open definition of security software based on PGP 5.x. The GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) is a free software version of OpenPGP.

(See more 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen about PGP below in Section 5.5.)

Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM)An IETF standard for secure electronic mail over the Internet, including provisions for encryption (DES), 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, authentication, and key management (DES, RSA). Developed by the IETF but never widely used, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Described in the following RFCs:
  • RFC 1421: Part I, Message Encryption and Authentication Procedures
  • RFC 1422: Part II, Certificate-Based Key Management
  • RFC 1423: Part III, Algorithms, Modes, and Identifiers
  • RFC 1424: Part IV, Key Certification and Related Services
Private Communication Technology (PCT)Developed by Microsoft for secure communication on the Internet. PCT supported Diffie-Hellman, Fortezza, and RSA for key establishment; DES, RC2, RC4, and triple-DES for encryption; and DSA and RSA message signatures. Never widely used; superceded by SSL and TLS.
Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)A communications protocol for securing credit card transactions, developed by MasterCard and VISA, in cooperation with IBM, Microsoft, RSA, and other companies. Merged two other protocols: Secure Electronic Payment Protocol (SEPP), an open specification for secure bank card transactions over the Internet developed by CyberCash, GTE, IBM, MasterCard, and Netscape; and Secure Transaction Technology (STT), a secure payment protocol developed by Microsoft and Visa International. Supports DES and RC4 for encryption, and RSA for signatures, key exchange, and public key encryption of bank card numbers. SET V1.0 is described in Book 1, Book 2, and Book 3. SET has been superceded by SSL and TLS.
Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (S-HTTP)An extension to HTTP to provide secure exchange of documents over the World Wide Web. Supported algorithms include RSA and Kerberos for key exchange, DES, IDEA, RC2, and Triple-DES for encryption. Described in RFC 2660. S-HTTP was never as widely used as HTTP over SSL (https).
Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME)An IETF secure e-mail scheme superceding PEM, and adding digital signature and encryption capability to Internet MIME messages. S/MIME Version 3.1 is described in RFCs 3850 and 3851, and employs the Cryptographic Message Syntax described in RFCs 3369 and 3370.

(More detail about S/MIME can be found below in Section 5.15.)
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)Developed in 1995 by Netscape Communications to provide application-independent security and privacy over the Internet. SSL is designed so that protocols such as HTTP, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), and Telnet can operate over it transparently. SSL allows both server authentication (mandatory) and client authentication (optional). RSA is used during negotiation to exchange keys and identify the actual cryptographic algorithm (DES, IDEA, RC2, RC4, or 3DES) to use for the session. SSL also uses MD5 for message digests and X.509 public key certificates. SSL was found to be breakable soon after the IETF announced formation of group to work on TLS and RFC 6176 specifically prohibits the use of SSL v2.0 by TLS clients. SSL version 3.0 is described in RFC 6101. All versions of SSL are now deprecated in favor of TLS; TLS v1.0 is sometimes referred to as "SSL v3.1."

(More detail about SSL can be found below in Section 5.7.)
Server Gated Cryptography (SGC)Microsoft extension to SSL that provided strong encryption for online banking and other financial applications using RC2 (128-bit key), RC4 (128-bit key), DES (56-bit key), or 3DES (equivalent of 168-bit key). Use of SGC required an Windows NT Server running Internet Information Server (IIS) 4.0 with a valid SGC certificate. SGC was available in 32-bit Windows versions of Internet Explorer (IE) 4.0; support for Mac, Unix, and 16-bit Windows versions of IE was planned, but never materialized, and SGC was made moot when browsers started to ship with 128-bit encryption.
ShangMi (SM) Cipher SuitesA suite of authentication, encryption, and hash algorithms from the People's Republic of China.
  • SM2 Cryptography Algorithm: A public key crypto scheme based on elliptic curves. An overview of the specification, in Chinese, can be found in GM/T 0009-2012. Additional specifications can be found in:
  • SM3 Cryptographic Hash Algorithm: A hash algorithm operating on 512-bit blocks to produce a 256-bit hash value. Described in GB/T 32905-2016.
  • SM4 Block Cipher Algorithm: A Feistel block cipher algorithm with a block length and key length of 128 bits, and 32 rounds. Described in GB/T 32907-2016.
An application of the ShangMi Cipher Suites in TLS can be found in RFC 8998.
Signal ProtocolA protocol for providing end-to-end encryption for voice calls, video calls, and instant messaging (including group chats). Employing a combination of AES, ECC, and HMAC algorithms, it offers such features as confidentiality, integrity, authentication, forward/future secrecy, and message repudiation. Signal is particularly interesting because of its lineage and widespread use. The Signal Protocol's earliest versions were known as TextSecure, first developed by Open Whisper Systems in 2013. TextSecure itself was based on a 2004 protocol called Off-the-Record (OTR) Messaging, designed as an improvement over OpenPGP and S/MIME. TextSecure v2 (2014) introduced a scheme called the Axolotl Ratchet for key exchange and added additional communication features. After subsequent iterations improving key management (and the renaming of the key exchange protocol to Double Ratchet), additional cryptographic primitives, and the addition of an encrypted voice calling application (RedPhone), TextSecure was renamed Signal Protocol in 2016. The Ratchet key exchange algorithm is at the heart of the power of this system. Most messaging apps employ the users' public and private keys; the weakness here is that if the phone falls into someone else's hands, all of the messages on the device — including deleted messages — can be decrypted. The Ratchet algorithm generates a set of so-called "temporary keys" for each user, based upon that user's public/private key pair. When two users exchange messages, the Signal protocol creates a secret key by combining the temporary and permanent pairs of public and private keys for both users. Each message is assigned its own secret key. Because the generation of the secret key requires access to both users' private keys, it exists only on their two devices. The Signal Protocol is/has been employed in:
  • WhatsApp (introduced 2014)
  • G Data Software's Secure Chat (introduced 2015; service discontinued 2018)
  • Google's Allo app (introduced 2016; discontinued in favor of Messages app, 2019)
  • Facebook Messenger (introduced 2016)
  • Skype's Private Conversations mode (introduced 2018)
  • All of Google's Rich Communication Services (RCS) on Android systems (introduced 2020)
A reasonably good writeup of the protocol can be found in "Demystifying the Signal Protocol for End-to-End Encryption (E2EE)" by Kozhukhovskaya, Mora, and Wong (2017).
Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL)A framework for providing authentication and data security services in connection-oriented protocols (a la TCP), 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, described in RFC 4422. It provides a structured interface and allows new protocols to reuse existing authentication mechanisms and allows old protocols to make use of new mechanisms.

It has been common practice on the Internet to permit anonymous access to various services, employing a plain-text password using a user name of "anonymous" and a password of an email address or some other identifying information. New IETF protocols disallow plain-text logins. The Anonymous SASL Mechanism (RFC 4505) provides a method for anonymous logins within the SASL framework.
Simple Key-Management for Internet Protocol (SKIP)Key management scheme for secure IP communication, specifically for IPsec, and designed by Aziz and Diffie. SKIP essentially defines a public key infrastructure for the Internet and even uses X.509 certificates. Most public key cryptosystems assign keys on a per-session basis, which is inconvenient for the Internet since IP is connectionless. Instead, SKIP provides a basis for secure communication between any pair of Internet hosts. SKIP can employ DES, 3DES, IDEA, RC2, RC5, MD5, and SHA-1. As it happened, SKIP was not adopted for IPsec; IKE was selected instead.
SM9Chinese Standard GM/T0044-2016 SM9 (2016) is the Chinese national standard for Identity Based Cryptography. SM9 comprises three cryptographic algorithms, namely the Identity Based Digital Signature Algorithm, Identity Based Key Agreement Algorithm, and Identity Based Key Encapsulation Algorithm (allowing one party to securely 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen a symmetric key to another party). The SM9 scheme is also described in The SM9 Cryptographic Schemes (Z. Cheng).
TelegramTelegram, launched in 2013, is a cloud-based instant messaging and voice over IP (VoIP) service, with client app software available for all major computer and mobile device operating systems. Telegram allows 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen to exchange messages, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, photos, videos, etc., and supplies end-to-end encryption using a protocol called MTProto. stickers, audio and files of any type. MTProto employs 256-bit AES, 2048-bit RSA, and Diffie-Hellman key exchange. There have been several contriversies with Telegram, not the least of which has to do with the nationality of the founders and the true location of the business, as well as some operation issues. From a cryptological 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, however, one cautionary tale can be found in "On the CCA (in)security of MTProto" (Jakobsen & Orlandi, 2015), who describe some of the crypto weaknesses of the protocol; specifically, that "MTProto does not satisfy the definitions of authenticated encryption (AE) or indistinguishability under chosen-ciphertext attack (IND-CCA)" (p. 1).
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) encryption (tcpcrypt)As of 2019, the majority of Internet TCP traffic is not encrypted. The two primary reasons for this are (1) many legacy protocols have no mechanism with which to employ encryption (e.g., without a command such as STARTSSL, the protocol cannot invoke use of any encryption) and (2) many legacy applications cannot be upgraded, so no new encryption can be added. The response from the IETF's TCP Increased Security Working Group was to define a transparent way within the transport layer (i.e., TCP) with which to invoke encryption, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. The TCP Encryption Negotiation Option (TCP-ENO) addresses these two problems with an out-of-band, fully backward-compatible TCP option with which to negotiate use of encryption. TCP-ENO is described in RFC 8547 and tcpcrypt, an encryption protocol to protect TCP streams, is described in RFC 8548.
Transport Layer Security (TLS)TLS v1.0 is an IETF specification (RFC 2246) intended to replace SSL v3.0. TLS v1.0 employs Triple-DES (secret key cryptography), SHA (hash), Diffie-Hellman (key exchange), and DSS (digital signatures). TLS v1.0 was vulnerable to attack and updated by v1.1 (RFC 4346), which is now classified as an HISTORIC specification. TLS v1.1 was replaced by TLS v1.2 (RFC 5246) and, subsequently, by v1.3 (RFC 8446).

TLS is designed to operate over TCP. The IETF developed the Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocol to operate over UDP. DTLS v1.2 is described in RFC 6347.

(See more detail about TLS below in Section 5.7.)
TrueCryptOpen source, multi-platform cryptography software that can be used to encrypt a file, partition, or entire disk. One of TrueCrypt's more interesting features is that of plausible deniability with hidden volumes or hidden operating systems. The original Web site,, suddenly went dark in May 2014. The current fork of TrueCrypt is VeraCrypt.

(See more detail about TrueCrypt below in Section 5.11.)
X.509ITU-T recommendation for the format of certificates for the public key infrastructure. Certificates map (bind) a user identity to a public key. The IETF application of X.509 certificates is documented in RFC 5280. An Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure is further defined in RFC 4210 (Certificate Management Protocols) and RFC 3647 (Certificate Policy and Certification Practices Framework).

5.1. Password Protection

Nearly all modern multiuser computer and network operating systems employ passwords at the very least to protect and authenticate users accessing computer and/or network resources. But passwords are not typically kept on a host or server in plaintext, but are generally encrypted using some sort of hash scheme.

A) /etc/passwd file root:Jbw6BwE4XoUHo:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash carol:FM5ikbQt1K052:502:100:Carol Monaghan:/home/carol:/bin/bash alex:LqAi7Mdyg/HcQ:503:100:Alex Insley:/home/alex:/bin/bash gary:FkJXupRyFqY4s:501:100:Gary Kessler:/home/gary:/bin/bash todd:edGqQUAaGv7g6:506:101:Todd Pritsky:/home/todd:/bin/bash josh:FiH0ONcjPut1g:505:101:Joshua Kessler:/home/webroot:/bin/bash B.1) /etc/passwd file (with shadow passwords) root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash carol:x:502:100:Carol Monaghan:/home/carol:/bin/bash alex:x:503:100:Alex Insley:/home/alex:/bin/bash gary:x:501:100:Gary Kessler:/home/gary:/bin/bash todd:x:506:101:Todd Pritsky:/home/todd:/bin/bash josh:x:505:101:Joshua Kessler:/home/webroot:/bin/bash B.2) /etc/shadow file root:AGFw$1$P4u/uhLK$l2.HP35rlu65WlfCzq:11449:0:99999:7::: carol:kjHaN%35a8xMM8a/0kMl1?fwtLAM.K&kw.:11449:0:99999:7::: alex:1$1KKmfTy0a7#3.LL9a8H71lkwn/.hH22a:11449:0:99999:7::: gary:9ajlknknKJHjhnu7298ypnAIJKL$Jh.hnk:11449:0:99999:7::: todd:798POJ90uab6.k$klPqMt%alMlprWqu6$.:11492:0:99999:7::: josh:Awmqpsui*787pjnsnJJK%aappaMpQo07.8:11492:0:99999:7:::

FIGURE 8: Sample entries in Unix/Linux password files.

Unix/Linux, for example, uses a well-known hash via its crypt() function. Passwords are stored in the /etc/passwd file (Figure 8A); each record in the file contains the username, hashed password, user's individual and group numbers, user's name, home directory, and shell program; these fields are separated by colons (:). Note that each password is stored as a 13-byte string. The first two characters are actually a salt, randomness added to each password so that if two users have the same password, they will still be encrypted differently; the salt, in fact, provides a means so that a single password might have 4096 different encryptions. The remaining 11 bytes are the password hash, calculated using DES.

As it happens, the /etc/passwd file is world-readable on Unix systems. This fact, coupled with the weak encryption of the passwords, resulted in the development of the shadow password system where passwords are kept in a separate, non-world-readable file used in conjunction with the normal password file. When shadow passwords are used, the password entry in /etc/passwd is replaced with a "*" or "x" (Figure 8B.1) and the MD5 hash of the passwords are stored in /etc/shadow along with some other account information (Figure 8B.2).

Windows NT uses a similar scheme to store passwords in the Security Access Manager (SAM) file. In the NT case, all passwords are hashed using the MD4 algorithm, resulting in a 128-bit (16-byte) hash value (they are then obscured using an undocumented mathematical transformation that was a secret until distributed on the Internet). The password password, for example, might be stored as the hash value (in hexadecimal) 60771b22d73c34bd4a290a79c8b09f18.

Passwords are not saved in plaintext on computer systems precisely so they cannot be easily compromised. For similar reasons, we don't want passwords sent in plaintext across a network. But for remote logon applications, how does a client system identify itself or a user to the server? One mechanism, of course, is to send the password as a hash value and that, indeed, may be done. A weakness of that approach, however, is that an intruder can grab the password off of the network and use an off-line attack (such as a dictionary attack where an attacker takes every known word and encrypts it with the network's encryption algorithm, hoping eventually to find a match with a purloined password hash). In some situations, an attacker only has to copy the hashed password value and use it later on to gain unauthorized entry without ever learning the actual password.

An even stronger authentication method uses the password to modify a shared secret between the client and server, but never allows the password in any form to go across the network. This is the basis for the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), the remote logon process used by Windows NT.

As suggested above, Windows NT passwords are stored in a security file on a server as a 16-byte hash value. In truth, Windows NT stores two hashes; a weak hash based upon the old LAN Manager (LanMan) scheme and the newer NT hash. When a user logs on to a server from a remote workstation, the user is identified by the username, sent across the network in plaintext (no worries here; it's not a secret anyway!), 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. The server then generates a 64-bit random number and sends it to the client (also in plaintext). This number is the challenge.

Using the LanMan scheme, the client system then encrypts the challenge using DES. Recall that DES employs a 56-bit key, acts on a 64-bit block of data, and produces a 64-bit output. In this case, the 64-bit data block is the random number. The client actually uses three different DES keys to encrypt the random number, producing three different 64-bit outputs. The first key is the first seven bytes (56 bits) of the password's hash value, the second key is the next seven bytes in the password's hash, and the third key is the remaining two bytes of the password's hash concatenated with five zero-filled bytes. (So, for the example above, the three DES keys would be 60771b22d73c34, bd4a290a79c8b0, and 9f180000000000.) Each key is applied to the random number resulting in three 64-bit outputs, which comprise the response. Thus, the server's 8-byte challenge yields a 24-byte response from the client and this is all that would be seen on the network. The server, for its part, does the same calculation to ensure that the values match.

There is, however, a significant weakness to this system. Specifically, the response is generated in such a way as to effectively reduce 16-byte hash to three smaller hashes, of length seven, seven, and two, respectively. Thus, a password cracker has to break at most a 7-byte hash. One Windows NT vulnerability test program that I used in the past reported passwords that were "too short," defined as "less than 8 characters." When I asked how the program knew that passwords were too short, the software's salespeople suggested to me that the program broke the passwords to determine their length. This was, in fact, not the case at all; all the software really had to do was to look at the last eight bytes of the Windows NT LanMan hash to see that the password was seven or fewer characters.

Consider the following example, showing the LanMan hash of two different short passwords (take a close look at the last 8 bytes):

AA: 89D42A44E77140AAAAD3B435B51404EE
AAA: 1C3A2B6D939A1021AAD3B435B51404EE

Note that the NT hash provides no such clue:

AA: C5663434F963BE79C8FD99F535E7AAD8
AAA: 6B6E0FB2ED246885B98586C73B5BFB77

It is worth noting that the discussion above describes the Microsoft version of CHAP, or MS-CHAP (MS-CHAPv2 is described in RFC 2759). MS-CHAP assumes that it is working with hashed values of the password as the key to encrypting the challenge. More traditional CHAP (RFC 1994) assumes that it is starting with passwords in plaintext. The relevance of this observation is that a CHAP client, for example, cannot be authenticated by an MS-CHAP server; both client and server must use the same CHAP version.

5.2. Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

Diffie and Hellman introduced the concept of public key cryptography. The mathematical "trick" of Diffie-Hellman key exchange is that it is relatively easy to compute exponents compared to computing discrete logarithms. Diffie-Hellman allows two parties — the ubiquitous Alice and Bob — to generate a secret key; they need to exchange some information over an unsecure communications channel to perform the calculation but an eavesdropper cannot determine the shared secret key based upon this information.

Diffie-Hellman works like this. Alice and Bob start by agreeing on a large prime number, N. They also have to choose some number G so that G<N.

There is actually another constraint on G, namely that it must be primitive with respect to N. Primitive is a definition that is a little beyond the scope of our discussion but basically G is primitive to N if the set of N-1 values of Gi mod N for i = (1,N-1) are all different. As an example, 2 is not primitive to 7 because the set of powers of 2 from 1 to 6, mod 7 (i.e., 21 mod 7, 22 mod 7. ., 26 mod 7) = {2,4,1,2,4,1}. 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen the other hand, 3 is primitive to 7 because the set of powers of 3 from 1 to 6, mod 7 = {3,2,6,4,5,1}.

(The definition of primitive introduced a new term to some readers, namely mod. The phrase x mod y (and read as written!) means "take the remainder after dividing x by y." Thus, 1 mod 7 = 1, 9 mod 6 = 3, and 8 mod 8 = 0. Read more about the modulo function in the appendix.)

Anyway, either Alice or Bob selects N and G; they then tell the other party what the values are. Alice and Bob then work independently (Figure 9):


  1. Choose a large random number, XA < N. This is 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen private key.
  2. Compute YA = GXA mod N. This is Alice's public key.
  3. Exchange public key with Bob.
  4. Compute KA = YBXA mod N

  1. Choose a large random number, XB < N. This is Bob's private key.
  2. Compute YB = GXB mod N. This is Bob's public key.
  3. Exchange public key with Alice.
  4. Compute KB = YAXB mod N
FIGURE 9: Diffie-Hellman key exchange model.

Note that XA 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen XB are kept secret while YA and YB are openly shared; these are the private and public keys, respectively. Based on their own private key and the public key learned from the other party, Alice and Bob have computed their secret keys, KA and KB, respectively, which are equal to GXAXB mod N.

Perhaps a small example will help here. Although Alice and Bob will really choose large values for N and G, I will use small values for example only; let's use N=7 and G=3, as shown in Figure 10.


  1. Choose private key; XA = 2
  2. Compute public key; YA = 32 mod 7 = 2
  3. Exchange public key with Bob
  4. KA = YBXA mod N = 62 mod 7 = 1

  1. Choose private key; 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen = 3
  2. Compute public key; YB = 33 mod 7 = 6
  3. Exchange public key with Alice
  4. KB = YAXB mod N = 23 mod 7 = 1
FIGURE 10: Diffie-Hellman key exchange example.

In this example, then, Alice and Bob will both find 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen secret key 1 which is, indeed, 36 mod 7 (i.e., GXAXB = 32x3). If an eavesdropper (Eve) was listening in on the information exchange between Alice and Bob, she would learn G, N, YA, and YB which is a lot of information but insufficient to compromise the key; as long as XA and XB remain unknown, K is safe. As stated above, calculating Y = GX is a lot easier than finding X = logG Y.

A short digression on modulo arithmetic. In the paragraph above, we noted that 36 mod 7 = 1. This can be confirmed, of course, by noting that:

36 = 729 = 104*7 + 1

There is a nice property of modulo arithmetic, however, that makes this determination a little easier, namely: (a mod x)(b mod x) = (ab mod x). Therefore, one possible shortcut is to note that 36 = (33)(33). Therefore, 36 mod 7 = (33 mod 7)(33 mod 7) = (27 mod 7)(27 mod 7) = 6*6 mod 7 = 36 mod 7 = 1.

Diffie-Hellman can also be used to allow key sharing amongst multiple users. Note again that the Diffie-Hellman algorithm is used to generate secret keys, not to encrypt and decrypt messages.

5.3, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. RSA Public Key Cryptography

Unlike Diffie-Hellman, RSA can be used for key exchange as well as digital signatures and the encryption of small blocks of data. Today, RSA is primarily used to encrypt the session key used for secret key encryption (message integrity) or the message's hash value (digital signature). RSA's mathematical hardness comes from the ease in calculating large numbers and the difficulty in finding the prime factors of those large numbers. Although employed with numbers using hundreds of digits, the math behind RSA is relatively straight-forward.

To create an RSA public/private key pair, here are the basic steps:

  1. Choose two prime numbers, p and q. From these numbers you can calculate the modulus, n = pq.
  2. Select a third number, e, that is relatively prime to (i.e., it does not divide evenly into) the product (p-1)(q-1). The number e is the public exponent.
  3. Calculate an integer d from the quotient (ed-1)/[(p-1)(q-1)]. The number d is the private exponent.

The public key is the number pair (n,e), 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Although these values are publicly known, it is computationally infeasible to determine d from n and e if p and q are large enough.

To encrypt a message, M, with the public key, create the ciphertext, C, using the equation:

The receiver then decrypts the ciphertext with the private key using the equation:

Now, this might look a bit complex and, indeed, the mathematics does take a lot of computer power given the large size of the numbers; since p and q may be 100 digits (decimal) or more, d and e will be about the same size and n may be over 200 digits, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Nevertheless, a simple example may help. In this example, the values for p, q, e, and d are purposely chosen to be very small and the reader will see exactly how badly these values perform, but hopefully the algorithm will be adequately demonstrated:

  1. Select p=3 and q=5.
  2. The modulus n = pq = 15.
  3. The value e must be relatively prime to (p-1)(q-1) = (2)(4) = 8. Select e=11.
  4. The value d must be chosen so that (ed-1)/[(p-1)(q-1)] is an integer. Thus, the value (11d-1)/[(2)(4)] = (11d-1)/8 must be an integer. Calculate one possible value, d=3.
  5. Let's suppose that we want to send a message — maybe a secret key — that has the numeric value of 7 (i.e., M=7). [More on this choice below.]
  6. The sender encrypts the message (M) using the public key value (e,n)=(11,15) and computes the ciphertext (C) with the formula C = 711 mod 15 = 1977326743 mod 15 = 13.
  7. The receiver decrypts the ciphertext using the private key value (d,n)=(3,15) and computes the plaintext with the formula M = 133 mod 15 = 2197 mod 15 = 7.

I choose this trivial example because the value of n is so small (in particular, the value M cannot exceed n). But here is a more realistic example using larger d, e, and n values, as well as a more meaningful message; thanks to Barry Steyn for permission to use values from his How RSA Works With Examples page.

Let's say that we have chosen p and q so that we have the following value for n:


Let's also suppose that we have selected the public key, e, and private key, d, as follows:



Now suppose that our message (M) is the character string "attack at dawn" which has the numeric value (after converting the ASCII characters to a bit string and interpreting that bit string as a decimal number) of 1976620216402300889624482718775150.

The encryption phase uses the formula C = Me mod n, so C has the value:


The decryption phase uses the formula M = Cd mod n, so M has the value that matches our original plaintext:


This more realistic example gives just a clue as to how large the numbers are that are used in the real world implementations. RSA keylengths of 512 and 768 bits are considered to be pretty weak. The minimum suggested RSA key is 1024 bits; 2048 and 3072 bits are even better.

As an aside, Adam Back ( wrote a two-line Perl script to implement RSA. It employs dc, an arbitrary precision arithmetic package that ships with most UNIX systems:

Источник: [] dc`
print pack"C*",split/\D+/,`echo "16iII*o\U@{$/=$z;[(pop,pop,unpack"H*",<> )]}\EsMsKsN0[lN*1lK[d2%Sa2/d0<X+d*lMLa^*lN%0]dsXx++lMlN/dsM0<J]dsJxp"

Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

This article is about the television series. For the comic book, see Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (comic book). For the fictional organization's agents, see List of S.H.I.E.L.D. members.

American television series

Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. is an American television series created by Joss Whedon, Jed Whedon, and Maurissa Tancharoen for ABC, based on the Marvel Comics organization S.H.I.E.L.D. (Strategic Homeland Intervention, Enforcement, and Logistics Division), a peacekeeping and spy agency in a world of superheroes. The series was the first to be set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU), and it acknowledges the continuity of the franchise's films and other television series. It was produced by ABC Studios, Marvel Television, and Mutant Enemy Productions, with Jed Whedon, Maurissa Tancharoen, and Jeffrey Bell serving as showrunners.

The series stars Clark Gregg as Phil Coulson, reprising his role from the film series, alongside Ming-Na Wen, Brett Dalton, Chloe Bennet, Iain De Caestecker, and Elizabeth Henstridge. Nick Blood, Adrianne Palicki, Henry Simmons, Luke Mitchell, John Hannah, Natalia Cordova-Buckley, and Jeff Ward joined in later seasons. The S.H.I.E.L.D. agents deal with various unusual cases and enemies, including Hydra, Inhumans, Life Model Decoys, alien species such as the Kree and Chronicoms, and time travel. Several episodes directly crossover with MCU films or other television series, notably Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014) which significantly affected the series in its first season. In addition to Gregg, other actors from throughout the MCU also appear in guest roles.

Joss Whedon, writer and director of the MCU film The Avengers (2012), began developing a S.H.I.E.L.D. pilot in August 2012. Gregg was confirmed to reprise his role that October, and the series was officially picked up by ABC in May 2013. The series attempted to replicate the production value of the MCU films on a broadcast television budget, while also having to work within the constraints of the MCU which were dictated by Marvel Studios and the films. Prosthetic makeup was created by Glenn Hetrick's Optic Nerve Studios, while Legacy Effects contributed other practical effects. Composer Bear McCreary recorded each episode's score with a full orchestra, and the visual effects for the series were created by several different vendors and have been nominated for multiple awards.

The series premiered on ABC in the United States on September 24, 2013, and concluded with a two-part series finale on August 12, 2020, with 136 episodes broadcast over seven seasons. After starting the first season with high ratings but mixed reviews, the ratings began to drop while reviews improved. Ratings continued to lower with subsequent seasons, but were more consistent within each season, while reviews for later seasons were consistently positive. Several characters created for the series have since been introduced to the comic universe and other media. An online digital series, Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Slingshot, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, centered on Cordova-Buckley's Elena "Yo-Yo" Rodriguez, was released in December 2016 on Other spin-offs were planned but never materialized.


The first season follows S.H.I.E.L.D. agent Phil Coulson as he puts together a small team of agents to handle strange new cases.[1] They investigate Project Centipede and its leader, "The Clairvoyant", eventually uncovering that the organization is backed by the terrorist group Hydra, which has infiltrated S.H.I.E.L.D. In the second season, following the destruction of S.H.I.E.L.D. in Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Coulson becomes director of the organization and is tasked with rebuilding it while dealing with Hydra, a faction of anti-superhuman S.H.I.E.L.D. agents, and a newly revealed superhuman race called the Inhumans.[2][3]

During the third season, Coulson begins a secret mission to assemble the Secret Warriors, a team of Inhumans,[4][5] as Hydra restores its ancient Inhuman leader Hive to power.[6] After the defeat of Hive and Hydra, S.H.I.E.L.D. is made a legitimate organization once again with the signing of the Sokovia Accords. In the fourth season, Coulson returns to being a field agent so S.H.I.E.L.D. can have a public leader, and is tasked with tracking down more enhanced people, including Robbie Reyes / Ghost Rider. In addition, Agent Leo Fitz and Holden Radcliffe complete their work on the Life Model Decoy and Framework virtual reality projects.[7]

The fifth season sees Coulson and members of his team abducted to the space station Lighthouse in the year 2091, where they must try to save the remnants of humanity while figuring out how to get home.[8] After returning to the present, where they are labeled fugitives, Coulson and his team work to prevent the future that they saw.[9] They succeed in defeating a Gravitonium-powered Glenn Talbot, but Coulson dies due to his interactions with Ghost Rider in the previous season.[10]

As the sixth season begins, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, the S.H.I.E.L.D, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. agents divide into two groups: one heads to space to find Fitz, who is lost following the last season's time-traveling,[11][12] while the other remains on Earth to face a team of mercenaries led by Sarge, a man that looks just like Coulson.[11][12][13]Season seven finds the team, including a Life Model Decoy of Coulson,[14] jumping throughout time to prevent the Chronicoms from establishing Earth as their new home, Chronyca-3, and eradicating S.H.I.E.L.D. from history.[15][16]


Further information: List of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. episodes

Cast and characters[edit]

Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.cast members (Lto R): Gregg, Wen, Dalton, Bennet, De Caestecker, and Henstridge) at PaleyFest2014

Main article: List of Agents 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen S.H.I.E.L.D. characters

  • Clark Gregg as Phil Coulson and Sarge / Pachakutiq:
    Coulson is an agent of S.H.I.E.L.D., and later becomes the organization's director.[22] In April 2013, Gregg agreed to join the series after hearing creator Joss Whedon's explanation for Coulson's resurrection, following the character's death in The Avengers, which GTA V Key crack serial keygen called "fascinating" and "true to the world of the comics".[23] Gregg approached Coulson's promotion to director as getting his dream job, which at the same time forced the character to adopt a more level-headed attitude, like that of Nick Fury.[24] After being possessed by the Spirit of Vengeance in the fourth season finale, the Kree blood that resurrected Coulson is burned away and he ultimately dies following the fifth-season finale.[10] Gregg plays a new character, Sarge, in season six,[13] and portrays a Chronicom-enhanced Life Model Decoy version of Coulson in season seven.[14]
  • Ming-Na Wen as Melinda May:
    Joss Whedon had the character, a S.H.I.E.L.D. ace pilot and weapons expert, nicknamed "the Cavalry",[25] and originally listed with the name Agent Althea Rice on casting sheets,[26] "rolling around in his head" for a long time. Wen was given some backstory for the character to prepare, but was not told how she gained 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen reputation;[27] with May's past revealed in "Melinda", Wen called it "devastating . To have learned what she had to do, for the good of the many . I can understand why it would traumatize her so much and cause her to retreat."[28] Wen called May "unconventionally maternal",[29] and said that it is her relationship with Coulson that makes her stay at S.H.I.E.L.D., despite her past.[30]
  • Brett Dalton as Grant 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen and Hive:
    Ward is a Hydra agent who poses as a S.H.I.E.L.D. black ops specialist.[31][32] From the conception of the series it was decided that he would be a traitor. Jed Whedon explained that they wanted to have "infiltration based on betrayal" on a small scale to represent the same thing happening on a massive scale, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, and to make the Hydra revelation more personal for the characters.[33][34] Dalton felt that Ward was always more loyal to his Hydra superior John Garrett than to Hydra itself, and that he would become more of a wildcard after Garrett's death, though still an antagonist to S.H.I.E.L.D.[35][36] Ward is killed by Coulson in season three,[37] and his body is possessed by an ancient Inhuman, Hive.[6] Hive is killed in the season three finale. Dalton returned to the series in its fourth season to portray Ward in the virtual reality Framework, where he is Johnson's boyfriend.[38] Austin Lyon portrays a young Ward.[39]
  • Chloe Bennet as Skye / Daisy Johnson / Quake:
    An Inhuman S.H.I.E.L.D. agent with the ability to manipulate vibrations and create earthquakes.[3][26] The character of Skye was always intended to become the MCU version of Johnson, having consequences for the character's relationships with the other S.H.I.E.L.D. agents, especially Coulson.[40] Bennet felt that the character was someone who would wear her heart on her sleeve while having some control over her emotions.[41] Wen noted that the character evolves from being "anti-establishment into suddenly being someone who wants to create an establishment that would help" the Inhumans.[29] In the third season she no longer goes by "Skye" and gains the public name "Quake".[42][43]
  • Iain De Caestecker as Leo Fitz:
    An agent of S.H.I.E.L.D. who specializes in engineering, especially weapons technology.[26][44] De Caestecker described the character as "quite passionate about what he does" but not emotionally intelligent.[45] Fitz has a close relationship with Simmons; De Caestecker says they "just kind of fit each other in a very weird way."[46] The character suffers brain injuries at the end of the first season. The writers researched brain trauma with doctors and experts before approaching it in the series. De Caestecker did his own research as well, feeling it is "something that should never be trivialized. It's a real and serious thing . we just have to constantly be respectful towards it."[47]
  • Elizabeth Henstridge as Jemma Simmons:
    A S.H.I.E.L.D. biochemist who specializes in life sciences (both human and alien).[26][44] Henstridge described her virtual tour photography Archives as "intelligent and focused and curious.she's got a wonderful relationship with Fitz. They kind of bounce off each other."[48] As Fitz and Simmons begin to spend time apart during the series, Henstridge noted that it "brings a whole new dynamic just to them as characters" since they have been nearly inseparable since first meeting.[49] On the harsher side of Simmons seen in later seasons, Henstridge noted that the character has "always been very mathematical in a way".[44] Simmons is "profoundly" changed after being trapped on the planet Maveth for six months.[50]
  • Nick Blood as Lance Hunter:
    A mercenary before agreeing to join S.H.I.E.L.D.[51] Blood described Hunter as someone who "doesn't bow down to the etiquette of the S.H.I.E.L.D. hierarchy."[52] He later elaborated that the character feels very independent, so would probably not want to admit no longer feeling like an outsider. Also, "he doesn't have too much respect for authority and titles.If Coulson does something he respects, that's all good. If he doesn't, he's going to say something." On Hunter's on-again, off-again relationship with Bobbi Morse, Blood said, "there is a lot of truth in it of those relationships you have where it's kind of, 'can't live with each other, can't kill each other'".[53]
  • Adrianne Palicki as Bobbi Morse:
    Hunter's ex-wife and an agent of S.H.I.E.L.D. who spent time undercover within Hydra.[54] Palicki was approached by the showrunners specifically for the part during season two. Palicki already had martial arts and gun training, but had to learn to use the character's signature arnis sticks; she noted similarities between Morse's fighting style and that of Scarlett Johansson's Black Widow from the MCU films.[55] Showrunner Jeffrey Bell said the character is more loyal to an idea than anything else, so what may seem in 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen short term as a betrayal by her is usually for what she sees as the greater good.[56]
  • Henry Simmons as Alphonso "Mack" Mackenzie:
    A S.H.I.E.L.D. mechanic with a distrust of the alien and superhuman.[57] Simmons said the character is more worried about contributing in his own way and getting his job done away from the field.[58] Mack does not like violence, but does "what he has to do."[59] Mack reveals in the third season that he relies on his "faith", implying that he is a Christian.[60] Dee Hogan of The Mary Sue described this as "a refreshingly positive portrayal of people of faith, as Mack demonstrates the quiet confidence and love rather than the aggression and bigotry that's so often associated with it."[61] Mack becomes the new director of S.H.I.E.L.D. in season six.[62]
  • Luke Mitchell as Lincoln Campbell:
    An Inhuman with the ability to manipulate electrical charges.[63] The character was introduced because the series already featured "a guy with no eyes" and "a woman who now is covered 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen thorns" but, like the X-Men, there are also Inhumans who are "just attractive people with powers", and so Campbell represents them in the series.[64] Campbell dies in the third-season finale,[43] making him the "Fallen Agent" that the series had been teasing for the entire second half of that season.[65][66] The decision was made because the producers did not want "a body count show, but it is a real world with real stakes."[67]
  • John Hannah as Holden Radcliffe:
    A transhumanist who believes in the improvement of humanity through enhancement.[68][69] Radcliffe initially worked with Hive before joining S.H.I.E.L.D., where he begins work on transferring his artificial intelligenceAIDA to a Life Model Decoy, an old S.H.I.E.L.D. project.[70]
  • Natalia Cordova-Buckley as Elena "Yo-Yo" Rodriguez:
    A Colombian Inhuman who can move at super speed for a beat of her heart, before returning to the point she started 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. She reluctantly joins S.H.I.E.L.D. and becomes a part of the Secret Warriors, eventually growing close to Mack, who gives her the nickname "Yo-Yo".[71][72] When first portraying the character, Cordova-Buckley smiled whenever Rodriguez was 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen to use her abilities, to show an adrenaline rush and the feeling of having such power. After positive fan responses to this, the actress morphed this trait into a more mischievous personality for the character.[73]
  • Jeff Ward as Deke Shaw: A "roguish scavenger" on the Lighthouse space station in the year 2091,[74] who returns to the present with the S.H.I.E.L.D. team and learns he is the grandson of Fitz and Simmons.[75]


See also: Production of season 1, season 2, season 3, season 4, season 5, season 6, and season 7


After The Walt Disney Company purchased Marvel Entertainment in 2009,[76] they announced that a Marvel Television division was being formed under Jeph Loeb.[77][78] In the following months, various pilots based on comics from Marvel's catalog went into development.[79][80] In July 2012, Marvel Television entered into discussions with ABC to make a new series set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The series was described as "'a kernel of an idea' with a number of scenarios being explored, including a high-concept cop show."[81] On August 7, 2012, Joss Whedon was announced to be involved in the series' development. Whedon had written and directed the successful MCU film The Avengers (2012)[82] On August 8, Whedon, along with his brother Jed and sister-in-law Maurissa Tancharoen, met with Loeb to pitch him their idea for the series, with meetings in the following days with ABC Studios and ABC network.[83][84]: 1:53:47  At the end of August, ABC ordered a pilot for a series called S.H.I.E.L.D., to be written and directed by Joss Whedon, with Jed Whedon and Tancharoen also writing.[85][86] Disney CEO Bob Iger greenlit the series after watching the Marvel One-Shot short film Item 47.[87]

In April 2013, ABC announced that the series would be titled Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.,[1] and it was officially picked up for a full season of 22 episodes in May 2013.[87][88] Jed Whedon, Tancharoen, and Jeffrey Bell served as the series' showrunners,[85] with Bell joining the show to help the inexperienced former pair with hiring crew members and "navigating the politics of studios and networks", saying, "My job is to help them learn how to do that, to steer the ship while they learn." Joss Whedon assisted them before he started work on the sequel Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015).[34] The series was renewed for a second season in May 2014,[89] a third in May 2015,[90] and a fourth in March 2016.[91]

In September 2016, discussing 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen eventual end of the series, Tancharoen said, "You always just forge ahead. Until someone tells us to stop, we will continue to move forward." Jed Whedon added, "There are always ideas in the back of your mind for how you'd wrap it up when they say, 'That's it guys,' but we're not there just yet."[92] A fifth season was ordered in May 2017,[93] and Bell said they had "a sense of how we'd like the show to end when it ends, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. We just need to know when that time is coming so we can build to it properly." Jed Whedon continued, "Our goal is to know ahead of time, because we would love to land the story in a way that's satisfying".[94] The writers intended for the final episode of the fifth season to serve as both a season and series finale, with some elements that could be adjusted based on whether the series was renewed for a sixth season or not. Whedon added, "we're ready for if this is the end. We're definitely going to make it rewarding either way."[95] Despite this, the series was renewed for a sixth season in May 2018,[96] and a final seventh season in November 2018.[97][98] Whedon likened these two seasons to bonus levels in a video game, allowing the writers to have "a bit of freedom".[99]


The idea of [Coulson] as the long-suffering bureaucrat who deals with Tony Stark's insufferability is delightful and hits the core of something I'm also writing about all the time—the little guy versus the big faceless organization.and that's what Clark Gregg embodies: the Everyman.

—Creator Joss Whedon on the underlying themes of the series.[100]

Bell explained that he, Jed Whedon, and Tancharoen supervise all of the series' creative decisions, often consulting with Loeb. When the showrunners are writing the series, one person can write a script while the other two break stories, so that a story can be broken every few weeks. If the executive producers sign off on a story, a member of the series' writers room then produces an outline, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, gets notes on it from the showrunners, writes a full script, gets notes on it from ABC and the production crew, and then goes to set to produce the episode.[34]

In January 2013, Joss Whedon deflected any direct influences from other series, such as the efforts of Fox Mulder and Dana Scully in The X-Files, and explained that while the show would involve people with powers and the spectacle of science-fiction storytelling, it would focus on "the peripheral people.the people on the edges of the grand adventures."[101] As the series began to introduce more powered individuals, Bell noted that audiences "seem to respond to powered people on the show and while it's not going to take over and become what the show's about, as a texture and flavor of the stories, we really enjoy that."[102] Jed Whedon stated that the series would continue to emphasize the general public's response to powered people, saying, "The dynamic in the world has changed. There was one person with powers, and then by The Avengers there were maybe six total . now they're much more prevalent, so there's reaction from the public based on that."[103]

On the balance between creating new material and drawing from existing mythology, Bell noted that telling stories that can entertain both Marvel fans and non-Marvel fans is challenging, and that for the series they try to add nods to the MCU films or the comics in a way that works well on its own for all viewers, but could also mean more for a fan.[104] On where the series can draw from the comics, Jed Whedon explained that there are areas of the comics that the series is not allowed to go to, and that ultimately they only use the comics for inspiration in generating their own story. Tancharoen elaborated that, "We're always going to be inspired and influenced by the comics, but of course on the show, we'll always be doing our spin to it."[105] About comparisons between the scope of the series and that of the films, Bell said that ABC and Marvel had been very generous with the series' budget, and that the production could not complain for a network series, but that it was nothing compared to the films or even series like Game of Thrones. He explained that the series does attempt to create "Marvel moments" as best it can, but pointed out that some of the more memorable moments from the films are smaller, character moments—something that works really well on television—so the series strives for those when it cannot afford more scope and scale.[104] Jed Whedon elaborated that they look at a sequence and try to keep only what is required to tell the story, so "If a monster is landing on a car, instead of showing the whole monster leaping through the skyline, we want to be in the car with the character having that experience."[33]

Jed Whedon and Maurissa Tancharoen sitting.
Jeffrey Bell sitting.

(L to R) Jed Whedon, Maurissa Tancharoen, and Jeffrey Bell, the showrunners of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

Actress Ming-Na Wen attributed the time slot shift between the first and second seasons (from 8 pm EST to 9 pm EST) for allowing the writers "a chance to be more serious with certain topics, a little bit more intense with the fight scenes" in the second season, since the first season had to be more reserved because of it airing during a family time slot.[106] In September 2015, Bell looked back on the first two seasons and talked about the challenges of and changes in the series. He noted the negative reception from fans concerning the low number of recognizable characters like Coulson, but pointed out that fans seemed to have grown to like the series' original characters as they had been developed over time. He explained that with the increasing number of characters and complex relationships in the series, having different pairings and building new emotional relationships was important, and stated that "whether it's a quiet moment or in action, we [hope to] deepen the audience's love and concern, and hopes for these characters."[107] A year later he reiterated the producer's intention to create a tradition moving forward of "finding new combinations and new conflicts" between different sets of characters, given "a lot of procedurals [see] the same people doing the same thing for five years and the character don't evolve or change at all."[103]

The producers and writers initially formed a general plan for the show through the end of a third season, after reading the screenplays for upcoming MCU films.[108] In May 2016, Chloe Bennet likened the end of the third season to "the end of the first book of S.H.I.E.L.D. . the end of something bigger and the beginning of a whole new tone for the show."[109] She elaborated that "the storylines that we started at the beginning of season 1 really wrapped up at the end of season 3. We've had some major losses of people who have been with us on the show since season 1. From the table read to the first day on set, there's definitely a new energy of the show" moving forward.[110] The series was moved to the later timeslot of 10 pm for the fourth season. Jed Whedon said the writers hoped to "skew a little darker because of" this change, with Loeb adding that "It absolutely offers opportunities. I don't know that it changes things all that dramatically [though]. I mean, at the end of the day, Marvel is always going to make shows that run somewhere between PG-13 and PG-16. We're not going to be making Deadpool anytime soon on [ABC]."[103] Marvel "had a long talk with ABC about what can we get away with, so to speak" in the new timeslot, which led to the inclusion of Ghost Rider in the season over one of Marvel's Netflix television series, because Marvel felt "that this character was right to tell [darker and more violent] stories right now" and having him on S.H.I.E.L.D. aided that because "it was so unexpected". Loeb hoped that the combination of the later timeslot and the introduction of Ghost Rider would lead to some viewers who had stopped watching the series over the previous seasons giving it another chance.[111]


Sarah Halley Finn, the casting director of the MCU films, along with her associate Tamara Hunter, served as casting directors during the first season.[112]: 21  In October 2012, a casting sheet for five lead roles was sent out,[26] with Finn establishing offices in London, Australia, New York, Vancouver, Toronto, and Los Angeles to audition actors.[112]: 21  At the New York Comic Con, Joss Whedon, Kevin Feige, and Clark Gregg announced that Gregg would be reprising his role as agent Phil Coulson from Iron Man, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, Iron Man 2, Thor, The Avengers, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, and the Marvel One-Shots in the pilot,[22] and would "headline" the series.[113] Also in October, actress Ming-Na Wen was cast as Melinda May.[25] The next month, Elizabeth Henstridge and Iain De Caestecker were cast as Jemma Simmons and Leo Fitz, respectively,[44] while newcomer Brett Dalton was cast as Grant Ward.[114] Dalton gained 15 pounds (6.8 kg) of muscle before the start of filming for the role.[112]: 21  In December, Chloe Bennet was chosen out of more than 400 actresses to play Skye, the sixth and final regular for the first season.[115][116] Bell called the character "the hardest to find" since need to be "the quintessential Whedon heroine–strong, smart, and self-aware", which was difficult to find in a 20-year old.[112]: 25  Skye is revealed in the second season to be Daisy Johnson, and no longer goes by "Skye" starting with the third.[42]

At San Diego Comic-Con 2014, Nick Blood was announced as cast in the role of Lance Hunter for the second season, while the character of Bobbi Morse was revealed to be appearing.[51] That August, Henry Simmons joined the cast as Alphonso "Mack" Mackenzie, a recurring role,[57] and Adrianne Palicki was cast as Morse in a guest role, to first appear in the episode "A Hen in the Wolf House".[117] The next month, the entire first season principal cast were confirmed to be regulars for the second season, along with Blood.[118] Palicki joined them with the episode "Aftershocks".[54][119] In February 2015, Luke Mitchell was cast as Lincoln Campbell, a recurring role for the second half of the season.[120][121]

All season-two principal cast members returned for the third season,[4] with Simmons and Mitchell joining them, promoted from their recurring roles.[63][122] 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen October 2015, the Inhuman Hive was introduced; for the second part of season three, he possesses the corpse of Grant Ward, again portrayed by Brett Dalton.[6] Also introduced were Natalia Cordova-Buckley and John Hannah, recurring as Elena "Yo-Yo" Rodriguez and Holden Radcliffe, respectively.[68][71] Blood and Palicki left the main cast following the season-three episode "Parting Shot", to star in the then-planned spin-off show Marvel's Most Wanted.[123] Dalton and Mitchell also left following the deaths of their characters in the third-season finale.[67]

Gregg, Wen, Bennet, De Caestecker, Henstridge, and Simmons returned for the fourth and fifth seasons.[7][124] They were joined by Hannah in the fourth,[69] with Cordova-Buckley once again recurring as Rodriguez in the season,[125] before being promoted to a series regular for the fifth season.[72] Dalton returned as a guest during the third pod of the fourth season,[38] while Blood made his return to the series during the fifth season.[126] Introduced in the fifth season was Jeff Ward, who recurred as Deke Shaw.[74]

Wen, Bennet, De Caestecker, Henstridge, Simmons, and Cordova-Buckley return for the sixth and seventh seasons, and were joined by Ward.[75][97] Given the events of the final episode of season five, in which it is implied that Coulson dies, Gregg noted "there is some interest in having me involved in" the sixth season, potentially with flashback, and was also unsure if he would be a series regular, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, should he return, as he had been for the previous five seasons.[127] Gregg ultimately returned as a series regular in season six playing a new character, Sarge.[13] For season seven, Gregg portrays a Life Model Decoy (LMD) version of Coulson,[14] while De Caestecker is absent for much of the season 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen to scheduling conflicts with prior commitments,[128][129] first appearing in the season's eleventh episode;[130] he is credited as a special guest star for his appearances in the season.[131]



Betsy Heimann was the costume designer for the pilot, but left the series because of film commitments. Assistant costume designer Ann Foley took over for subsequent episodes, and worked closely with Tancharoen to create "very strong, different characters" whose "looks evolve along with the show."[132] Foley also brought on concept artists Phillip Boutte Jr. and Josh Shaw to assist with the design process.[133][134] Foley watched every MCU film, paying special attention to The Avengers, and was also inspired by such films as Skyfall and Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol.[132] In October 2016, Foley said that she was specifically following the aesthetic of Captain America: The Winter Soldier, "So any costume has to fit inside that world we've established and has to fit that tactical look."[135] On the variety of costumes created for each character, Foley preferred to have set pieces in the characters' "closets", as "it's not a fashion show . a guy like Ward isn't going to have twenty jackets in his closet. He is going to have one that he uses all of the time."[134]

After reading each script, Foley would do her own research, before discussing the look of the episode with the writers.[136] She then studied the comics, general fashion, and history to get a look that is recognizable to fans, but fits Microsoft Office 365 - July 2020 crack serial keygen the more realistic world of the series.[133] Costumes are either custom made or bought, and the actors are brought in for fittings before filming. This process was often challenging because of the series' eight-day-per-episode schedule.[136] Foley stated that all costumes take a similar amount of time to create, whether they are based on the comics or not.[137] Marvel CCO Joe Quesada is involved in the approval process when costuming preexisting characters,[134] including Daisy Johnson's Quake costume, which is introduced in the third season. The Quake costume incorporates elements from the comic version of the character, and was intended to show that Quake "could easily be part of the Avengers".[138][139] Foley took steps to differentiate the Quake costume from Scarlett Johansson's Black Widow costumes from the films, but was "flattered" by comparisons made between them. Foley was also adamant about showing that characters such as Quake "don't have to be sexualised, that they're powerful, strong women", and so avoided "a lot of cleavage, you don't see high heels. It's about practicality."[135]

The costumes go through a natural evolution in the series. There is a shift at the end of the first season to a darker look, and all the characters have "definitely grown up" during the second season. In the third season there is another shift, "from the ragtag group of soldiers and scientists to [a] more precise militaristic outfit".[138] This change is also reflected in the series' color palette, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, going from "a much lighter tone, much more patterns" in the first season to having "stripped away a bit of color" by the third.[135] Despite this increasing darkness in the costumes, Foley intended to define each character as they are introduced and to have them always be recognizable and identifiable.[134] With the start of the fourth season, Foley said that "each season definitely has its own feel and this season will be no different. I think that you're going to see some subtle 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen in the costumes of the characters"; she felt like Fitz and Simmons, in particular, had become "more adult looking", while all the cast had "a pretty specific . civilian look" that would become more prominent as S.H.I.E.L.D. is re-legitimized and becomes more public.[139] Foley left the series after the thirteenth episode of the fourth season, to work on the television series Altered Carbon,[140] and was replaced with Amanda Riley. Riley used her previous experience recreating costumes to "blend in" with Foley's established look.[141] Foley returned for the first two episodes of the fifth season, before handing costume design over to Whitney Galitz, who had assisted Foley on the previous few seasons, and Christann Chanell.[142] Galitz eventually became sole costume designer for the series, before being joined by Jessica Torok during season seven. Torok took over for the second half of the season after Galitz left the series to give birth to her daughter.[143]

Practical effects[edit]

The series' props department is led by Scott Bauer. The pilot introduces the Incapacitating Cartridge Emitting Railgun, or ICER, tranquilizer weapons often used by the agents, with Joss Whedon having Bauer design "sci-fi"-looking guns, including a large rifle-like weapon. The series' further portrayal of the ICERs was more subtle, with Bauer using airsoft guns that are safe to shoot others with over a small distance. ICER-specific muzzle flashes are then added by the visual effects department. Bauer reused the ICER rifle prop when making Mack's "Shotgun Ax", which appears in later seasons. The terrigen crystals that unlock Inhuman abilities in the 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen are 3D-printed from solid resin and then altered with extra details.[144] Additional practical effects and props are created by Legacy Effects, who also work on the MCU films,[137][145] notably creating Daisy Johnson's gauntlets for the third season.[137]Prosthetic makeup for the series is designed in conjunction with Glenn Hetrick of Optic Nerve Studios. Hetrick began work on the series with the second season, to create Raina's Inhuman look,[146] and returned for the third season to design and create the more unusual-looking Inhumans such as Lash.[147]

Title sequence[edit]

The various title sequences used throughout the series (0:29 loop)

Throughout the series, Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. "[became] known for its signature use of changing title cards" to reflect the storyline being told and would define "a specific era of the series".[148] The third season introduces a new title sequence for the series, replacing the one that appeared in the first two seasons.[149] The title sequence in "4,722 Hours" is drastically different from the design introduced for the third season, with the series' title in the episode's typeface silently fading onto the screen over the back drop of the planet Simmons is stranded on.[150][151] The fourth season sees new series title cards for the Ghost Rider and LMD pods,[152][153] and an Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. title card for the Agents of Hydra pod that changes to say Agents of Hydra for episodes primarily set in the Framework.[154][155] The Ghost Rider graphic is used again for the fourth-season finale.[156]

For the fifth season, the opening of "Orientation" is reminiscent of the sequence for "4,722 Hours", forgoing the title card and having the typeface silently fading onto the screen.[157] The subsequent episodes of season five feature a title card with the series name in a new typeface against a backdrop of various depictions of Earth: episodes through "Past Life" feature a destroyed future Earth;[158] episodes from "Principia" through "The Devil Complex" feature a present Earth; while episodes from "Rise and Shine" through "All Roads Lead." feature the Earth beginning to crack.[159] Each episode of season seven features a different title card and opening to reflect the time period and genre of the episode.[160]


Production for the pilot took place almost entirely in Los Angeles to accommodate Joss Whedon's schedule,[161] while the rest of the series is primarily filmed at Culver Studios in Culver City, California.[162][163] Additional filming has also taken place around the world, including in Paris, France,[164]Stockholm, Sweden,[165] and Old San Juan, Puerto Rico.[166]Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. used the working titleR.A.G.T.A.G. throughout its production.[167] The series is filmed on Arri Alexa cameras,[163] with David Boyd serving as director of photography on the pilot,[168] and Feliks Parnell, Jeff Mygatt, and Allan Westbrook doing so throughout the rest of the series. Garry Brown is the second unit director for the series, with stunts coordinated by Tanner Gill.[169] The series is filmed in 2K resolution.[170]

Visual effects[edit]

FuseFX serves as the lead visual effects vendor for Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.,[171] with additional work by Pixomondo, Cosa, Greenhaus GFX, Lion VFX, and Synaptic.[163] The series sees an average of 80 to 150 visual effects shots per episode,[170] with 10 to 12 days to work on the effects for one episode once background plates have been received from filming.[171] This equates to approximately 2000 visual effects shots per season.[163] Mark Kolpack serves as visual effects supervisor for the series.[172] David Altenau was the in-house supervisor at FuseFX for "Pilot" through episode eight, with Kevin Lingenfelser taking over for subsequent episodes.[173] VFX producer Andrea D'Amico joined the team at FuseFX to work on the series in December 2015.[174] Two separate production management and creative teams were established to work on the show, and producers, compositors and various artists were able to alternate episodes. This was important because most of the episodes had to be worked on concurrently, either two or three at a time.[173] Typical effects for the series include the creation of character-driving effects animation, photo-realistic vehicles, CG set extensions, pyrotechnics, and atmospheric effects.[171] Some assets, such as a Quinjet and Helicarrier, are shared from Industrial Light & Magic, though "those models are generally super heavy and dense with data" and need to be made "HD friendly or simply manageable to work in [a] TV schedule."[170]


Bear McCreary confirmed that he would compose music for the series in July 2013.[175] Unlike on some of his previous scores, ABC and Marvel allowed McCreary to work with a full symphonic orchestra,[176] typically featuring 50 or 70 players,[177] with over 90 for "important" episodes.[178] Orchestra recording for the series occurred at Warner Bros. Studios' Eastwood Stage, Sony Pictures Studios' Barbra Streisand Scoring Stage, and Twentieth Century Fox Studios' Newman Scoring Stage.[179] Complex synthesizer programming was also used, to give the score "a modern edge".[180]

Since Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. was the first MCU television series, McCreary felt there was "a sense that it had to connect" to the consistent orchestra sound of the films, but viewed through a television lens.[178] McCreary composes on average 30 minutes of music per episode.[181] Creating the main theme for the series, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, which McCreary also saw as Coulson's theme, was a process which took a lot of collaboration with the executive producers, who wanted a specific sound—"something big, that.belonged in the Marvel Cinematic Universe" but also "intimate because these aren't superheroes, these are regular people." McCreary had to work harder to make the theme heard, given that the show does not have a traditional title sequence.[176] By the third and fourth seasons, McCreary noted "the score became a little more intense and more electronically driven. [E]lectronics really moved to the forefront as we got into more stories about Inhumans and the digital world our characters inhabit. But the orchestra is always our foundation."[178]

In 2014, after working as an intern for McCreary, Jason Akers was asked to provide additional music for the series. McCreary hired Akers as a full time staff member in 2015, and he began to have more artistic input into the series' music. Akers is credited as co-composer alongside McCreary for the seventh season.[182][183] Some of McCreary's favorite pieces from the series included "Cello Concerto" from "The Only Light in the Darkness", and pieces that had "massive deviations" such as music for Ghost Rider, the Framework reality, and going to outer space.[84]: 30:45–32:02 

Original soundtrack album[edit]

In September 2014, McCreary announced that there were plans for an Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. soundtrack,[184] which was released digitally a year later by Marvel Music on September 4, 2015, and on CD on October 9. Featuring music from the first two seasons, the soundtrack was written and produced by McCreary and Steven Kaplan, with the album produced by Joe Augustine with McCreary.[185][186] All music composed by Bear McCreary.[186] Steve Bartek plays guitar on "Aftermath of the Uprising", Eric Byers plays cello on "Cello Concerto",[187] and McCreary's wife, Raya Yarbrough, provides the vocals in "Alien DNA".[179] The episode column in the table below indicates which episode(s) the music was featured in.[181]

Future albums[edit]

Regarding the release of additional music from the series, McCreary said in August 2020 there were no immediate plans but would "love for that to happen", given he had been waiting until the series concluded to assess everything that had been produced for any potential future releases. He also hoped to get fan input regarding pieces of music they would like to hear on a release in addition to the tracks McCreary would want.[84]: 28:52–30:44 

Marvel Cinematic Nero Burning Rom crack serial keygen tie-ins[edit]

We're part of the Marvel Cinematic Universe, and so.we pitch our stuff to Kevin Feige and his movie group to see if there's something we can tie into, to see if they're okay about us using a character, or a weapon[, etc.]

—Executive producer Jeffrey Bell in September 2014, explaining the process of working in with the MCU.[34]

In July 2013, Jed Whedon said the series would work in tandem with the Marvel films, both past and upcoming, to weave in between the films, and to "try to make them more rewarding on both ends."[188] He explained that each Marvel project is intended to stand alone first before there is any interweaving, and noted that the series has to work with the film division and be aware of their plans so as not to interfere when introducing someone or something to the universe.[189] Bell elaborated that this was preferable so that people who do not watch the films can still follow the series, and vice versa. He stated that "ABC and Marvel both want the series to be able to make sense on its own", but that it was beneficial for the films to have the series fill in any "gaps" for them, due to having to be "big" and moving "quickly through a lot of huge pieces", unlike television which has time to deal with more nuances.[107]

In January 2016, Joss Whedon noted that this process "unfortunately just means the TV show gets, you know, leftovers." He stated that, for example, the series' creative team initially wanted to use Loki's scepter from The Avengers but were unable due to Whedon's plans for it in Age of Ultron.[190] On how their ability to connect with the films changed over the life of the series, Jed Whedon said, "The rule when we started was we couldn't say anything about spies, we couldn't say anything about Hydra, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, we couldn't have any A.I. or robots or anything like that, because all of that was coming in movies that year or the year after. Since then, they've blown those doors wide open." He added, "We have relatively free rein [in what the series can introduce and connect to]; we just can't WonderFox DVD Ripper Pro Key 13.1 With Crack [New] anywhere that [the films are] going. They know their stories so much further out than we do, which is good for us to tee up things that we know are coming to them or avoid things that they want to be special on the big screen. As long as we are not covering bases that they're going to cover, we haven't been told "no" that much". As an example, Whedon noted the fourth season's Framework storyline as "something that's pretty significant in our world, but is also a little eddy in the river that doesn't affect anything else because it's an alternate universe. So those kinds of stories help us go big without sending ripples through the whole MCU."[94] In May 2016, Chloe Bennet complained at Wizard World Des Moines Comic Con that Marvel doesn't acknowledge Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. in their film universe despite pretending that the films and televisions show are all connected, expressing interest in seeing the Avengers in show.[191]

The series mimics the films' post credits scenes with 'end tags', starting with the episode 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen which features a Samuel L. Jackson cameo as Nick Fury. Bell explained, "Sometimes it'll be funny, sometimes it'll be a mythology thing . or an extra little reveal about" the episode.[104] The end tag for "End of the Beginning" is a "directly lifted" scene from Captain America: The Winter Soldier.[192]

The series' first major tie-in episode with the wider MCU was "The Well", which begins immediately after Thor: The Dark World (2013).[193] The episodes "End of the Beginning" and "Turn, Turn, Turn" revolve around the events of Captain America: The Winter Soldier,[194][195] which led to a retooling of the series.[196] Flashback sequences in "Shadows" and "The Things We Bury" featuring Hayley Atwell as Peggy Carter served as marketing and set-up for the Agent Carter television series.[197][198] The events of "The Frenemy of My Enemy" and "The Dirty Half Dozen" led up to the opening sequence of Avengers: Age of Ultron, while "Scars" deals with the aftermath of that film.[199] The third season follows similar themes to the film Captain America: Civil War (2016), focusing on powered people and the different responses to them,[200] leading up to the episode "Emancipation", 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, which takes place after the film and shows how its events affect the series' powered characters.[201]

The episode "T.A.H.I.T.I." introduces the Kree alien race to the MCU, members of which play a significant role in Guardians of the Galaxy (2014).[202][203] This begins a storyline that recurs throughout the series, and introduces Inhumans to the MCU,[3] with Jed Whedon saying that it was something "in the works" for a long time, as Marvel Studios had plans for an Inhumans film in 2019, and this would be "one of the first instances where we get to start planting the seeds on the show before the film."[204] The third season introduces the concept of the Secret Warriors, with new Inhuman characters inspired by the comic of the same name,[5][205] while also retconning the history of Hydra in the MCU, tying it into the Inhumans storyline.[206] Gregg noted in January 2016 that the "writer and director [of the Inhumans film] will have free rein to do what they want to do with the Inhumans, but hopefully there'll be some way that our Inhumans connect to that."[207] When the film was removed from Marvel Studios' release schedule, Whedon noted that the series had "a little 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen freedom" and were "able to do a little bit more" with the species going into the fourth season, including the potential of introducing some of the "classic" Inhumans.[208]Marvel's Inhumans, a television series centered on Black Bolt and other members of the Inhuman Royal Family, was announced in November 2016 to air on ABC in September 2017.[209] It was not intended to be a spin-off of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.[210]

In the lead-up to Avengers: Age of Ultron, Joss Whedon explained that despite bringing Phil Coulson back to life to helm Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and the MCU itself dealing with characters seemingly dying only to return later on like Loki, Nick Fury and Bucky Barnes, "As far as the fiction of the movies, Coulson is dead", choosing to not reference Coulson's resurrection in Age of Ultron to not diminish the impact of his original death amongst the characters.[211] Whedon further elaborated that due to his feeling that the audience of The Avengers doesn't necessarily seem to be the same one as the audience of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., in addition to introduce nineteen new charactes, he would have been forced to explain Coulson's resurrecting once again to the film-only audience had Coulson been featured in Age of Ultron.[212] Despite this, Jeph Loeb stated prior to the film's release that there was a plan for the Avengers to discover that Coulson was alive eventually.[213]

The fourth season explores the concept of Life Model Decoys,[70] which were first referenced in The Avengers,[214] and introduces the character Ghost Rider to the MCU.[7] On why the series waited to begin exploring LMDs, Jed Whedon said that the series previously did not want to explore the concept before the release of Avengers: Age of Ultron, which sees the introductions of Ultron and Vision in a similar manner to LMDs.[215] On introducing Ghost Rider, Whedon said that "with Doctor Strange (2016) coming out this year, the Marvel [Cinematic] Universe is moving into new waters," referring to the exploration of magic. "We felt that this was obviously a great character that we'd love to have on our show that we feel fits with that shift."[216] The season also continues storylines from the second season of Agent Carter, with the reveal that the Momentum Energy Labs group is a successor to the Isodyne Energy company, with both companies connected by the parent company Roxxon, a mainstay of the MCU.[217] The last four episodes of season five take place over a single day, and coincide with the events of Avengers: Infinity War (2018).[218] In August 2017, Emily VanCamp said that discussions had taken place for her to reprise her role of Sharon Carter for the series, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, but there were conflicts with her starring role on the series Revenge.[219]

Season seven sees Enver Gjokaj reprise his role as Strategic Scientific Reserve agent Daniel Sousa from Agent Carter.[220] There was a discussion to retcon Officer Saunders, a character Gjokaj played in The Avengers, into Sousa by having Sousa time travel back to the Battle of New York and going undercover as a cop, but the idea was dropped due to conflicts with the established timeline.[99] The quantum realm is also featured in the season, with Fitz using it to travel to the altered timeline created during the season and reunite with the S.H.I.E.L.D. team before bringing everyone back to the main timeline.[221] Whedon added that, with this introduction into the series, they planned to mention how the realm could be used to survive the snap from Thanos, as seen in Avengers: Infinity War and Avengers: Endgame (2019), but was ultimately cut.[167]

In May 2020, Bennet called Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. "the black sheep of the Marvel Universe" since "everyone was aware of the fact that we were supposed to be one thing when we started" and ultimately, the writers "had to side-step" many potential opportunities in order to not conflict with the plans for the films. Henstridge also added that in past seasons, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen of the episodes had to be reviewed to ensure they would not show something the films would be covering, but for the final season, "there was just such a sense of just abandon" with all the ideas the writers came up with allowed to happen.[222] Ahead of the series finale in August 2020, Gregg and Wen looked back at the early tie-ins the series had in season one. Both felt having to wait until the release of The Winter Soldier resulted in the early episodes "treading water" and "hampered the writers" creativity. Despite this, Gregg did feel the end of season one "holds up really well" once the Hydra twist was revealed. Both added the series took off once the writers were less tied to the MCU films and were able to focus on the stories of the characters in the series.[223] Following the series finale, Bell looked back on the series and felt 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen of all the restrictions it faced from Marvel Studios until the Hydra reveal, it was "a tech series" when the audience was expecting "a superhero show with a lot of Marvel brand names", 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Tancharoen added that the series was "more case-of-the-week" when it first premiered, but that allowed them to plant various story devices that could be fully explored once they got past the Hydra reveal.[99] Bell also revealed the series at one point had been given permission to use the character MODOK before Marvel retracted their access the character,[99] hoping to work it into their storyline with Anton Ivanov / The Superior in season four.[224] The series had also tried to incorporate the space-based counterpart organization, S.W.O.R.D., but was stopped from doing this by Marvel.[225]

The Darkhold, which was prominently featured in season four, was later featured in the Disney+ miniseries WandaVision (2021), but with a different design to the one it had in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.[226] Showrunner Jac Schaeffer said there were no "big conversations" amongst the writers regarding the Darkhold's previous appearance in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.;[227] co-executive producer Mary Livanos pitched the idea to use the Darkhold in WandaVision to increase the level of danger Agatha Harkness posed to Scarlet Witch, with the new design being based to how the Darkhold looks in the comic books and its design trying to answer questions of what it could look like, how it had been created and how it would appear and disappear. Despite the redesign, director Matt Shakman opined that the Darkhold of WandaVision is same one of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.[229] Schaeffer said that the nature of the Darkhold would be further explored in future projects.[230] The first episode of the Disney+ series Loki, "Glorious Purpose", revisits Coulson's death without acknowledging his return in Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. When asked if they toyed with mentioning Coulson's resurrection, Loki head writer Michael Waldron said the idea could be "one other tendril of the multiverse, perhaps" and believed simply seeing Coulson again raised exciting questions.[231]


Social media accounts for the series were set up in January 2013, months before ABC officially ordered it, "a rarity for a pilot."[232] By May 17, 2013, Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. was the top new show of the television season in terms of social media activity, with the series' official Twitter account having over 46,000 followers and its official Facebook page having close to half a million likes.[232] Many cast and crew members "live tweet" each episode, with J. August 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen noting that this brings instant feedback from viewers, and allows the crew to "watch the audience take that journey" in real time.[233]

For the final six episodes of the first season, Marvel began the "Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: The Art of Level Seven" initiative, in which a different image was released each Thursday before a new episode, depicting a first look at a key event from the upcoming episode. Bell stated that the initiative was a way to tie the series back to its comics roots, and was thought of at the beginning of the first season. The production team tried to pair specific artists to the teaser posters based on their previous work and how it connected to the themes and emotion of the intended episode.[234] For the second season, the series returned as "The Art of Evolution", with an image for each of the final twelve episodes of the season.[235] For season five, Marvel revived their marketing art program, with "Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: The Road to 100", 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen five posters, one for each season of the series, representing "key pivotal moments of each season" to commemorate the series reaching 100 episodes.[236]

At San Diego Comic-Con 2014, Marvel Custom Solutions and Lexus released a 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen single-issue Dr.Fone free download Archives tie-in titled Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: The Chase,[237] set between the season 1 episodes "Seeds" and "T.R.A.C.K.S."[238] The comic was written by George Kitson, with art by Mirko Colak, Neil Edwards, and Mirco Pierfederici.[239]

A five-part web series titled Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Double Agent, also sponsored by Lexus, was released from March 4 to May 6, 2015 on The web series follows a newly hired Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. production assistant, who acts as a double agent for the "Mastermind", portrayed by Stan Lee. Cast and crew members from the series, such as Gregg, also appear, with viewers having the ability to vote in an online poll after each episode to guess where the double agent would go in the next episode; votes entered viewers in a drawing to win prizes from the set of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.[240][241]Double Agent was nominated for Outstanding Digital Series at the 27th Producers Guild Awards.[242]Another Lexus-sponsored five-part web series, Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Academy, released from March 9 to May 4, 2016. In Academy, three Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. fans compete to play an agent in that series. Members of the Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. cast also appear.[243] All three fans ultimately made cameo appearances in the third-season finale.[244]

The series has been promoted with various subtitles at different times, including Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Uprising in season one, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, leading up to the Winter Soldier crossover;[245]Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Fallen Agent for the end of the third season;[66]Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Ghost Rider for the first "pod" of season four;[246] and Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.: LMD for the second "pod" of season four.[247] The third "pod" of season four was known as Agents of Hydra.[248] In November 2020, props, costumes, and set pieces from the series will be auctioned off.[249]



Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. airs in the United States on ABC,[87] in 720phigh definition and 5.1 surround sound,[250] despite delivering the episodes to ABC in 1080p.[170] The first season aired on Tuesdays at 8 pm EST for the first season,[251] and starting with the second season, the series aired on Tuesdays at 9 pm EST,[252] before moving to the 10 pm time slot on Tuesdays for the fourth season.[253] For its fifth season, the series aired on Fridays at 9 pm EST,[254] on Fridays at 8 pm EST for season six,[255] and aired at 10 pm EST on Wednesdays for season seven.[256]

The second and third seasons of the series were broadcast in two blocks each, with a season of Agent Carter airing in between. Bell explained that this decision was made following the challenge of producing 22 episodes for the first season to be aired over 36–40 weeks, which meant having repeats and "losing momentum". Instead, Agent 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen took up much of that gap in a row, leaving the back half of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.'s season to run uninterrupted.[34] This format allowed the producers and writers to approach each season in two parts, each with distinct stories connected by carried-over elements.[257] Ahead of the fourth season, Tancharoen explained, "For the past two seasons, we've been able to break our season down into two little mini-seasons because of the airdate schedule. This upcoming season, our airdate schedule is a little different, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, so we're breaking it into three pods. Story wise, the development of that has made our lives easier, to break it down in that way."[92] The pod format was described as "7-10 episodes [that feature] little 'enclosed plotlines' that formed a larger whole."[258]

Regarding whether they would break the fifth season into pods again as with season four, Bell said, "A 22-episode arc is a lot for people to hold on to. By breaking it up into either smaller arcs or different pods, by introducing a set of antagonists and putting them down, or moving from space to space, our experience has been that it's something the viewers enjoy, and it makes it a little easier to digest when you're telling some of these stories." Whedon also noted it would depend on how the season would be "broken up in terms of airing. If everything is running back to back, it feels weird to start calling it different things. We will try to have it in bite-sized chunks."[259] The season began airing its episodes on December 1, 2017,[8] once Inhumans had aired its eight episodes,[260] with the intent for all 22 episodes to air mostly uninterrupted;[260] a short hiatus was taken for the airing of the 2018 Winter Olympics.[9] The season ultimately was formed by two pod story arcs.[261] The sixth and seventh seasons each featured 13 episodes.[96][97]

Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. has been licensed in 155 countries and territories:[262]CTV holds the broadcast rights for Canada;[263]Channel 4 aired the series in the United Kingdom for the first two seasons, before it moved to E4 for the third through sixth seasons,[264] with season seven releasing on Disney+;[265] in Australia, the series aired on Seven Network for the first two seasons,[266] before moving to Fox8 starting with the third;[267] and in New Zealand, the show airs on TV2.[268]MyNetworkTV was awarded the series' syndication rights in the United States, and began broadcasting it in September 2016.[269]

Home media[edit]

The complete first season was first released on Blu-ray and DVD on September 9, 2014,[270] with the complete second season released on September 18, 2015, as an exclusive.[274][289] On Netflix in the United States, the first season became available for streaming 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen November 20, 2014,[273] the second season on June 11, 2015,[277] the third season on June 16, 2016,[280] the fourth season on June 15, 2017,[283] the fifth season on June 17, 2018,[286] the sixth season on September 1, 2019,[287] and the seventh season on October 30, 2020.[288] In May 2020, it was speculated that after the conclusion of the seventh season, all seven seasons would eventually be available on Disney+ in the United States.[290]


Viewership and ratings[edit]

In the United States, the premiere episode of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. earned a 4.7/14 rating in the 18- to 49-year-old demographic, with 12.12 million total viewers,[291] making it the biggest network drama debut in four years.[310] Though the series debuted to strong ratings against its competition, NCIS, its ratings declined considerably over the following two months, though it remained Tuesday's top show among men 18–49, and overall was the No. 3 show among upscale young adults behind Modern Family and The Big Bang Theory. It also enjoyed DVR recordings that, according to TV Guide, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, were "through the roof".[311]

In March 2016, Alisha Grauso of Forbes discussed the series and its ratings, describing the show as having "never quite been the ratings hit for ABC that the network had hoped it would be. It's hard enough to write a film script that fits within the continuity of the larger Marvel Cinematic Universe, even harder to do it with a full-length TV season that must act as connective tissue to the larger world while still being its own thing." Grauso opined that the series' ratings may improve if it either focused on trying to be the best series it could 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen (with fewer connections to the films, like the Marvel's Netflix television series) or on just being "support and tie-in to the world of the Avengers". Grauso concluded, "The end result for either scenario is that, hopefully, ratings move up and stay up. In the first case, fans might be lost by the disconnect from the MCU, but a stronger storyline and more consistent writing would bring them and new fans back. In the second scenario, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, fans would tune in every week for fear of missing out on a bit of story that's important to the larger world."[312][313]

In November 2018, Parrot Analytics, which measures "how viewers interact with a TV show's brand online, assessing everything from global file-sharing and peer-to-peer traffic to social media activity", ranked Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. in the top 0.03 percent of in-demand television series worldwide, classify it as "Amazing". Series with similar demand included Better Call Saul, Criminal Minds, and Vikings, while Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. had higher demand than series such as The Originals, Supergirl, Arrow, and Fear The Walking Dead.[314]Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. saw the season seven episode "A Trout in the Milk" earn a series low rating of 0.2 in the 18- to 49-year-old demographic,[315] while fellow season seven episode "Brand New Day" earned the lowest initial viewers with 1.25 million.[316][317]

Critical response[edit]

For the first season, the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported an 88% approval rating, with an average rating of 7.83/10 based on 72 reviews. The website's consensus reads, "Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. is sure to please comic book fans, but the strong ensemble and brisk pacing help to make this better-than-average superhero show accessible to non-fanboys as well."[318]Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, assigned a "generally favorable" score of 74 based on 33 reviews.[319]

The second season has a 91% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes, with an average score of 7.66/10 based on 32 reviews. The website's consensus reads, "Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. relaxes into itself during its sophomore season, mitigating the show's growing pains by focusing on characters while amping up narrative thrills."[320] The third season has a 100% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes, with an average score of 8.19/10 based on 22 reviews. The website's consensus reads, "Still evolving in its third season, Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. further hits its stride with a blend of thrills, humor, and heart."[321]

The fourth season has a 96% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes, with an average score of 7.75/10 based on 25 reviews. The website's consensus reads, "Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. explores darker territory in its fourth season with the thrilling introduction of Ghost Rider, setting up an action-packed new chapter of Marvel's edgier mythologies."[322] The fifth season has a 100% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes, with an average score of 7.89/10 based on 23 reviews. The website's consensus reads, "Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. swings for the fences with large-scale storytelling and wild twists that elevate season 5 from the saturated MCU and into its own space".[323]

The sixth season has a 93% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes, with an average score of 7.7/10 based on 15 reviews. The website's consensus reads, "Six seasons in and Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. continues to deepen its exploration of space and the relationships between its heroes."[324] The seventh season has a 100% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes, with an average score of 8/10, based on 15 reviews. The website's consensus reads, "Heartfelt and held together by the strength of its super cast's chemistry, Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.'s final season is a fitting farewell to a beloved team".[325]


The way that the series is affected by the events of Captain America: The Winter Soldier has been called "miraculous",[326][327] with Terri Schwartz at Zap2it writing "the fact that the movie so influenced the show is game-changing in terms of how the mediums of film and television can be interwoven",[326] while Mary McNamara of the Los Angeles Times stated that Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. "faces a future of perpetual re-invention, and that puts it in the exhilarating first car of television's roller-coaster ride toward possible world domination."[327] The fact that the series also depicts the rebuilding of S.H.I.E.L.D. in the MCU has also been highlighted, with Merrill Barr, reviewing "Beginning of the End" for Forbes, saying "what Marvel's daring to say with this season finale is 'everything we do matters, and you need to pay attention to all of it.'"[328]

The series' introduction of the Inhumans was seen by Oliver Sava of The A.V. Club as making Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. an essential part of the MCU and Marvel Studios' plans, with the connections between the series and the films previously having always been reactive on the series' behalf, with "stuff" happening in the films, and Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

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5.4. DES, Breaking DES, and DES Variants

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) started life in the mid-1970s, adopted by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) [now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)] as Federal Information Processing Standard 46 (FIPS PUB 46-3) and by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as X3.92.

As mentioned earlier, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, DES uses the Data Encryption Algorithm (DEA), a secret key block-cipher employing a 56-bit key operating on 64-bit blocks. FIPS PUB 81 describes four modes of DES operation: Electronic Codebook (ECB), Cipher Block Chaining (CBC), Cipher Feedback (CFB), and Output Feedback (OFB). Despite all of these options, ECB is the most commonly deployed mode of operation.

NIST finally declared DES obsolete in 2004, and withdrew FIPS PUB 46-3, 74, and 81 (Federal Register, July 26, 2004, 69(142), 44509-44510). Although other block ciphers have replaced DES, it is still interesting to see how DES encryption is performed; not only is it sort of neat, but DES was the first crypto scheme commonly seen in non-governmental applications and was the catalyst for modern "public" cryptography and the first public Feistel cipher. DES still remains in many products — and cryptography students and cryptographers will continue to study DES for years to come.

DES Operational Overview

DES uses a 56-bit key. In fact, the 56-bit key is divided into eight 7-bit blocks and an 8th odd parity bit is added to each block (i.e., a "0" or "1" is added to the block so that there are an odd number of 1 bits in each 8-bit block). By using the 8 parity bits for rudimentary error detection, a DES key is actually 64 bits in length for computational purposes although it only has 56 bits worth of randomness, or entropy (See Section A.3 for a brief discussion of entropy and information theory).

FIGURE 11: DES enciphering algorithm.

DES then acts on 64-bit blocks of the plaintext, invoking 16 rounds of permutations, swaps, and substitutes, as shown in Figure 11. The standard includes tables describing all of the selection, permutation, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen expansion operations mentioned below; these aspects of the algorithm are not secrets. The basic DES steps are:

  1. The 64-bit block to be encrypted undergoes an initial permutation (IP), where each bit is moved to a new bit position; e.g., the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd bits are moved to the 58th, 50th, and 42nd position, respectively.

  2. The 64-bit permuted input is divided into two 32-bit blocks, called left and right, respectively. The initial values of the left and right blocks are denoted L0 and R0.

  3. There are then 16 rounds of operation on the L and R blocks. During each iteration (where n ranges from 1 to 16), the following formulae apply:

      Ln = Rn-1
      Rn = Ln-1 ⊕ f(Rn-1,Kn)

    At any given step in the process, then, the new L block value is merely taken from the prior R block value. The new R block is calculated by taking the bit-by-bit exclusive-OR (XOR) of the prior L block with the results of applying the DES cipher function, f, to the prior R block and Kn, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. (Kn is a 48-bit value derived from the 64-bit DES key. Each round uses a different 48 bits according to the standard's Key Schedule algorithm.)

    The cipher function, f, combines the 32-bit R block value and the 48-bit subkey in the following way. First, the 32 bits in the R block are expanded to 48 WinZip Pro 26 Crack Activation Code Download [Latest] by an expansion function (E); the extra 16 bits are found by repeating the bits in 16 predefined positions. The 48-bit expanded R-block is then ORed with the 48-bit subkey. The result is a 48-bit value that is then divided into eight 6-bit blocks. These are fed as input into 8 selection (S) boxes, denoted S1.,S8. Each 6-bit input yields a 4-bit output using a table lookup based on the 64 possible inputs; this results in a 32-bit output from the S-box. The 32 bits are then rearranged by a permutation function (P), producing the results from the cipher function.

  4. The results from the final DES round — i.e., L16 and R16 — are recombined into a 64-bit value and fed into an inverse initial permutation (IP-1). At this step, the bits are rearranged into their original positions, so that the 58th, 50th, and 42nd bits, for example, are moved back into the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd positions, respectively. The output from IP-1 is the 64-bit ciphertext block.

Consider this example using DES in CBC mode with the following 56-bit key and input:

    Key: 1100101 0100100 1001001 0011101 0110101 0101011 1101100 0011010 = 0x6424491D352B6C1A

    Input character string (ASCII/IA5): +2903015-08091765
    Input string (hex): 0x2B323930333031352D3038303931373635

    Output string (hex): 0x9812CB620B2E9FD3AD90DE2B92C6BBB6C52753AC43E1AFA6
    Output character string (BASE64): mBLLYgsun9OtkN4rksa7tsUnU6xD4a+m

Observe that we start with a 17-byte input message. DES acts on eight bytes at a time, so this message is padded to 24 bytes and provides three "inputs" to the cipher algorithm (we don't see the padding here; it is appended by the DES code). Since we have three input blocks, we get 24 bytes of output from the three 64-bit (eight byte) output blocks.

If you want to test this, a really good free, online DES calculator hosted by the Information Security Group at University College London. An excellent step-by-step example of DES can also be found at J. Orlin Grabbe's The DES Algorithm Illustrated page.

NOTE: You'll notice that the output above is shown in BASE64. BASE64 is a 64-character alphabet — i.e., a six-bit character code composed of upper- and lower-case letters, the digits 0-9, and a few punctuation characters — that is commonly used as a way to display binary data. A byte has eight bits, or 256 values, but not all 256 ASCII characters are defined and/or printable. BASE64, simply, takes a binary string (or file), divides it into six-bit blocks, and translates each block into a printable character. More information about BASE64 can be found at my BASE64 Alphabet page or at Wikipedia.

Breaking DES

The mainstream cryptographic community has long held that DES's 56-bit key was too short to withstand a brute-force attack from modern computers, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. Remember Moore's Law: computer power doubles every 18 months. Given that increase in power, a key that could withstand a brute-force guessing attack in 1975 could hardly be expected to withstand the same attack a quarter century later.

DES is even more vulnerable to a brute-force attack because it is often used to encrypt words, meaning that the entropy of the 64-bit block is, effectively, greatly reduced. That is, if we are encrypting random bit streams, then a given byte might contain any one 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen 28 (256) possible values and the entire 64-bit block has 264, or about 18.5 quintillion, possible values. If we are encrypting words, however, we are most likely to find a limited set of bit patterns; perhaps 70 or so if we account for upper and lower case letters, the numbers, space, and some punctuation. This means that only about ¼ of the bit combinations of a given byte are likely to occur.

Despite this criticism, the U.S. government insisted throughout the mid-1990s that 56-bit DES was secure and virtually unbreakable if appropriate precautions were taken. In response, RSA Laboratories sponsored a series of cryptographic challenges to prove that DES was no longer appropriate for use.

DES Challenge I was launched in March 1997. It was completed in 84 days by R. Verser in a collaborative effort using thousands of computers on the Internet.

The first DES Challenge II lasted 40 days in early 1998. This problem was solved by, a worldwide distributed computing network using the spare CPU cycles of computers around the Internet (participants in's activities load a client program that runs in the background, conceptually similar to the SETI @Home "Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence" project). The systems were checking 28 billion keys per second by the end of the project.

The second DES Challenge II lasted less than 3 days. On July 17, 1998, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) announced the construction of hardware that could brute-force a DES key in an average of 4.5 days. Called Deep Crack, the device could check 90 billion keys per second and cost only about $220,000 including design (it was erroneously and widely reported that subsequent devices could be built for as little as $50,000). Since the design is scalable, this suggests that an organization could build a DES cracker that could break 56-bit keys in an average of a day for as little as $1,000,000. Information about the hardware design and all software can be obtained from the EFF.

The DES Challenge III, launched in January 1999, was broken is less than a day by the combined efforts of Deep Crack and This is widely considered to have been the final nail in DES's coffin.

The Deep Crack algorithm is actually quite interesting. The general approach that the DES Cracker Project took was not to break the algorithm mathematically but instead to launch a brute-force attack by guessing every possible key. A 56-bit key yields 256, or about 72 quadrillion, possible values. So the DES cracker team looked for any shortcuts they could find! First, they assumed that some recognizable plaintext would appear in the decrypted string even though they didn't have a specific known plaintext block. They then applied all 256 possible key values to the 64-bit block (I don't mean to make this sound simple!). The system checked to see if the decrypted value of the block was "interesting," which they defined as bytes containing one of the alphanumeric characters, space, or some punctuation. Since the likelihood of a single byte being "interesting" is about ¼, then the likelihood of the entire 8-byte stream being "interesting" is about ¼8, or 1/65536 (½16). This dropped the number of possible keys that might yield positive results to about 240, or about a trillion.

They then made the assumption that an "interesting" 8-byte block would be followed by another "interesting" block. So, if the first block of ciphertext decrypted to something interesting, they decrypted the next block; otherwise, they abandoned this key. Only if the second block was also "interesting" did they examine the key closer. Looking for 16 consecutive bytes that were "interesting" meant that only 224, or 16 million, keys needed to be examined further. This further examination was primarily to see if the text made any sense. Note that possible "interesting" blocks might be 1hJ5&aB7 or DEPOSITS; the latter is more likely to produce a better result. And even a slow laptop today can search through lists of only a few million items in a relatively short period of time. (Interested readers are urged to read Cracking DES and EFF's Cracking DES page.)

It is well beyond the scope of this paper to 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen other forms of breaking DES and other codes. Nevertheless, it is worth mentioning a couple of forms of cryptanalysis that have been shown to be effective against DES. Differential cryptanalysis, invented in 1990 by E. Biham and A. Shamir (of RSA fame), is a chosen-plaintext attack. By selecting pairs of plaintext with particular differences, the cryptanalyst examines the differences in the resultant ciphertext pairs. Linear plaintext, invented by M. Matsui, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, uses a linear approximation to analyze the actions of a block cipher (including DES). Both of these attacks can be more efficient than brute force.

DES Variants

Once DES was "officially" broken, several variants appeared. But none of them came overnight; work at hardening DES had already been underway. In the early 1990s, there was a proposal to increase the security of DES by effectively increasing the key length by using multiple keys with multiple passes. But for this scheme to work, Native Instruments - Noire v1.1 (KONTAKT) | Download Torrent had to first be shown that the DES function is not a group, as defined in mathematics. If DES was a group, then we could show that for two DES keys, X1 and X2, applied to some plaintext (P), we can find a single equivalent key, X3, that would provide the same result; i.e.,

EX2(EX1(P)) = EX3(P)

where EX(P) represents DES encryption of some plaintext P using DES key X, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. If DES were a group, it wouldn't matter how many keys and passes FIFA 20 extract code Archives applied to some plaintext; we could always find a single 56-bit key that would provide the same result.

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For many people, paying with a card is still associated with a “swipe” or a “dip”; however, for the owners of more than 370 million contactless cards accepted in over 8 million locations in 111 countries, they pay with a tap. Mastercard first introduced contactless cards back in 2003 to give consumers a safe and simple way to pay that helps speed them through the checkout line, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen. And that same foundational technology (and many of the same standards) also powers our ability to pay with a phone.masterpass-contactless-at-cafe

Contactless technology was developed by Mastercard with the mindset of never sacrificing security for convenience. The cards and devices contain an embedded chip and a radio frequency (RFID) antenna that provide a wireless link with the contactless reader.  When the card or device is tapped against the reader, information is transmitted in a highly secure manner within a fraction of a second.

But with contactless payment information being transmitted wirelessly, some people question whether it’s truly safe. The simple answer: yes.

  • First, contactless payments require different information than those made over the phone or online. The cardholder’s name, three digit security code on the back of the card, and billing information like zip code are never transmitted. Instead, along with the account information, a one-time-only code is sent from the card or device to the reader to identify that transaction.
  • Second, working with issuers, retailers and payment service providers, Mastercard uses robust fraud detection systems and artificial intelligence to spot suspicious activity and stop fraud in its tracks.
  • Finally, cardholders can rest assured that if their card is compromised, 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen, they are protected with a global zero liability promise and will not be liable for unauthorized charges.

Despite these security measures, there are misconceptions about this technology. Let’s take a look at the myths and the realities of contactless payments:

A thief can easily electronically pickpocket your contactless card/device.While smart phone applications that enable the phone to read some of the data from a contactless enabled card or device do exist, they can only read the account number and expiration date. Plus, the thief would need to be physically close to the card in order to get this information.
If a thief does intercept your contactless information, they can create a counterfeit card to use in a store.When a contactless transaction takes place the card or device provides the reader with a dynamic, one-time-only number that uniquely and securely identifies each specific transaction.It would be extremely difficult for a fraudster to copy the advanced encryption technology that is used to generate this dynamic number and create a functioning counterfeit version of a contactless card.
Even if a thief can’t counterfeit your card, they can make purchases online or by phone.For a purchase to be authenticated and authorized via phone or online, typically several pieces of information must be presented – including the three-digit code on the back of a card and the cardholder’s name and billing address.Since the card or device does not send the code, billing address or zip code information or 5 Realms of Cards N/A crack serial keygen over the contactless interface, the thief won’t have the information typically needed to conduct payment transactions, either in person, on the phone or online.
You are responsible for purchases made by thieves if they steal your card information Mastercard protects consumers against fraudulent charges with a global zero liability policy. That means you are not held liable for unauthorized fraudulent transactions.
In addition to stealing your card data, thieves can also steal your identity.There is a clear distinction between identity theft, where a consumer’s identity is assumed by another individual for criminal purposes, and payment card fraud, where a consumer’s card information is compromised and used to make unauthorized purchases.Mastercard contactless cards and devices do not transmit information about the cardholder such as name or address, so there is very little risk of actual identity theft.

But, knowing that identity theft is a concern for many people, Mastercard does offer an ID Theft Alert service to consumer credit and debit cardholders in the U.S. who can sign up at the following link:

Hopefully, knowing all of the facts (and seeing through the fiction) helps ease your mind if you have a contactless card.

Tags:contactless payments, future of payments, safety & security

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