ARCHIVE | meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary

Browser Archives s

browser Archives s

Once the archiving process is complete, the URL of the archived page appears. Open the web page that you want to save in your browser. archive definition: 1. a collection of historical records relating to a place, that there have been other suggestions, but joey is the best documented. Web Archives is a browser extension which helps you to find archived and cached versions of web pages. Searches can be initiated from the. browser Archives s

Browser Archives s - phrase pity

Web Archives: view archived and cached versions of webpages

Web Archives is an open source browser extension for Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, and other Firefox-based and Chromium-based web browsers, which you may use to display archived and cached versions of webpages.

The extension was known previously as View Page Archive & Cache.

Webpages may come and go, entire sites may be pulled from the Internet or content may be changed. Sometimes, content is temporarily inaccessible, for instance during server issues.

Archive and caching services such as the Wayback Machine save copies of webpages so that the information is not lost.  You may even preserve webpages using services such as the Wayback Machine.

Some web browsers include functionality to open cached or archived versions of webpages automatically if a page can't be loaded. Brave Browser supports this.

Web Archives

Web Archives is an open source extension that integrates functionality to display pages using more than 10 caching and archiving services. Here is the list of services it supports currently: Wayback Machine, Google Cache, Bing Cache, Yandex Cache, storycall.us, Memento Time Travel, WebCite, Exalead Cache, Gigablast Cache, Sogou Snapshot, Qihoo Search Snapshot, Baidu Snapshot, Naver Cache, Yahoo Japan Cache, Megalodon.

To use it, simply install the extension in a supported browser and activate the icon in the browser's toolbar. Web Archives displays a selection of services and an option to look up the page on all services at once. Only six services are listed, and you may open the options with a click on the three-dots and the selection of options to configure the services that are displayed when you activate the menu.

You may add more or less services to the menu. The options page lists several more configuration settings:

  • Define right-click context menu behavior.
  • Enable "show in address bar on server error".
  • Load page archives in new tabs.
  • Open new tabs in the background.

Positive

  • Supports more than ten different archiving and caching services, increasing the chance that a copy exists.
  • Option to customize the services that you want to use, and open individual ones or all of them.

Negative

  • No information if cached or archived copies exist before you open the services.

Alternatives to Web Archives

Web Archives is not the only extension of its kind. We have reviewed several in the past, here is a selection of quality extensions that you may want to check out as well:

  • Vandal (Firefox, Chrome) uses the Internet Archive's Wayback Machine. It offers several usability improvements over using the Wayback Machine directly, including comparing archived copies.
  • Wayback Machine (Firefox, Chrome) is a browser extension that supports only the Wayback Machine archive. May act automatically if certain server errors are thrown when accessing webpages.

Closing Words

Web Archives is a useful extension for Internet users who run into issues opening webpages regularly. Dead or inaccessible content may be resurrected using the extension, and journalists and researchers may use the extension to display previous copies of webpages. All in all, a well designed open source extension.

Now You: what do you do, when you can't access a webpage?

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Источник: [storycall.us]

Meaning of archive in English

The second, by a remarkable collection of photographs, some from the university archives and other sources and some specifically produced for the book.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

The weather variables of maximum and minimum temperature, rainfall and solar radiation were archived for every crop year.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

If you look in the archives you will find that there have been other suggestions, but joey is the best documented.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Even if the archives to which they are linked have been updated, they have not, and their context has changed.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

With untiring zeal he ransacked the archives, exhumed scores of documents and edited many of them.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

In recent years, artists and composers have been increasingly drawn to historical archive material.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

The original source files must be properly archived in text format for future updating, in addition to the run-time application itself.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Oral accounts and archives (the files which were not pitched into the harbour) provide a much different picture.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Current efforts include the ability to adapt user-specified grammars to work on these archived token lists.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

As the classifying and organizing of the archives continued, the catalogue grew accordingly and reached pages in the edition.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

The country's rich intellectual heritage is dispersed among hundreds of libraries and archives across the nation.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Without doubt there are private archives waiting to be identified and used by historians.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Now it is the archive agents' turn to interpret the query, and if necessary to request a clarification or confirmation of an interpretation.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.

Источник: [storycall.us]
Configuration

iipc / awesome-web-archiving Public

Web archiving is the process of collecting portions of the World Wide Web to ensure the information is preserved in an archive for future researchers, historians, and the public. Web archivists typically employ Web crawlers for automated capture due to the massive scale of the Web. Ever-evolving Web standards require continuous evolution of archiving tools to keep up with the changes in Web technologies to ensure reliable and meaningful capture and replay of archived web pages.

Contents

Training/Documentation

Resources for Web Publishers

These resources can help when working with individuals or organisations who publish on the web, and who want to make sure their site can be archived.

Tools & Software

This list of tools and software is intended to briefly describe some of the most important and widely-used tools related to web archiving. For more details, we recommend you refer to (and contribute to!) these excellent resources from other groups:

Acquisition

  • - A non-WARC-based tool which hooks into the Chrome browser and archives everything you browse making it available for offline replay. (In Development)
  • ArchiveBox - A tool which maintains an additive archive from RSS feeds, bookmarks, and links using wget, Chrome headless, and other methods (formerly ). (In Development)
  • archivenow - A Python library to push web resources into on-demand web archives. (Stable)
  • storycall.us - A plugin for Chrome and other Chromium based browsers that lets you interactively archive web pages, replay them, and export them as WARC data. Also available as an Electron based desktop application.
  • Browsertrix Crawler - A Chrome based high-fidelity crawling system, designed to run a complex, customizable browser-based crawl in a single Docker container.
  • Brozzler - A distributed web crawler (爬虫) that uses a real browser (Chrome or Chromium) to fetch pages and embedded urls and to extract links. (Stable)
  • Cairn - A npm package and CLI tool for saving webpages. (Stable)
  • Chronicler - Web browser with record and replay functionality. (In Development)
  • Crawl - A simple web crawler in Golang. (Stable)
  • crocoite - Crawl websites using headless Google Chrome/Chromium and save resources, static DOM snapshot and page screenshots to WARC files. (In Development)
  • F(b)arc - A commandline tool and Python library for archiving data from Facebook using the Graph API. (Stable)
  • freeze-dry - JavaScript library to turn page into static, self-contained HTML document; useful for browser extensions. (In Development)
  • grab-site - The archivist's web crawler: WARC output, dashboard for all crawls, dynamic ignore patterns. (Stable)
  • Heritrix - An open source, extensible, web-scale, archival quality web crawler. (Stable)
  • html2warc - A simple script to convert offline data into a single WARC file. (Stable)
  • HTTrack - An open source website copying utility. (Stable)
  • monolith - CLI tool to save a web page as a single HTML file. (Stable)
  • Obelisk - Go package and CLI tool for saving web page as single HTML file. (Stable)
  • SingleFile - Browser extension for Firefox/Chrome and CLI tool to save a faithful copy of a complete page as a single HTML file. (Stable)
  • SiteStory - A transactional archive that selectively captures and stores transactions that take place between a web client (browser) and a web server. (Stable)
  • Social Feed Manager - Open source software that enables users to create social media collections from Twitter, Tumblr, Flickr, and Sina Weibo public APIs. (Stable)
  • Squidwarc - An open source, high-fidelity, page interacting archival crawler that uses Chrome or Chrome Headless directly. (In Development)
  • StormCrawler - A collection of resources for building low-latency, scalable web crawlers on Apache Storm. (Stable)
  • twarc - A command line tool and Python library for archiving Twitter JSON data. (Stable)
  • WAIL - A graphical user interface (GUI) atop multiple web archiving tools intended to be used as an easy way for anyone to preserve and replay web pages; Python, Electron. (Stable)
  • Warcprox - WARC-writing MITM HTTP/S proxy. (Stable)
  • WARCreate - A Google Chrome extension for archiving an individual webpage or website to a WARC file. (Stable)
  • Warcworker - An open source, dockerized, queued, high fidelity web archiver based on Squidwarc with a simple web GUI. (Stable)
  • Wayback - A toolkit for snapshot webpage to Internet Archive, storycall.us, IPFS and beyond. (Stable)
  • Web2Warc - An easy-to-use and highly customizable crawler that enables anyone to create their own little Web archives (WARC/CDX). (Stable)
  • Web Curator Tool - Open-source workflow management for selective web archiving. (Stable)
  • WebMemex - Browser extension for Firefox and Chrome which lets you archive web pages you visit. (In Development)
  • Webrecorder - Create high-fidelity, interactive recordings of any web site you browse. (Stable)
  • Wget - An open source file retrieval utility that of version supports writing warcs. (Stable)
  • Wget-lua - Wget with Lua extension. (Stable)
  • Wpull - A Wget-compatible (or remake/clone/replacement/alternative) web downloader and crawler. (Stable)

Replay

  • InterPlanetary Wayback (ipwb) - Web Archive (WARC) indexing and replay using IPFS.
  • OpenWayback - The open source project aimed to develop Wayback Machine, the key software used by web archives worldwide to play back archived websites in the user's browser. (Stable)
  • PyWb - A Python (2 and 3) implementation of web archival replay tools, sometimes also known as 'Wayback Machine'. (Stable)
  • Reconstructive - Reconstructive is a ServiceWorker module for client-side reconstruction of composite mementos by rerouting resource requests to corresponding archived copies (JavaScript).
  • storycall.us - A browser-based, fully client-side replay engine for both local and remote WARC files.
  • warc2html - Converts WARC files to static HTML suitable for browsing offline or rehosting.

Search & Discovery

  • Mink - A Google Chrome extension for querying Memento aggregators while browsing and integrating live-archived web navigation. (Stable)
  • playback - A toolkit for searching archived webpages from Internet Archive, storycall.us, Memento and beyond. (In Development)
  • SecurityTrails - Web based archive for WHOIS and DNS records. REST API available free of charge.
  • Tempas v1 - Temporal web archive search based on Delicious tags. (Stable)
  • Tempas v2 - Temporal web archive search based on links and anchor texts extracted from the German web from to (results are not limited to German pages, e.g., Obama@ in Tempas). (Stable)
  • webarchive-discovery - WARC and ARC full-text indexing and discovery tools, with a number of associated tools capable of using the index shown below. (Stable)
    • Shine - A prototype web archives exploration UI, developed with researchers as part of the Big UK Domain Data for the Arts and Humanities project. (Stable)
    • SolrWayback - A backend Java and frontend VUE JS project with freetext search and a build in playback engine. Require Warc files has been index with the Warc-Indexer. The web application also has a wide range of data visualization tools and data export tools that can be used on the whole webarchive. SolrWayback 4 Bundle release contains all the software and dependencies in an out-of-the box solution that is easy to install.
    • Warclight - A Project Blacklight based Rails engine that supports the discovery of web archives held in the WARC and ARC formats. (In Development)
    • Wasp - A fully functional prototype of a personal web archive and search system. (In Development)
    • Other possible options for builting a front-end are listed on in the wiki, here.

Utilities

  • ArchiveTools - Collection of tools to extract and interact with WARC files (Python).
  • gowarcserver - BadgerDB-based capture index (CDX) and WARC record server, used to index and serve WARC files (Go).
  • har2warc - Convert HTTP Archive (HAR) -> Web Archive (WARC) format (Python).
  • storycall.us - Service to return the status of a web page or save it to the Internet Archive. Returns JSON via browser or command line via CURL using GET (Golang Package). (Stable)
  • HTTPreserve Workbench - Tool and API to describe the status of a web page encoded in a simple JSON output describing current status, and earliest and latest links on storycall.us Save a web page to the Internet Archive. Audit lists of URIs and output a CSV with the data described above (Golang). (In Development)
  • httrack2warc - Convert HTTrack archives to WARC format (Java).
  • MementoMap - A Tool to Summarize Web Archive Holdings (Python). (In Development)
  • MemGator - A Memento Aggregator CLI and Server (Golang). (Stable)
  • node-cdxj - CDXJ file parser (storycall.us). (Stable)
  • OutbackCDX - RocksDB-based capture index (CDX) server supporting incremental updates and compression. Can be used as backend for OpenWayback, PyWb and Heritrix. (Stable)
  • py-wasapi-client - Command line application to download crawls from WASAPI (Python). (Stable)
  • The Archive Browser - The Archive Browser is a program that lets you browse the contents of archives, as well as extract them. It will let you open files from inside archives, and lets you preview them using Quick Look. WARC is supported (macOS only, Proprietary app).
  • The Unarchiver - Program to extract the contents of many archive formats, inclusive of WARC, to a file system. Free variant of The Archive Browser (macOS only, Proprietary app).
  • tikalinkextract - Extract hyperlinks as a seed for web archiving from folders of document types that can be parsed by Apache Tika (Golang, Apache Tika Server). (In Development)
  • wasapi-downloader - Java command line application to download crawls from WASAPI. (Stable)
  • WarcPartitioner - Partition (W)ARC Files by MIME Type and Year. (Stable)
  • webarchive-indexing - Tools for bulk indexing of WARC/ARC files on Hadoop, EMR or local file system.
  • wikiteam - Tools for downloading and preserving wikis. (Stable)

WARC I/O Libraries

  • HadoopConcatGz - A Splitable Hadoop InputFormat for Concatenated GZIP Files (and ). (Stable)
  • jwarc - Reading and write WARC files with a typesafe API (Java).
  • Jwat - Libraries and tools for reading/writing/validating WARC/ARC/GZIP files (Java). (Stable)
  • node-warc - Parse WARC files or create WARC files using either Electron or chrome-remote-interface (storycall.us). (Stable)
  • Warcat - Tool and library for handling Web ARChive (WARC) files (Python). (Stable)
  • warcio - Streaming WARC/ARC library for fast web archive IO (Python).
  • warctools - Library to work with ARC and WARC files (Python).
  • webarchive - Golang readers for ARC and WARC webarchive formats (Golang).

Analysis

  • ArchiveSpark - An Apache Spark framework (not only) for Web Archives that enables easy data processing, extraction as well as derivation. (Stable)
  • Archives Unleashed Notebooks - Notebooks for working with web archives with the Archives Unleashed Toolkit, and derivatives generated by the Archives Unleashed Toolkit. (Stable)
  • Archives Unleashed Toolkit - Archives Unleashed Toolkit (AUT) is an open-source platform for analyzing web archives with Apache Spark. (Stable)
  • Tweet Archvies Unleashed Toolkit - An open-source toolkit for analyzing line-oriented JSON Twitter archives with Apache Spark. (In Development)

Quality Assurance

Curation

Community Resources

Other Awesome Lists

Blogs and Scholarship

Mailing Lists

Slack

Twitter

Источник: [storycall.us]

How to troubleshoot an Exchange Online Archive mailbox that is not displayed in Outlook

  • 3 minutes to read
  • Applies to:
    Outlook , Outlook , Outlook

Original KB number:  

Symptoms

The Exchange Online Archive mailbox isn't displayed in the Microsoft Outlook client.

Resolution Method 1 - Verify that your installation of Outlook is up to date

To verify that your installation is up to date:

  1. Determine the version of Outlook that is installed. For more information about how to determine the installed Outlook version, see What version of Outlook do I have.

  2. Determine whether there is a more recent version of Outlook available.

    1. If you used Click-to-Run (C2R) to install Office, see Update history for Microsoft Apps (listed by date).

    2. If you installed Office by using the Windows Installer (MSI), see Outlook and Outlook for Mac: Update File Versions.

Resolution Method 2 - Verify that the correct license type is assigned to Office

A Microsoft Apps for enterprise license is required for archive mailboxes. To verify the license type that is assigned to the affected user, open the Microsoft admin center, and examine the user's license type. For more information about how to use the Microsoft Admin center, see Resolve license conflicts.

For more information about license requirements, see Outlook license requirements for Exchange features.

Resolution Method 3 - Verify that Full Access permission is correctly granted

If a user needs full mailbox access to another user's primary and archive mailboxes, you must grant them the Full Access permission. When they have the Full Access permission, automapping automatically displays the primary and online archive in Outlook Web App and Outlook. For more information about how to grant the Full Access permission, see Use the EAC to assign permissions to individual mailboxes.

Resolution Method 4 - Verify that the Full Mailbox Access permission isn't assigned through a security group

If you assign full mailbox access to a specific set of mailboxes through a security group, the members of the assigned group won't see the mailbox automapped to their Microsoft Outlook profile. For more information about the issue and resolution, see Mailboxes to which your account has full access aren't automapped to Outlook profile.

Resolution Method 5 - Verify that the Automatically detect settings option isn't checked on your browser

To verify the setting of the option:

  • In Internet Explorer:
    1. On the Tools menu, select Internet Options.
    2. Select the Connections tab, and then select the Settings button. If the Automatically detect settings check box is selected, clear it, and then restart Outlook.
  • In Edge:
    1. Select Settings, and then select Advanced in the left pane.
    2. Select the Open proxy settings button.
    3. If Automatically detect settings is set to On, set it to Off, and then restart Outlook.

To check the if Automatically detect settings is checked, refer the following steps:

  1. In Internet Explorer, go to Internet Options. If yes, clear it then restart Outlook.
  2. In Edge, go to Settings then Advanced icon on left pane. Select Open proxy settings, check whether Automatically detect settings is on. If it's checked, clear it then restart Outlook.

Resolution Method 6 - Scan Outlook by using the Microsoft Support and Recovery Assistant tool

If the issue occurs for a user who is trying to access the Online Archive mailbox of another user, you can use the Support and Recovery Assistant (SaRA) tool to scan Outlook and review advanced diagnostics for known problems and details about the Microsoft Outlook configuration. For more information about how to use SaRA, see How to scan Outlook by using the Microsoft Support and Recovery Assistant.

Источник: [storycall.us]

Google Chrome Privacy Notice

Last modified: September 23,

Learn how to control the information that's collected, stored, and shared when you use the Google Chrome browser on your computer or mobile device, Chrome OS, and when you enable Safe Browsing in Chrome. Although this policy describes features that are specific to Chrome, any personal information that is provided to Google or stored in your Google Account will be used and protected in accordance with the Google Privacy Policy, as changed from time to time. Google’s retention policy describes how and why Google retains data.

If Google Play apps have been enabled on your Chromebook, the use and protection of information collected by Google Play or the Android operating system is governed by the Google Play Terms of Service and Google Privacy Policy. Details specific to Chrome are provided in this Notice where relevant.

Details about the Privacy Notice

In this Privacy Notice, we use the term "Chrome" to refer to all the products in the Chrome family listed above. If there are differences in our policy between products, we'll point them out. We change this Privacy Notice from time to time.

"Beta," "Dev," or "Canary" versions of Chrome let you test new features still being created in Chrome. This Privacy Notice applies to all versions of Chrome, but might not be up-to-date for features still under development.

For step-by-step guides to managing your privacy preferences, read this overview of Chrome's privacy controls.

Table of contents:

Browser modes

You don't need to provide any personal information to use Chrome, but Chrome has different modes that you can use to change or improve your browsing experience. Privacy practices are different depending on the mode that you're using.

Basic browser mode

The basic browser mode stores information locally on your system. This information might include:

  • Browsing history information. For example, Chrome stores the URLs of pages that you visit, a cache of text, images and other resources from those pages, and, if the network actions prediction feature is turned on, a list of some of the IP addresses linked from those pages.

  • Personal information and passwords, to help you fill out forms or sign in to sites you visit.

  • A list of permissions that you have granted to websites.

  • Cookies or data from websites that you visit.

  • Data saved by add-ons.

  • A record of what you downloaded from websites.

You can manage this information in several ways:

The personal information that Chrome stores won't be sent to Google unless you choose to store that data in your Google Account by turning on sync, or, in the case of passwords, payment cards, and billing information, choosing specific credentials or payment card and billing information to store in your Google Account. Learn More.

How Chrome handles your information

Information for website operators. Sites that you visit using Chrome will automatically receive standard log information, including your system’s IP address and data from cookies. In general, the fact that you use Chrome to access Google services, such as Gmail, does not cause Google to receive any additional personally identifying information about you. On Google websites and other websites that opt in, if Chrome detects signs that you are being actively attacked by someone on the network (a "man in the middle attack"), Chrome may send information about that connection to Google or the website you visited to help determine the extent of the attack and how the attack functions. Google provides participating website owners with reports about attacks occurring on their sites.

Prerendering. To load web pages faster, Chrome has a setting that can look up the IP addresses of links on a web page and open network connections. Sites and Android apps can also ask the browser to preload the pages you might visit next. Preloading requests from Android apps are controlled by the same setting as Chrome-initiated predictions. But preloading instructions from sites are always performed, regardless of whether Chrome’s network prediction feature is enabled. If prerendering is requested, whether by Chrome or by a site or app, the preloaded site is allowed to set and read its own cookies just as if you had visited it, even if you don’t end up visiting the prerendered page. Learn more.

Location. To get more geographically relevant information, Chrome gives you the option to share your location with a site. Chrome won't allow a site to access your location without your permission; Chrome uses Google Location Services to estimate your location. The information that Chrome sends to Google Location Services may include:

  • The Wi-Fi routers closest to you
  • Cell IDs of the cell towers closest to you
  • The strength of your Wi-Fi or cell signal
  • The IP address that is currently assigned to your device

Google doesn't have control over third-party websites or their privacy practices, so be cautious when sharing your location with a website.

Updates. Chrome periodically sends information to Google to check for updates, get connectivity status, validate the current time, and estimate the number of active users.

Search features. If you are signed in to a Google site and Google is your default search engine, searches you perform using the omnibox or the search box on the new tab page in Chrome are stored in your Google Account.

Search prediction service. To help you find information faster, Chrome uses the prediction service provided by your default search engine to offer likely completions to the text you are typing. When you search using the omnibox or the search box on the new tab page in Chrome, the characters you type (even if you haven’t hit "enter" yet) are sent to your default search engine. If Google is your default search engine, predictions are based on your own search history, topics related to what you’re typing in the omnibox or in the search box on the new tab page, and what other people are searching for. Learn more. Predictions can also be based on your browsing history. Learn more.

Navigation assistance. When you can’t connect to a web page, you can get suggestions for alternative pages similar to the one you're trying to reach. In order to offer you suggestions, Chrome sends Google the URL of the page you're trying to reach.

Autofill, password management, and payments. In order to improve Chrome’s Autofill and password management services, Chrome sends Google limited, anonymous information about the web forms that you encounter or submit while Autofill or password management is enabled, including a hashed URL of the web page and details of the form's structure. Learn more.

When you are signed into Chrome with your Google Account, Chrome may offer to save passwords, payment methods and related information to your Google Account. Chrome may also offer you the option of filling passwords and payment methods from your Google Account into web forms. If you have passwords or payment methods saved locally in Chrome, Chrome may prompt you to save them to your Google Account. If you use a payment method from your Google Account or choose to save your payment method in your Google Account for future use, Chrome will collect information about your computer and share it with Google Pay to protect you from fraud and provide the service. If supported by the merchant, Chrome will also allow you to pay using Google Pay.

Language. In order to customize your browsing experience based on the languages that you prefer to read, Chrome will keep a count of the most popular languages of the sites you visit. This language preference will be sent to Google to customize your experience in Chrome. If you have turned on Chrome sync, this language profile will be associated with your Google Account and, if you include Chrome history in your Google Web & App Activity, it may be used to personalize your experience in other Google products. View Activity Controls.

Web Apps on Android. On Android devices, if you select "add to homescreen" for a website that has been optimised for fast, reliable performance on mobile devices, then Chrome will use a Google server to create a native Android package for that website on your device. The Android package allows you to interact with the web app as you would with an Android app. For example, the web app will appear in your list of installed apps. Find out more.

Usage statistics and crash reports. By default, usage statistics and crash reports are sent to Google to help us improve our products. Usage statistics contain information such as preferences, button clicks, performance statistics, and memory usage. In general, usage statistics do not include web page URLs or personal information, but, if you have turned on "Make searches and browsing better / Sends URLs of pages you visit to Google", then Chrome usage statistics include information about the web pages you visit and your usage of them. If you have enabled Chrome sync, Chrome may combine any declared age and gender information from your Google account with our statistics to help us build products better suited for all demographics. For example, we may collect statistics to identify web pages that load slowly. We use this information to improve our products and services, and to give web developers insight into improving their pages. Crash reports contain system information at the time of the crash, and may contain web page URLs or personal information, depending on what was happening at the time the crash report was triggered. We may share aggregated, non-personally identifiable information publicly and with partners — like publishers, advertisers or web developers. You can change whether usage statistics and crash reports are sent to Google at any time. Learn more. If Google Play apps are enabled on your Chromebook and Chrome usage statistics are enabled, then Android diagnostic and usage data is also sent to Google.

Media licences. Some websites encrypt media to protect against unauthorised access and copying. For HTML5 sites, this key exchange is done using the Encrypted Media Extensions API. In the process of allowing access to this media, session identifiers and licences may be stored locally. These identifiers can be cleared by the user in Chrome using Clear Browsing Data with "Cookies and other site data" selected. For sites that use Adobe Flash Access, Chrome will provide a unique identifier to content partners and websites. The identifier is stored on your system. You can deny this access in the settings under Content Settings, Protected content, and reset the ID using Clear Browsing Data with "Cookies and other site data" selected. If you access protected content in Chrome on Android, or access higher quality or offline content on Chrome OS, a content provider may ask Chrome for a certificate to verify the eligibility of the device. Your device will share a site-specific identifier with the website to certify that its cryptographic keys are protected by Chrome hardware. Find out more.

Other Google services. This notice describes the Google services that are enabled by default in Chrome. In addition, Chrome may offer other Google web services. For example, if you encounter a page in a different language, Chrome will offer to send the text to Google for translation. You will be notified of your options for controlling these services when you first use them. You can find more information in the Chrome Privacy Whitepaper.

Identifiers in Chrome

Chrome includes a number of unique and non-unique identifiers necessary to power features and functional services. For example, if you use push messaging, an identifier is created in order to deliver notices to you. Where possible, we use non-unique identifiers and remove identifiers when they are no longer needed. Additionally, the following identifiers help us develop, distribute, and promote Chrome, but are not directly related to a Chrome feature.

  • Installation tracking. Each copy of the Windows desktop version of the Chrome browser includes a temporary randomly generated installation number that is sent to Google when you install and first use Chrome. This temporary identifier helps us estimate the number of installed browsers, and will be deleted the first time Chrome updates. The mobile version of Chrome uses a variant of the device identifier on an ongoing basis to track the number of installations of Chrome.

  • Promotion tracking. In order to help us track the success of promotional campaigns, Chrome generates a unique token that is sent to Google when you first run and use the browser. In addition, if you received or reactivated your copy of the desktop version of the Chrome browser as part of a promotional campaign and Google is your default search engine, then searches from the omnibox will include a non-unique promotional tag. All mobile versions of the Chrome browser also include a non-unique promotional tag with searches from the omnibox. Chrome OS may also send a non-unique promotional tag to Google periodically (including during initial setup) and when performing searches with Google. Learn more.

  • Field trials. We sometimes conduct limited tests of new features. Chrome includes a seed number that is randomly selected on first run to assign browsers to experiment groups. Experiments may also be limited by country (determined by your IP address), operating system, Chrome version, and other parameters. A list of field trials that are currently active on your installation of Chrome is included in all requests sent to Google. Learn more.

Sign-in and Sync Chrome modes

You also have the option to use the Chrome browser while signed in to your Google Account, with or without sync enabled.

Sign in. On desktop versions of Chrome, signing into or out of any Google web service, like storycall.us, signs you into or out of Chrome. You can turn this off in settings. Learn more. On Chrome on Android and iOS, when you sign into any Google web service, Chrome may offer to sign you in with the Google Accounts that are already signed in on the device. You can turn this off in settings. Learn more. If you are signed in to Chrome with your Google Account, Chrome may offer to save your passwords, payment methods and related information to your Google Account. This personal information will be used and protected in accordance with the Google Privacy Policy.

Sync. When you sign in to the Chrome browser or a Chromebook and enable sync with your Google Account, your personal information is saved in your Google Account on Google's servers so you may access it when you sign in and sync to Chrome on other computers and devices. This personal information will be used and protected in accordance with the Google Privacy Policy. This type of information can include:

  • Browsing history
  • Bookmarks
  • Tabs
  • Passwords and Autofill information
  • Other browser settings, like installed extensions

Sync is only enabled if you choose. Learn More. To customize the specific information that you have enabled to sync, use the "Settings" menu. Learn more. You can see the amount of Chrome data stored for your Google Account and manage it at Chrome data from your account. On the Dashboard, except for Google Accounts created through Family Link, you can also disable sync and delete all the associated data from Google’s servers. Learn more. For Google Accounts created in Family Link, sign-in is required and sync cannot be disabled because it provides parent management features, such as website restrictions. However, children with Family Link accounts can still delete their data and disable synchronization of most data types. Learn More. The Privacy Notice for Google Accounts created in Family Link applies to Chrome sync data stored in those accounts.

How Chrome handles your synced information

When you enable sync with your Google Account, we use your browsing data to improve and personalize your experience within Chrome. You can also personalize your experience on other Google products, by allowing your Chrome history to be included in your Google Web & App Activity. Learn more.

You can change this setting on your Account History page or manage your private data whenever you like. If you don't use your Chrome data to personalize your Google experience outside of Chrome, Google will only use your Chrome data after it's anonymized and aggregated with data from other users. Google uses this data to develop new features, products, and services, and to improve the overall quality of existing products and services. If you would like to use Google's cloud to store and sync your Chrome data but you don't want Google to access the data, you can encrypt your synced Chrome data with your own sync passphrase. Learn more.

Incognito mode and guest mode

You can limit the information Chrome stores on your system by using incognito mode or guest mode. In these modes, Chrome won't store certain information, such as:

  • Basic browsing history information like URLs, cached page text, or IP addresses of pages linked from the websites you visit
  • Snapshots of pages that you visit
  • Records of your downloads, although the files you download will still be stored elsewhere on your computer or device

How Chrome handles your incognito or guest information

Cookies. Chrome won't share existing cookies with sites you visit in incognito or guest mode. Sites may deposit new cookies on your system while you are in these modes, but they'll only be stored and transmitted until you close the last incognito or guest window.

Browser configuration changes. When you make changes to your browser configuration, like bookmarking a web page or changing your settings, this information is saved. These changes are not affected by incognito or guest mode.

Permissions. Permissions you grant in incognito mode are not saved to your existing profile.

Profile information. In incognito mode, you will still have access to information from your existing profile, such as suggestions based on your browsing history and saved passwords, while you are browsing. In guest mode, you can browse without seeing information from any existing profiles.

Managing Users in Chrome

Managing users for personal Chrome use

You can set up personalized versions of Chrome for users sharing one device or computer. Note that anyone with access to your device can view all the information in all profiles. To truly protect your data from being seen by others, use the built-in user accounts in your operating system. Learn more.

Managing users on Chrome for Enterprise

Some Chrome browsers or Chromebooks are managed by a school or company. In that case, the administrator has the ability to apply policies to the browser or Chromebook. Chrome contacts Google to check for these policies when a user first starts browsing (except in guest mode). Chrome checks periodically for updates to policies.

An administrator can set up a policy for status and activity reporting for Chrome, including location information for Chrome OS devices. Your administrators may also have the ability to access, monitor, use or disclose data accessed from your managed device.

Safe Browsing practices

Google Chrome and certain third-party browsers, like some versions of Mozilla Firefox and Apple’s Safari, include Google's Safe Browsing feature. With Safe Browsing, information about suspicious websites is sent and received between the browser you are using and Google's servers.

How Safe Browsing works

Your browser contacts Google's servers periodically to download the most recent "Safe Browsing" list, which contains known phishing and malware sites. The most recent copy of the list is stored locally on your system. Google doesn't collect any account information or other personally identifying information as part of this contact. However, it does receive standard log information, including an IP address and cookies.

Each site you visit is checked against the Safe Browsing list on your system. If there's a match, your browser sends Google a hashed, partial copy of the site’s URL so that Google can send more information to your browser. Google cannot determine the real URL from this information. Learn more.

The following Safe Browsing features are specific to Chrome:

  • If you have turned on Safe Browsing’s Enhanced Protection mode, Chrome provides additional protections, and sends Google additional data, as described in Chrome settings. Learn more. Some of these protections may also be available as standalone features, subject to separate controls, where Standard Protection is enabled.

  • If you have turned on "Make searches and browsing better / Sends URLs of pages you visit to Google” and Safe Browsing is enabled, Chrome sends Google the full URL of each site you visit to determine whether that site is safe. If you also sync your browsing history without a sync passphrase, these URLs will be temporarily associated with your Google account to provide more personalized protection. This feature is disabled in incognito and guest modes.

  • Some versions of Chrome feature Safe Browsing technology that can identify potentially harmful sites and potentially dangerous file types not already known by Google. The full URL of the site or potentially dangerous file might also be sent to Google to help determine whether the site or file is harmful.

  • Chrome uses Safe Browsing technology to scan your computer periodically, in order to detect unwanted software that prevents you from changing your settings or otherwise interferes with the security and stability of your browser. Learn more. If this kind of software is detected, Chrome might offer you the option to download the Chrome Cleanup Tool to remove it.

  • You can choose to send additional data to help improve Safe Browsing when you access a site that appears to contain malware or when Chrome detects unwanted software on your computer. Learn more.

  • If you use Chrome’s password manager, Safe Browsing checks with Google when you enter any saved password on an uncommon page to protect you from phishing attacks. Chrome does not send your passwords to Google as part of this protection. In addition, Safe Browsing protects your Google Account password. If you enter it on a likely phishing site, Chrome will prompt you to change your Google Account password. If you sync your browsing history, or if you are signed in to your Google Account and choose to notify Google, Chrome will also flag your Google Account as likely phished.

  • If you are signed in to your Google Account, Chrome will also warn you when you use a username and password that may have been exposed in a data breach. To check, when you sign in to a site, Chrome sends Google a partial hash of your username and other encrypted information about your password, and Google returns a list of possible matches from known breaches. Chrome uses this list to determine whether your username and password were exposed. Google does not learn your username or password, or whether they were exposed, as part of this process. This feature can be disabled in Chrome settings. Learn more.

  • On desktop and Android versions of Chrome, you can always choose to disable the Safe Browsing feature within Chrome settings. On iOS versions of Chrome, Apple controls the Safe Browsing technology used by your device and may send data to Safe Browsing providers other than Google.

Privacy practices of apps, extensions, themes, services, and other add-ons

You can use apps, extensions, themes, services and other add-ons with Chrome, including some that may be preinstalled or integrated with Chrome. Add-ons developed and provided by Google may communicate with Google servers and are subject to the Google Privacy Policy unless otherwise indicated. Add-ons developed and provided by others are the responsibility of the add-on creators and may have different privacy policies.

Managing add-ons

Before installing an add-on, you should review the requested permissions. Add-ons can have permission to do various things, like:

  • Store, access, and share data stored locally or in your Google Drive account
  • View and access content on websites you visit
  • Use notifications that are sent through Google servers

Chrome can interact with add-ons in a few different ways:

  • Checking for updates
  • Downloading and installing updates
  • Sending usage indicators to Google about the add-ons

Some add-ons might require access to a unique identifier for digital rights management or for delivery of push messaging. You can disable the use of identifiers by removing the add-on from Chrome.

From time to time, Google might discover an add-on that poses a security threat, violates the developer terms for Chrome Web Store, or violates other legal agreements, laws, regulations, or policies. Chrome periodically downloads a list of these dangerous add-ons, in order to remotely disable or remove them from your system.

Server Log Privacy Information

Like most websites, our servers automatically record the page requests made when you visit our sites. These "server logs" typically include your web request, Internet Protocol address, browser type, browser language, the date and time of your request and one or more cookies that may uniquely identify your browser.

Here is an example of a typical log entry for where the search is for "cars" looks like this, followed by a breakdown of its parts:

  • is the Internet Protocol address assigned to the user by the user’s ISP. D; depending on the user’s service, a different address may be assigned to the user by their service provider each time they connect to the Internet.;
  • is the date and time of the query.;
  • is the requested URL, including the search query.;
  • is the browser and operating system being used.;
  • is the unique cookie ID that was assigned to this particular computer the first time it visited a Google site. (Cookies can be deleted by users. If the user has deleted the cookie from the computer since the last time they’ve/s/he visited Google, then it will be the unique cookie ID assigned to their device the user the next time theys/he visits Google from that particular computer).

More information

Information that Google receives when you use Chrome is used and protected under the Google Privacy Policy. Information that other website operators and add-on developers receive, including cookies, is subject to the privacy policies of those websites.

Data protection laws vary among countries, with some providing more protection than others. Regardless of where your information is processed, we apply the same protections described in the Google Privacy Policy. We also comply with certain legal frameworks relating to the transfer of data, including the European frameworks described on our Data Transfer Frameworks page. Learn more.

Key Terms

Cookies

A cookie is a small file containing a string of characters that is sent to your computer when you visit a website. When you visit the site again, the cookie allows that site to recognize your browser. Cookies may store user preferences and other information. You can configure your browser to refuse all cookies or to indicate when a cookie is being sent. However, some website features or services may not function properly without cookies. Learn more about how Google uses cookies and how Google uses data, including cookies, when you use our partners' sites or apps.

Google Account

You may access some of our services by signing up for a Google Account and providing us with some personal information (typically your name, email address and a password). This account information is used to authenticate you when you access Google services and protect your account from unauthorized access by others. You can edit or delete your account at any time through your Google Account settings.

Источник: [storycall.us]

Internet Archive

For other uses, see Internet archive (disambiguation).

For help citing the Wayback Machine (an Internet Archive service) in the English Wikipedia, see Help:Using the Wayback Machine.

"storycall.us" redirects here. It is not to be confused with storycall.us

American non-profit organization providing archives of digital media since

Coordinates: 37°46′56″N°28′18″W / °N °W / ;

The Internet Archive is an American digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge".[notes 2][notes 3] It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating a free and open Internet. As of November , the Internet Archive holds over 33 million books and texts, million movies, videos and TV shows, , software programs, 13,, audio files, 4 million images, and billion web pages in the Wayback Machine.

The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains hundreds of billions of web captures.[notes 4][3] The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

History[edit]

Headquarters in Building of the Presidio of San Francisco in

Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in May around the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet.[notes 5] In October , the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities,[notes 6] though it saved the earliest pages in May [4][5] The archived content first became available to the general public in , when it developed the Wayback Machine.

In late , the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archives. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Soon after that, the Archive began working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled; publicly accessible books were made available in a protected Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) format.[notes 7]

According to its website:[notes 8]

Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.

In August , the Archive announced[6] that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for more than million existing files, and all newly uploaded files.[7][8] This method is the fastest means of downloading media from the Archive, as files are served from two Archive data centers, in addition to other torrent clients which have downloaded and continue to serve the files.[7][notes 9] On November 6, , the Internet Archive's headquarters in San Francisco's Richmond District caught fire,[9] destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.[10] According to the Archive, it lost a side-building housing one of 30 of its scanning centers; cameras, lights, and scanning equipment worth hundreds of thousands of dollars; and "maybe 20 boxes of books and film, some irreplaceable, most already digitized, and some replaceable".[11] The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $, in damage.[12]

An overhaul of the site was launched as beta in November , and the legacy layout was removed in March [13][14]

In November , Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the Archive to be based somewhere in Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build a backup archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump.[15][16][17] Kahle was quoted as saying:

On November 9th in America, we woke up to a new administration promising radical change. It was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and perpetually accessible. It means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions. It means serving patrons in a world in which government surveillance is not going away; indeed it looks like it will increase. Throughout history, libraries have fought against terrible violations of privacy—where people have been rounded up simply for what they read. At the Internet Archive, we are fighting to protect our readers' privacy in the digital world.[15]

Beginning in , OCLC and the Internet Archive have collaborated to make the Archive's records of digitized books available in WorldCat.[18]

Since , the Internet Archive visual arts residency, which is organized by Amir Saber Esfahani and Andrew McClintock, helps connect artists with the Archive's over 48 petabytes[notes 10] of digitized materials. Over the course of the yearlong residency, visual artists create a body of work which culminates in an exhibition. The hope is to connect digital history with the arts and create something for future generations to appreciate online or off.[19] Previous artists in residence include Taravat Talepasand, Whitney Lynn, and Jenny Odell.[20]

In , its headquarters in San Francisco received a bomb threat which forced a temporary evacuation of the building.[21]

The Internet Archive acquires most materials from donations,[notes 11] such as hundreds of thousands of 78&#;rpm discs from Boston Public Library in ,[22] a donation of , books from Trent University in ,[23] and the entire collection of Marygrove College's library in after it closed.[24] All material is then digitized and retained in digital storage, while a digital copy is returned to the original holder and the Internet Archive's copy, if not in the public domain, is lent to patrons worldwide one at a time under the controlled digital lending (CDL) theory of the first-sale doctrine.[25]

Operations[edit]

Ambox current red storycall.us

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(May )

The Archive is a (c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[26] The Internet Archive also manages periodic funding campaigns. For instance, a December campaign had a goal of reaching $6 million in donations.[citation needed]

The Archive is headquartered in San Francisco, California. From to , its headquarters were in the Presidio of San Francisco, a former U.S. military base. Since , its headquarters have been at Funston Avenue in San Francisco, a former Christian Science Church. At one time, most of its staff worked in its book-scanning centers; as of , scanning is performed by paid operators worldwide.[27] The Archive also has data centers in three Californian cities: San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To reduce the risk of data loss, the Archive creates copies of parts of its collection at more distant locations, including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina[notes 12] in Egypt and a facility in Amsterdam.[28]

The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium[29] and was officially designated as a library by the state of California in [notes 13][30]

Web archiving[edit]

Main article: Web archiving

Wayback Machine[edit]

Main article: Wayback Machine

Wayback Machine logo, used since

The Internet Archive capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon (specifically, Peabody's Improbable History), and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.[31] This service allows users to view some of the archived web pages. The Wayback Machine was created as a joint effort between Alexa Internet (owned by storycall.us) and the Internet Archive when a three-dimensional index was built to allow for the browsing of archived web content.[notes 14] Millions of web sites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of web sites used to look like, to grab original source code from web sites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit web sites that no longer even exist. Not all web sites are available because many web site owners choose to exclude their sites. As with all sites based on data from web crawlers, the Internet Archive misses large areas of the web for a variety of other reasons. A paper found international biases in the coverage, but deemed them "not intentional".[32]

A purchase of additional storage at the Internet Archive
Serversat the Internet Archive headquarters in San Francisco

A "Save Page Now" archiving feature was made available in October ,[33] accessible on the lower right of the Wayback Machine's main page.[notes 15] Once a target URL is entered and saved, the web page will become part of the Wayback Machine.[33] Through the Internet address storycall.us,[34] users can upload to the Wayback Machine a large variety of contents, including PDF and data compression file formats. The Wayback Machine creates a permanent local URL of the upload content, that is accessible in the web, even if not listed while searching in the storycall.us official website.

May 12, , is the date of the oldest archived pages on the storycall.us WayBack Machine, such as storycall.us[35]

In October , it was announced that the way web pages are counted would be changed, resulting in the decrease of the archived pages counts shown.[36]

In September , the Internet Archive announced a partnership with Cloudflare to automatically index websites served via its "Always Online" services.[38]

Archive-It[edit]

Brewster Kahleof the Internet Archive talks about archiving operations

Created in early , Archive-It[39] is a web archiving subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives. Archive-It allows the user to customize their capture or exclusion of web content they want to preserve for cultural heritage reasons. Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, browse, search, and view their archived collections.[40]

In terms of accessibility, the archived web sites are full text searchable within seven days of capture.[41] Content collected through Archive-It is captured and stored as a WARC file. A primary and back-up copy is stored at the Internet Archive data centers. A copy of the WARC file can be given to subscribing partner institutions for geo-redundant preservation and storage purposes to their best practice standards.[42] Periodically, the data captured through Archive-It is indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive.

As of March&#;[update], Archive-It had more than partner institutions in 46 U.S. states and 16 countries that have captured more than billion URLs for more than 2, public collections. Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, state archives, federal institutions, museums, law libraries, and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, North Carolina State Archives and Library, Stanford University, Columbia University, American University in Cairo, Georgetown Law Library, and many others.

Internet Archive Scholar[edit]

In September Internet Archive announced a new initiative to archive and preserve open access academic journals, called the "Internet Archive Scholar".[43][44] Its fulltext search index includes over 25 million research articles and other scholarly documents preserved in the Internet Archive. The collection spans from digitized copies of eighteenth century journals through the latest Open Access conference proceedings and pre-prints crawled from the World Wide Web.

General Index[edit]

In , the Internet Archive announced the initial version of the General Index, a publicly available index to a collection of million academic journal articles.[45][46]

Book collections[edit]

Text collection[edit]

The Internet Archive operates 33 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1, books a day for a total of more than 2 million books,[47] financially supported by libraries and foundations.[notes 29] As of July&#;[update], the collection included million books with more than 15 million downloads per month.[47] As of November&#;[update], when there were approximately 1 million texts, the entire collection was greater than petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.[48] Between about and , Microsoft had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning more than , books that were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, , Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.[49] Microsoft made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.[49]

An Internet Archive in-house scan ongoing

Around October , Archive users began uploading public domain books from Google Book Search.[notes 30] As of November&#;[update], there were more than , Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection;[notes 31] the books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download.[50] Brewster Kahle revealed in that this archival effort was coordinated by Aaron Swartz, who with a "bunch of friends" downloaded the public domain books from Google slow enough and from enough computers to stay within Google's restrictions. They did this to ensure public access to the public domain. The Archive ensured the items were attributed and linked back to Google, which never complained, while libraries "grumbled". According to Kahle, this is an example of Swartz's "genius" to work on what could give the most to the public good for millions of people.[51]Besides books, the Archive offers free and anonymous public access to more than four million court opinions, legal briefs, or exhibits uploaded from the United States Federal Courts' PACER electronic document system via the RECAP web browser plugin. These documents had been kept behind a federal court paywall. On the Archive, they had been accessed by more than six million people by [51]

The Archive's BookReader web app,[52] built into its website, has features such as single-page, two-page, and thumbnail modes; fullscreen mode; page zooming of high-resolution images; and flip page animation.[52][53]

Number of texts for each language[edit]

Number of all texts
(December 9, )
22,,[54]
Language Number of texts
(November 27, )
English6,,[notes 32]
French,[notes 33]
German,[notes 34]
Spanish,[notes 35]
Chinese84,[notes 36]
Arabic66,[notes 37]
Dutch30,[notes 38]
Portuguese25,[notes 39]
Russian22,[notes 40]
Urdu14,[notes 41]
Japanese14,[notes 42]

Number of texts for each decade[edit]

Decade Number of texts
(July 5, )
s 82,[notes 43]
s ,[notes 44]
s ,[notes 45]
s ,[notes 46]
s ,[notes 47]
s ,[notes 48]
s ,[notes 49]
s ,[notes 50]
s ,[notes 51]
s ,[notes 52]
Decade Number of texts
(July 5, )
s ,[notes 53]
s ,[notes 54]
s ,[notes 55]
s ,[notes 56]
s ,[notes 57]
s ,[notes 58]
s ,[notes 59]
s 2,,[notes 60]
s 1,,[notes 61]
s 1,,[notes 62]

Open Library[edit]

Main article: Open Library

The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The wiki seeks to include a web page for every book ever published: it holds 25 million catalog records of editions. It also seeks to be a web-accessible public library: it contains the full texts of approximately 1,, public domain books (out of the more than five million from the main texts collection), as well as in-print and in-copyright books,[55] many of which are fully readable, downloadable[56][57] and full-text searchable;[58] it offers a two-week loan of e-books in its controlled digital lending program for over , books not in the public domain, in partnership with over 1, library partners from 6 countries[47][59] after a free registration on the web site. Open Library is a free and open-source software project, with its source code freely available on GitHub.

The Open Library faces objections from some authors and the Society of Authors, who hold that the project is distributing books without authorization and is thus in violation of copyright laws,[60] and four major publishers initiated a copyright infringement lawsuit against the Internet Archive in June to stop the Open Library project.[61]

[edit]

Many large institutional sponsors have helped the Internet Archive provide millions of scanned publications (text items).[62] Some sponsors that have digitized large quantities of texts include the University of Toronto's Robarts Library, the University of Alberta Libraries, the University of Ottawa, the Library of Congress, Boston Library Consortium member libraries, the Boston Public Library, the Princeton Theological Seminary Library, and many others.[63]

In , the MIT Press authorized the Internet Archive to digitize and lend books from the press's backlist,[64] with financial support from the Arcadia Fund.[65][66] A year later, the Internet Archive received further funding from the Arcadia Fund to invite some other university presses to partner with the Internet Archive to digitize books, a project called "Unlocking University Press Books".[67][68]

The Library of Congress has created numerous handle system identifiers that point to free digitized books in the Internet Archive.[69] The Internet Archive and Open Library are listed on the Library of Congress website as a source of e-books.[70]

Media collections[edit]

Microfilms at the Internet Archive

In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. Media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes a "Community" sub-collection (formerly named "Open Source") where general contributions by the public are stored.

Audio[edit]

Audio Archive[edit]

The Audio Archive is an audio archive that includes music, audiobooks, news broadcasts, old time radio shows, and a wide variety of other audio files. There are more than , free digital recordings in the collection. The subcollections include audio books and poetry, podcasts, non-English audio, and many others.[notes 66] The sound collections are curated by B. George, director of the ARChive of Contemporary Music.[71]

Next to the stock HTML5 audio player, Winamp-resembling Webamp is available.

Live Music Archive[edit]

Main article: Live Music Archive

The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes more than , concert recordings from independent musicians, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts, such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Also, Jordan Zevon has allowed the Internet Archive to host a definitive collection of his father Warren Zevon's concert recordings. The Zevon collection ranges from to and contains concerts including 1, songs.[72]

The Great 78 Project[edit]

Main article: The Great 78 Project

The Great 78 Project aims to digitize , 78 rpm singles (, songs) from the period between and , donated by various collectors and institutions. It has been developed in collaboration with the Archive of Contemporary Music and George Blood Audio, responsible for the audio digitization.[71]

Netlabels[edit]

Not to be confused with Netlabel.

The Archive has a collection of freely distributable music that is streamed and available for download via its Netlabels service. The music in this collection generally has Creative Commons-license catalogs of virtual record labels.[notes 67][73]

Images collection[edit]

This collection contains more than million items.[74]Cover Art Archive, Metropolitan Museum of Art - Gallery Images, NASA Images, Occupy Wall StreetFlickr Archive, and USGS Maps and are some sub-collections of Image collection.

Cover Art Archive[edit]

Logo of Cover Art Archive

The Cover Art Archive is a joint project between the Internet Archive and MusicBrainz, whose goal is to make cover art images on the Internet. As of April&#;,[update] this collection contains more than 1,, items.[notes 68]

Metropolitan Museum of Art images[edit]

The images of this collection are from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This collection contains more than , items.[notes 69]

NASA Images[edit]

The NASA Images archive was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive and NASA to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The IA NASA Images team worked closely with all of the NASA centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection.[75] The storycall.us site launched in July and had more than , items online at the end of its hosting in

Occupy Wall Street Flickr archive[edit]

This collection contains creative commons licensed photographs from Flickr related to the Occupy Wall Street movement. This collection contains more than 15, items.[notes 70]

USGS Maps[edit]

This collection contains more than 59, items from Libre Map Project.[notes 71]

Mathematical images[edit]

This collection contains mathematical images created by mathematical artist Hamid Naderi Yeganeh.[notes 72]

Machinima Archive[edit]

One of the sub-collections of the Internet Archive's Video Archive is the Machinima Archive. This small section hosts many Machinima videos. Machinima is a digital artform in which computer games, game engines, or software engines are used in a sandbox-like mode to create motion pictures, recreate plays, or even publish presentations or keynotes. The archive collects a range of Machinima films from internet publishers such as Rooster Teeth and storycall.us as well as independent producers. The sub-collection is a collaborative effort among the Internet Archive, the How They Got Game research project at Stanford University, the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences, and storycall.us[notes 73]

Microfilm collection[edit]

This collection contains approximately , microfilmed items from a variety of libraries including the University of Chicago Libraries, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Alberta, Allen County Public Library, and the National Technical Information Service.[notes 74][notes 75]

Moving image collection[edit]

See also: Wikipedia list of films freely available on the Internet Archive

The Internet Archive holds a collection of approximately 3, feature films.[notes 76] Additionally, the Internet Archive's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels, classic cartoons, pro- and anti-war propaganda, The Video Cellar Collection, Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection, early television, and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational, and industrial films, as well as amateur and home movie collections.

Subcategories of this collection include:

  • IA's Brick Films collection, which contains stop-motion animation filmed with Lego bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films.
  • IA's Election collection, a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the United States presidential election.
  • IA's FedFlix collection, Joint Venture NTIS between the National Technical Information Service and storycall.us that features "the best movies of the United States Government, from training films to history, from our national parks to the U.S. Fire Academy and the Postal Inspectors"[notes 77]
  • IA's Independent News collection, which includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition from , in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters". Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating Indian Ocean earthquake.
  • IA's September 11 Television Archive, which contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11, , as they unfolded on live television.[notes 78]

Open Educational Resources[edit]

Open Educational Resources is a digital collection at storycall.us This collection contains hundreds of free courses, video lectures, and supplemental materials from universities in the United States and China. The contributors of this collection are ArsDigita University, Hewlett Foundation, MIT, Monterey Institute, and Naropa University.[notes 79]

TV News Search & Borrow[edit]

TV tuners at the Internet Archive

In September , the Internet Archive launched the TV News Search & Borrow service for searching U.S. national news programs.[notes 80] The service is built on closed captioning transcripts and allows users to search and stream second video clips. Upon launch, the service contained ", news programs collected over 3 years from national U.S. networks and stations in San Francisco and Washington D.C."[76] According to Kahle, the service was inspired by the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a similar library of televised network news programs.[77] In contrast to Vanderbilt, which limits access to streaming video to individuals associated with subscribing colleges and universities, the TV News Search & Borrow allows open access to its streaming video clips. In , the Archive received an additional donation of "approximately 40, well-organized tapes" from the estate of a Philadelphia woman, Marion Stokes. Stokes "had recorded more than 35 years of TV news in Philadelphia and Boston with her VHS and Betamax machines."[78]

Miscellaneous collections[edit]

Brooklyn Museum[edit]

This collection contains approximately 3, items from Brooklyn Museum.[notes 81]

Michelson library[edit]

In December , the film research library of Lillian Michelson was donated to the archive.[79]

Other services and endeavors[edit]

Physical media[edit]

A vintage wall intercom, an example of another "archived" item

Voicing a strong reaction to the idea of books simply being thrown away, and inspired by the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Kahle now envisions collecting one copy of every book ever published. "We're not going to get there, but that's our goal", he said. Alongside the books, Kahle plans to store the Internet Archive's old servers, which were replaced in [80]

Software[edit]

The Internet Archive has "the largest collection of historical software online in the world", spanning 50 years of computer history in terabytes of computer magazines and journals, books, shareware discs, FTP sites, video games, etc. The Internet Archive has created an archive of what it describes as "vintage software", as a way to preserve them.[notes 82] The project advocated for an exemption from the United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act to permit them to bypass copy protection, which was approved in for a period of three years.[notes 83] The Archive does not offer the software for download, as the exemption is solely "for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive."[81] The exemption was renewed in , and in was indefinitely extended pending further rulemakings.[82] The Library reiterated the exemption as a "Final Rule" with no expiration date in [83] In , the Internet Archive began to provide abandonware video games browser-playable via MESS, for instance the Atari game E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[84] Since December 23, , the Internet Archive presents, via a browser-based DOSBox emulation, thousands of DOS/PC games[85][86][notes 84][87] for "scholarship and research purposes only".[notes 85][88][89] In November , the Archive introduced a new emulator for Adobe Flash called Ruffle, and began archiving Flash animations and games ahead of the December 31, end-of-life for the Flash plugin across all computer systems.[90]

Table Top Scribe System[edit]

A combined hardware software system has been developed that performs a safe method of digitizing content.[notes 86][91]

Credit Union[edit]

From to November , the Internet Archive operated the Internet Archive Federal Credit Union, a federal credit union based in New Brunswick, New Jersey, with the goal of providing access to low- and middle-income people. Throughout its short existence, the IAFCU experienced significant conflicts with the National Credit Union Administration, which severely limited the IAFCU's loan portfolio and concerns over serving Bitcoin firms. At the time of its dissolution, it consisted of members and was worth $ million.[92][93]

Controversies and legal disputes[edit]

See also: Wayback Machine §&#;In legal evidence

The main hall of the current headquarters

Grateful Dead[edit]

In November , free downloads of Grateful Dead concerts were removed from the site. John Perry Barlow identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann as the instigators of the change, according to an article in The New York Times.[94]Phil Lesh commented on the change in a November 30, , posting to his personal web site:

It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead shows were taken down from storycall.us right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to be pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those who want it.[95]

A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only. Concerts have since been re-added.[notes 87]

National security letters[edit]

On May 8, , it was revealed that the Internet Archive had successfully challenged an FBInational security letter asking for logs on an undisclosed user.[96][97]

On November 28, , it was revealed that a second FBI national security letter had been successfully challenged that had been asking for logs on another undisclosed user.[98]

Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills[edit]

The Internet Archive blacked out its web site for 12 hours on January 18, , in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act and the PROTECT IP Actbills, two pieces of legislation in the United States Congress that they claimed would "negatively affect the ecosystem of web publishing that led to the emergence of the Internet Archive". This occurred in conjunction with the English Wikipedia blackout, as well as numerous other protests across the Internet.[99]

Opposition to Google Books settlement[edit]

The Internet Archive is a member of the Open Book Alliance, which has been among the most outspoken critics of the Google Book Settlement. The Archive advocates an alternative digital library project.[]

Nintendo Power magazine[edit]

In February , Internet Archive users had begun archiving digital copies of Nintendo Power, Nintendo's official magazine for their games and products, which ran from to The first issues had been collected, before Nintendo had the archive removed on August 8, In response to the take-down, Nintendo told gaming website Polygon, "[Nintendo] must protect our own characters, trademarks and other content. The unapproved use of Nintendo's intellectual property can weaken our ability to protect and preserve it, or to possibly use it for new projects".[]

Government of India[edit]

In August , the Department of Telecommunications of the Government of India blocked the Internet Archive along with other file-sharing websites, in accordance with two court orders issued by the Madras High Court,[] citing piracy concerns after copies of two Bollywood films were allegedly shared via the service.[] The HTTP version of the Archive was blocked but it remained accessible using the HTTPS protocol.[]

Turkey[edit]

See also: Censorship in Turkey

On October 9, , the Internet Archive was temporarily blocked in Turkey after it was used (amongst other file hosting services) by hackers to host 17 GB of leaked government emails.[][]

National Emergency Library[edit]

In the midst of the COVID pandemic which closed many schools, universities, and libraries, the Archive announced on March 24, that it was creating the National Emergency Library by removing the lending restrictions it had in place for million digitized books in its Open Library but otherwise limiting users to the number of books they could check out and enforcing their return; normally, the site would only allow one digital lending for each physical copy of the book they had, by use of an encrypted file that would become unusable after the lending period was completed. This Library would remain as such until at least June 30, or until the US national emergency was over, whichever came later.[] At launch, the Internet Archive allowed authors and rightholders to submit opt-out requests for their works to be omitted from the National Emergency Library.[][][]

The Internet Archive said the National Emergency Library addressed an "unprecedented global and immediate need for access to reading and research material" due to the closures of physical libraries worldwide.[] They justified the move in a number of ways. Legally, they said they were promoting access to those inaccessible resources, which they claimed was an exercise in Fair Use principles. The Archive continued implementing their controlled digital lending policy that predated the National Emergency Library, meaning they still encrypted the lent copies and it was no easier for users to create new copies of the books than before. An ultimate determination of whether or not the National Emergency Library constituted Fair Use could only be made by a court. Morally, they also pointed out that the Internet Archive was a registered library like any other, that they either paid for the books themselves or received them as donations, and that lending through libraries predated copyright restrictions.[][]

However, the Archive had already been criticized by authors and publishers for its prior lending approach, and upon announcement of the National Emergency Library, authors (like Neil Gaiman and Chuck Wendig), publishers, and groups representing both took further issue, equating the move to copyright infringement and digital piracy, and using the COVID pandemic as a reason to push the boundaries of copyright (see also: Open Library §&#;Copyright violation accusations).[][][][] After the works of some of these authors were ridiculed in responses, the Internet Archive's Jason Scott requested that supporters of the National Emergency Library not denigrate anyone's books: "I realize there's strong debate and disagreement here, but books are life-giving and life-changing and these writers made them."[]

Publishers' lawsuit[edit]

The operation of the National Emergency Library was part of a lawsuit filed against the Internet Archive by four major book publishers in June , challenging the copyright validity of the controlled digital lending program.[61][] In response, the Internet Archive closed the National Emergency Library on June 16, , rather than the planned June 30, , due to the lawsuit.[][] The plaintiffs, supported by the Copyright Alliance,[] claimed in their lawsuit that the Internet Archive's actions constituted a "willful mass copyright infringement". Additionally, Senator Thom Tillis (R-North Carolina), chairman of the intellectual property subcommittee on the Senate Judiciary Committee, said in a letter to the Internet Archive that he was "concerned that the Internet Archive thinks that it – not Congress – gets to determine the scope of copyright law".[] In August the lawsuit trial was tentatively scheduled to begin in November []

As part of its response to the publishers' lawsuit, in late the Archive launched a campaign called Empowering Libraries (hashtag #EmpoweringLibraries) that portrayed the lawsuit as a threat to all libraries.[]

In December , Publishers Weekly included the lawsuit among its "Top 10 Library Stories of ".[]

In a preprint article, Argyri Panezi argued that the case "presents two important, but separate questions related to the electronic access to library works; first, it raises questions around the legal practice of digital lending, and second, it asks whether emergency use of copyrighted material might be fair use" and argued that libraries have a public service role to enable "future generations to keep having equal access—or opportunities to access—a plurality of original sources".[]

Wayforward Machine[edit]

Screenshot of viewing English Wikipedia on the Wayforward Machine

In September 30, as a part of 25th anniversary, the Internet Archive launched the "Wayforward Machine", a pseudo-satirical or fictional website covered with pop-ups asking for personal information. The site was intended to depict a potential timeline of events leading to such a future, such as the repeal of Section of the United States Code.[][] Wayforward Machine will be removed after Internet Archive's 25th anniversary.

Ceramic archivists collection[edit]

Ceramicfigures of Internet Archive employees

The Great Room of the Internet Archive features a collection of more than ceramic figures representing employees of the Internet Archive. This collection, inspired by the statues of the Xian warriors in China, was commissioned by Brewster Kahle, sculpted by Nuala Creed, and is ongoing.[]

[edit]

The Internet Archive visual arts residency,[] organized by Amir Saber Esfahani, is designed to connect emerging and mid-career artists with the Archive's millions of collections and to show what is possible when open access to information intersects with the arts. During this one-year residency, selected artists develop a body of work that responds to and utilizes the Archive's collections in their own practice.[]

Residency Artists: Caleb Duarte, Whitney Lynn, and Jeffrey Alan Scudder.

Residency Artists: Mieke Marple, Chris Sollars, and Taravat Talepasand.

Residency Artists: Laura Kim, Jeremiah Jenkins, and Jenny Odell

See also[edit]

Similar projects[edit]

Other[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^"Internet Archive: About the Archive". Wayback Machine. April 8, Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved March 13,
  2. ^"Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved April 13,
  3. ^"Internet Archive: Universal Access to all Knowledge". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 10, Retrieved April 13,
  4. ^"Internet Archive: Projects". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 1, Retrieved March 6,
  5. ^"Brewster Kahle . In Scientific American". Internet Archive. November 4, Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved April 1,
  6. ^"Internet Archive: In the Collections". Wayback Machine. June 6, Archived from the original on June 6, Retrieved March 15,
  7. ^"Daisy Books for the Print Disabled"Archived January 4, , at the Wayback Machine, February 25, Internet Archive.
  8. ^"Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". storycall.us. Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved July 7,
  9. ^"Welcome to Archive torrents"Archived January 19, , at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  10. ^"Used Paired Space". storycall.us. March 8, Archived from the original on April 2, Retrieved March 8,
  11. ^"How do I make a physical donation to the Internet Archive?". Internet Archive Help Center. Retrieved December 4, See also: "Tag Archives: donations". Internet Archive Blogs. Retrieved December 4,
  12. ^"Donation to the new Library of Alexandria in Egypt"Archived January 25, , at the Wayback Machine; Alexandria, Egypt; April 20, Bibliotheca AlexandrinaArchived September 2, , at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  13. ^"Internet Archive officially a library"Archived February 4, , at the Wayback Machine, May 2, Internet Archive
  14. ^"Internet Archive. (). Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved April 13,
  15. ^"Wayback Machine main page". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, Retrieved December 30,
  16. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved March 2,
  17. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved March 2,
  18. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved March 2,
  19. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 24, Retrieved March 2,
  20. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 20, Retrieved March 2,
  21. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved March 2,
  22. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on August 30, Retrieved March 2,
  23. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 14, Retrieved March 2,
  24. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved March 2,
  25. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on May 31, Retrieved December 9,
  26. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on September 30, Retrieved December 9,
  27. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on June 1, Retrieved December 9,
  28. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 9, Retrieved December 9,
  29. ^Kahle, Brewster (May 23, ). "Books Scanning to be Publicly Funded"Archived September 24, , at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive Forums.
  30. ^"Google Books at Internet Archive"Archived October 11, , at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  31. ^"List of Google scans"Archived January 26, , at the Wayback Machine (search). Internet Archive.
  32. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:eng OR language:"English")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 15, Retrieved November 27,
  33. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:fre OR language:"French")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, Retrieved November 27,
  34. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:ger OR language:"German")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 14, Retrieved November 27,
  35. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:spa OR language:"Spanish")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
  36. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Chinese OR language:"chi") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
  37. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:ara OR language:"Arabic")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 22, Retrieved November 27,
  38. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Dutch OR language:"dut") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
  39. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Portuguese OR language:"por") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved November 27,
  40. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:rus OR language:"Russian") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 19, Retrieved November 27,
  41. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:urd OR language:"Urdu") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved November 27,
  42. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Japanese OR language:"jpn") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
  43. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved July 5,
  44. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, Retrieved July 5,
  45. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved July 5,
  46. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved July 5,
  47. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, Retrieved July 5,
  48. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, Retrieved July 5,
  49. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 13, Retrieved July 5,
  50. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved July 5,
  51. ^
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Internet Archive

For other uses, see Internet archive (disambiguation).

For help citing the Wayback Machine (an Internet Archive service) in the English Wikipedia, see Help:Using the Wayback Machine.

"storycall.us" redirects here, browser Archives s. It is not to be confused with storycall.us

American non-profit organization providing archives of digital media since

Coordinates: 37°46′56″N°28′18″W / °N °W / ;

The Internet Archive is an American digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge".[notes 2][notes 3] It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating a free and open Internet. As of Novemberthe Internet Archive holds over 33 million books and texts, million movies, videos and TV shows,software browser Archives s, 13, audio files, 4 million images, and billion web pages in the Wayback Machine.

The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains hundreds of billions of web captures.[notes 4][3] The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

History[edit]

Headquarters in Building of the Presidio of San Francisco in

Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in May around the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet.[notes 5] In Octoberthe Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities,[notes 6] though it saved the earliest pages in May [4][5] The archived content first became available to the general public inwhen it developed the Wayback Machine.

In latethe Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archives. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Browser Archives s, the contract crawling service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Soon after that, the Archive began working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled; publicly accessible books were made available in a protected Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) format.[notes 7]

According to its website:[notes 8]

Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and browser Archives s. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.

In Augustthe Archive announced[6] that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for more than million existing files, and all newly uploaded files.[7][8] This method is the fastest means of downloading media from the Archive, as files are served from two Archive data centers, in addition to other torrent clients which have downloaded and continue to serve the files.[7][notes 9] On November 6,the Internet Archive's headquarters in San Francisco's Richmond District caught fire,[9] destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.[10] According to the Archive, it lost a side-building housing one of 30 of its scanning centers; cameras, lights, and scanning equipment worth hundreds of thousands of dollars; and "maybe 20 boxes of books and film, some irreplaceable, most already digitized, and some replaceable".[11] The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $, in damage.[12]

An overhaul of the site was launched as beta in Novemberand the legacy layout was removed in March [13][14]

In NovemberKahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the Archive to be based somewhere in Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build a backup archive in a foreign country was because of the browser Archives s presidency of Donald Trump.[15][16][17] Kahle was quoted as saying:

On November 9th in America, we woke up to a new administration promising radical change. It was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and perpetually accessible. It means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions. It means serving patrons in a world in which government surveillance is not going away; indeed it looks like it will increase. Throughout history, libraries have fought against terrible violations of privacy—where people have been rounded up simply for what they read. At the Internet Archive, we are fighting to protect our readers' privacy in the digital world.[15]

Beginning inOCLC and the Internet Archive have collaborated to make the Archive's records of digitized books available in WorldCat.[18]

Sincethe Internet Archive visual arts residency, which is organized by Amir Saber Esfahani and Andrew McClintock, helps connect artists with the Archive's over 48 petabytes[notes 10] of digitized materials. Over the course of the yearlong residency, visual artists create a body of work which culminates in an exhibition. The hope is to connect digital history with the arts and create something for future generations to appreciate online or off.[19] Previous artists in residence include Taravat Talepasand, Whitney Lynn, and Jenny Odell.[20]

Inits headquarters in San Francisco received a bomb threat which forced a temporary evacuation of the building.[21]

The Internet Archive acquires most materials from donations,[notes 11] such as hundreds of thousands of 78&#;rpm discs from Boston Public Library in ,[22] a donation ofbooks from Trent University in ,[23] and the entire collection of Marygrove College's library in after it closed.[24] All material is then digitized and retained in digital storage, while a digital copy is returned to the original holder and the Internet Archive's copy, if not in the public domain, is lent to patrons worldwide one at a time under the controlled digital lending (CDL) theory of the first-sale doctrine.[25]

Operations[edit]

Ambox current red storycall.us

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(May )

The Archive is a (c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States, browser Archives s. It has an annual budget of $10 million, browser Archives s, derived from revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[26] The Internet Archive also manages periodic funding campaigns. For instance, a December campaign had a browser Archives s of reaching $6 million in donations.[citation needed]

The Archive is headquartered in San Francisco, California. From toits headquarters were in the Presidio of San Francisco, a former U.S. military base. Sinceits headquarters have been at Funston Avenue in San Francisco, a former Christian Science Church. At one time, most of its staff worked in its book-scanning centers; as ofscanning is performed by paid operators worldwide.[27] The Archive also has data centers in three Californian cities: San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To reduce the risk of data loss, the Archive creates copies of parts of its collection at more distant locations, including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina[notes 12] in Egypt and a facility in Amsterdam.[28]

The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium[29] and was officially designated as a library by the state of California in [notes 13][30]

Web archiving[edit]

Main article: Web archiving

Wayback Machine[edit]

Main article: Wayback Machine

Wayback Machine logo, used since

The Internet Archive capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon (specifically, Peabody's Improbable History), and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.[31] This service allows users to view some of the archived web pages. The Wayback Machine was created as a joint effort between Alexa Internet (owned by storycall.us) and the Internet Archive when a three-dimensional index was built to allow for the browsing of archived web content.[notes 14] Millions of web sites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of web sites used to look like, to grab original source code from web sites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit web sites that no longer even exist. Not all web sites are available because many web site owners choose to exclude their sites. As with all sites based on data from web crawlers, the Internet Browser Archives s misses large areas of the web for a variety of other reasons. A paper found international biases in the coverage, browser Archives s, but deemed them "not intentional".[32]

A purchase of additional storage at the Internet Archive
Serversat the Internet Archive headquarters in San Francisco

A "Save Page Now" archiving feature was made available in October ,[33] accessible on the lower right of the Wayback Machine's main page.[notes 15] Once a target URL is entered and saved, the web page will become part of the Wayback Machine.[33] Through the Internet address storycall.us,[34] users can upload to the Wayback Machine a large variety of contents, including PDF and data compression file formats. The Wayback Machine creates a permanent local URL of the upload content, that is accessible in the web, even if not listed while searching in the storycall.us official website.

May 12,is the date of the oldest archived pages on the storycall.us WayBack Machine, such as storycall.us[35]

In Octoberit was announced that the way web pages are counted would be changed, resulting in the decrease of the archived pages counts shown.[36]

In Septemberthe Internet Archive announced a partnership with Cloudflare to automatically index websites served via its "Always Online" services.[38]

Archive-It[edit]

Brewster Kahleof the Internet Archive talks about archiving operations

Created in earlyArchive-It[39] is a web archiving subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives. Archive-It allows the user to customize their capture or exclusion of web content they want to preserve for cultural heritage reasons. Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, browse, search, and view their archived collections.[40]

In terms of accessibility, the archived web sites are full text searchable browser Archives s seven days of capture.[41] Content collected through Archive-It is captured and stored as a WARC file. A primary and back-up copy is stored at the Internet Archive data centers. A copy of the WARC file can be given to subscribing partner institutions for geo-redundant preservation and storage purposes to their best practice standards.[42] Periodically, the data captured through Archive-It is indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive.

As of March&#;[update], Archive-It had more than partner institutions in 46 U.S. states and 16 countries that have captured more than billion URLs for more than 2, public collections. Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, state archives, browser Archives s, federal institutions, museums, law libraries, and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, North Carolina State Archives and Library, Stanford University, Columbia University, American University in Cairo, Georgetown Law Library, and many others, browser Archives s.

Internet Archive Scholar[edit]

In September Internet Archive announced a new initiative to archive and preserve open access academic journals, called the "Internet Archive Scholar".[43][44] Its fulltext search index includes over 25 million research articles and other scholarly documents preserved in the Internet Archive. The collection spans from digitized copies of eighteenth century journals through the latest Open Access conference proceedings and pre-prints crawled from the World Wide Web.

General Index[edit]

Inthe Internet Archive announced the initial version of the General Index, a publicly available index to a collection of million academic journal articles.[45][46]

Book collections[edit]

Text collection[edit]

The Internet Archive operates 33 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1, books a day for a total of more than 2 million books,[47] financially supported by libraries and foundations.[notes 29] As of July&#;[update], browser Archives s, the collection included million books with more than 15 million downloads per month.[47] As of November&#;[update], when there were approximately 1 browser Archives s texts, the entire collection was greater than petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, browser Archives s, PDFs, and raw OCR data.[48] Between about andMicrosoft had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning more thanbooks that were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23,Microsoft announced 3D Printing tool Archives would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.[49] Microsoft made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.[49]

An Internet Archive in-house scan ongoing

Around OctoberArchive users began uploading public domain books from Google Book Search.[notes 30] As of November&#;[update], there were more thanGoogle-digitized books in the Archive's collection;[notes 31] the books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, browser Archives s, and are available for unrestricted use and download.[50] Brewster Kahle revealed in that this archival effort was coordinated by Aaron Swartz, who with a "bunch of friends" downloaded the public domain books from Google slow enough and from enough computers to stay within Google's restrictions. They did this to ensure public access to the public domain. The Archive ensured the items were attributed and linked back to Google, which never complained, while libraries "grumbled". According to Kahle, this is an example of Swartz's "genius" to work on what could give the most to the public good for millions of people.[51]Besides books, browser Archives s, the Archive offers free and anonymous public access to more than four million court opinions, legal briefs, or exhibits uploaded from the United States Federal Courts' PACER electronic document system via the RECAP web browser plugin. These documents had been kept behind a federal court paywall. On the Archive, they had been accessed by more than six million people by browser Archives s Archive's BookReader web app,[52] built into its website, browser Archives s, has features such as single-page, two-page, and thumbnail modes; fullscreen mode; page zooming of high-resolution images; and flip page animation.[52][53]

Number browser Archives s texts for each language[edit]

Number of all texts
(December 9, browser Archives s, )
22,[54]
Language Number of texts
(November 27, )
English6,[notes 32]
French,[notes 33]
German,[notes 34]
Spanish,[notes 35]
Chinese84,[notes 36]
Arabic66,[notes 37]
Dutch30,[notes 38]
Portuguese25,[notes 39]
Russian22,[notes 40]
Urdu14,[notes 41]
Japanese14,[notes 42]

Number of texts for each decade[edit]

Decade Number of texts
(July 5, )
s 82,[notes 43]
s ,[notes 44]
s ,[notes 45]
s ,[notes 46]
s ,[notes 47]
s ,[notes 48]
s ,[notes 49]
s ,[notes 50]
s ,[notes 51]
s ,[notes 52]
Decade Number of texts
(July 5, )
s ,[notes 53]
s ,[notes 54]
s ,[notes 55]
s ,[notes 56]
s ,[notes 57]
s ,[notes 58]
s ,[notes 59]
s 2,[notes 60]
s 1,[notes 61]
s 1,[notes 62]

Open Library[edit]

Main article: Open Library

The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The wiki seeks to include a web page for every book ever published: it holds 25 million catalog records of editions. It also seeks to be a web-accessible public library: it contains the full texts of approximately 1, public domain books (out of the more than five million from the main texts collection), as well as in-print and in-copyright books,[55] many of which are fully browser Archives s, downloadable[56][57] and full-text searchable;[58] it offers a two-week loan of e-books in its controlled digital lending program for overbrowser Archives s, books not in the public domain, in partnership with over 1, library partners from 6 countries[47][59] after a free registration on the web site. Open Library is a free and open-source software project, with its source code freely browser Archives s on GitHub.

The Open Library faces objections from some authors and the Society djay pro mac crack Archives Authors, who hold that the project is distributing books without authorization and is thus in violation of copyright laws,[60] and four major publishers initiated a copyright infringement lawsuit against the Internet Archive in June to stop the Open Library project.[61]

[edit]

Many large institutional sponsors have helped the Internet Archive provide millions of scanned publications (text items).[62] Some sponsors that have digitized large quantities of texts include the University of Toronto's Robarts Library, the University of Alberta Libraries, the University of Ottawa, the Library of Congress, Boston Library Consortium member libraries, the Boston Public Library, the Princeton Theological Seminary Library, browser Archives s, and many others.[63]

Inthe MIT Press authorized the Internet Archive to digitize and lend books from the press's backlist,[64] with financial support browser Archives s the Arcadia Fund.[65][66] A year later, the Internet Archive received further funding from the Arcadia Fund to invite some other university presses to partner with the Internet Archive to digitize books, a project called "Unlocking University Press Books".[67][68]

The Library of Congress has created numerous handle Driver Easy Pro 5.6.15 Crack Plus License Key 2021 [Latest] Free Download identifiers that point to free digitized books in the Internet Archive.[69] The Internet Archive and Open Library browser Archives s listed on the Library of Congress website as a source of e-books.[70]

Media collections[edit]

Microfilms browser Archives s the Internet Archive

In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. Browser Archives s are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes a "Community" sub-collection (formerly named "Open Source") where general contributions by the public are stored.

Audio[edit]

Audio Archive[edit]

The Audio Archive is an audio archive that includes music, audiobooks, news broadcasts, old time radio shows, and a wide variety of other audio files. There are more thanfree digital recordings in the collection. The subcollections include audio books and poetry, browser Archives s, podcasts, non-English audio, and many others.[notes 66] The sound collections are curated by B. George, director of the ARChive of Contemporary Music.[71]

Next to the stock HTML5 audio player, Winamp-resembling Webamp is available.

Live Music Archive[edit]

Main article: Live Music Browser Archives s Live Music Archive sub-collection includes more thanconcert recordings from independent musicians, browser Archives s, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts, such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Also, Jordan Zevon has allowed the Internet Archive to host a definitive collection of his father Warren Zevon's concert recordings. The Zevon collection ranges from to and contains concerts including 1, songs.[72]

The Great 78 Project[edit]

Main article: The Great 78 Project

The Great 78 Project aims to digitize78 rpm singles (, songs) from the period between anddonated by various collectors and institutions. It has been developed in collaboration browser Archives s the Archive of Contemporary Music and George Blood Audio, responsible for the audio digitization.[71]

Netlabels[edit]

Not to be confused with Netlabel.

The Archive has a collection of freely distributable music that is streamed DVDFab Player Ultra Crack 6.0.0.8 Full [New] available for download via its Netlabels service. The music in this collection generally has Creative Commons-license catalogs of virtual record labels.[notes 67][73]

Images collection[edit]

This collection contains more than million items.[74]Cover Art Archive, Metropolitan Museum of Art - Gallery Images, NASA Images, Occupy Wall StreetFlickr Archive, and USGS Maps and are some sub-collections of Image collection.

Cover Art Archive[edit]

Logo of Cover Art Archive

The Cover Art Archive is a joint project between the Internet Archive and MusicBrainz, whose goal is to make cover art images on the Internet. As of April&#;,[update] this collection contains more than 1, browser Archives s, items.[notes 68]

Metropolitan Museum of Art images[edit]

The images of this collection are from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This collection contains more thanitems.[notes 69]

NASA Images[edit]

The NASA Images archive was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive and NASA to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource, browser Archives s. The IA NASA Images team worked closely with all of the NASA centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection.[75] The storycall.us site launched in July and had more thanitems online at the end of its hosting in

Occupy Wall Street Flickr archive[edit]

This collection contains creative commons licensed photographs from Flickr related to the Occupy Wall Street movement. This collection contains more than 15, items.[notes 70]

USGS Maps[edit]

This collection contains more than 59, items from Libre Map Project.[notes 71]

Mathematical images[edit]

This collection contains mathematical images created by mathematical artist Hamid Naderi Yeganeh.[notes 72]

Machinima Archive[edit]

One of the sub-collections of the Internet Archive's Video Archive is the Machinima Archive. This small section hosts many Machinima videos. Machinima is a digital artform in which computer games, game engines, or software engines are used in a sandbox-like mode to create motion pictures, recreate plays, or even publish presentations or keynotes. The archive collects a range of Machinima films from internet publishers such as Rooster Teeth and storycall.us as well as independent producers. The sub-collection is a collaborative effort among the Internet Archive, browser Archives s, the How They Got Game research project at Stanford University, the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences, browser Archives s, and storycall.us[notes 73]

Microfilm collection[edit]

This collection contains approximatelymicrofilmed items from a variety of libraries including the University of Chicago Libraries, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Alberta, Allen County Public Library, and the National Technical Information Service.[notes 74][notes 75]

Moving image collection[edit]

See also: Wikipedia list of films freely available on the Internet Archive

The Internet Archive holds a collection of approximately 3, feature films.[notes 76] Additionally, the Internet Archive's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels, classic cartoons, pro- and anti-war propaganda, The Video Cellar Collection, Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection, early television, and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, browser Archives s, educational, and industrial films, as well as amateur and home movie collections.

Subcategories of this collection include:

  • IA's Brick Films collection, which contains browser Archives s animation filmed with Lego bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films.
  • IA's Election collection, a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the United States presidential election.
  • IA's FedFlix collection, browser Archives s, Joint Venture NTIS between the National Technical Information Service and storycall.us that features "the best movies of the United States Government, from training films to history, from our national parks to the U.S. Fire Academy and the Postal Inspectors"[notes 77]
  • IA's Independent News collection, which includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition fromin which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters". Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating Indian Ocean earthquake.
  • IA's September 11 Television Archive, which contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11,as they unfolded on live television.[notes 78]

Open Educational Resources[edit]

Open Educational Resources is a digital collection browser Archives s storycall.us This collection contains hundreds of free courses, video lectures, and supplemental materials from universities in the United States and China. The contributors of this collection are ArsDigita University, Hewlett Foundation, MIT, Monterey Institute, and Naropa University.[notes 79]

TV News Search & Borrow[edit]

TV tuners at the Internet Archive

In Septemberthe Internet Archive launched the TV News Search & Borrow service for searching U.S. national news programs.[notes 80] The service is built on closed captioning transcripts and allows users to search and stream second video clips. Upon launch, the service contained ", news programs collected over 3 years from national U.S. networks and stations in San Francisco and Browser Archives s D.C."[76] According to Kahle, the service was inspired by the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a similar library of televised network news programs.[77] In contrast to Vanderbilt, which limits access to streaming video to individuals associated with subscribing colleges and universities, the TV News Search & Borrow allows open access to its streaming video clips. Inthe Archive received an additional donation of "approximately 40, well-organized tapes" from the estate of browser Archives s Philadelphia woman, Marion Stokes. Stokes "had recorded more than 35 years of TV news in Philadelphia and Boston with her VHS and Betamax machines."[78]

Miscellaneous collections[edit]

Brooklyn Museum[edit]

This collection contains approximately 3, items from Brooklyn Museum.[notes 81]

Michelson library[edit]

In Decemberthe film research library of Lillian Michelson was donated to the archive.[79]

Other services and endeavors[edit]

Physical media[edit]

A vintage wall intercom, an example of another "archived" item

Voicing a strong reaction to the idea of books simply being thrown away, and inspired by the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Kahle now envisions collecting one copy of every book ever published. "We're not going to get there, but that's our goal", he said. Alongside the books, Kahle plans to store the Internet Archive's old servers, which were replaced in [80]

Software[edit]

The Internet Archive has "the largest collection of historical software online in the world", spanning 50 years of computer history in terabytes of computer magazines and journals, books, shareware discs, FTP sites, video games, etc. Browser Archives s Internet Archive has created an archive of what it describes as "vintage software", as a way to preserve them.[notes 82] The project advocated for an exemption from the United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act to permit them to bypass copy browser Archives s, which was approved in for a period of three years.[notes 83] The Archive does not offer the software for download, as the exemption is solely "for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library browser Archives s archive."[81] The exemption was renewed inand in was indefinitely extended pending further rulemakings.[82] The Library browser Archives s the exemption as a "Final Rule" with no expiration date in [83] Inthe Internet Archive began to provide abandonware video browser Archives s browser-playable via MESS, browser Archives s, for instance the Atari game E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[84] Since December 23,the Internet Archive presents, via a browser-based DOSBox emulation, thousands of DOS/PC games[85][86][notes 84][87] for "scholarship and research purposes only".[notes 85][88][89] In Novemberthe Archive introduced a new emulator for Adobe Flash called Ruffle, and began archiving Flash animations and games ahead of the December 31, end-of-life for the Flash plugin across all computer systems.[90]

Table Top Scribe System[edit]

A combined hardware software system has been developed that performs a safe method of digitizing content.[notes 86][91]

Credit Union[edit]

From to Novemberthe Internet Archive operated the Internet Archive Federal Credit Union, browser Archives s, a federal credit union based in New Brunswick, New Jersey, with the goal of providing access to low- and middle-income people. Throughout its short existence, browser Archives s, the IAFCU experienced significant conflicts with the National Credit Union Administration, which severely limited the IAFCU's loan portfolio and concerns over serving Bitcoin firms. At the time of its dissolution, it consisted of members and was worth $ million.[92][93]

Controversies and legal disputes[edit]

See also: Wayback Machine §&#;In legal evidence

The main hall of the current headquarters

Grateful Dead[edit]

In Novemberfree downloads of Grateful Dead concerts were removed from the site. John Perry Barlow identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann as the instigators of the change, according to an article in The New York Times.[94]Phil Lesh commented on the change in a November 30,posting to his personal web site:

It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead shows were taken down from storycall.us right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to be pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those who want it.[95]

A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only. Concerts have since been re-added.[notes 87]

National security letters[edit]

On May 8,it was revealed that the Internet Archive had successfully challenged an FBInational security letter asking for logs on an undisclosed user.[96][97]

On November 28,it was revealed that a second FBI national security letter had been successfully challenged that had been asking for logs on another undisclosed user.[98]

Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills[edit]

The Internet Archive blacked out its web site for 12 hours on January 18,in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act and the PROTECT IP Actbills, two pieces of legislation in the United States Congress that they claimed would "negatively affect the ecosystem browser Archives s web publishing that led to the emergence of the Internet Archive". This occurred in conjunction with the English Wikipedia blackout, as well as numerous other protests across the Internet.[99]

Opposition to Google Books settlement[edit]

The Internet Archive is a member of the Open Book Alliance, which has been among the most outspoken critics of the Google Book Settlement. The Archive advocates an alternative digital library project.[]

Nintendo Power magazine[edit]

In FebruaryInternet Archive users had begun archiving digital copies of Nintendo Power, Nintendo's official magazine for their games and products, browser Archives s, which ran from to The first issues had been collected, before Nintendo had the archive removed on August 8, In response to the take-down, Nintendo told gaming website Polygon, "[Nintendo] must protect our own characters, trademarks and other content. The unapproved use of Nintendo's intellectual property can weaken our ability to protect and preserve it, or to possibly use it for new projects".[]

Government of India[edit]

In Augustthe Department of Telecommunications of the Government of India blocked the Internet Archive along with other file-sharing websites, in accordance with two court orders issued by the Madras High Court,[] browser Archives s piracy concerns after copies of two Bollywood films were allegedly shared via the service.[] The HTTP version of the Archive was blocked but it remained accessible using the HTTPS protocol.[]

Turkey[edit]

See also: Censorship in Turkey

On October 9,the Internet Archive was temporarily blocked in Turkey after it was used (amongst other file hosting services) by hackers to host 17 GB of leaked government emails.[][]

National Emergency Library[edit]

In the midst of the COVID pandemic which closed many schools, universities, and libraries, the Archive announced on March 24, that it was creating the National Emergency Library by removing the lending restrictions it had in place for million digitized books in its Open Library but otherwise limiting users to the number of books they could check out and enforcing their return; normally, the site would only allow one digital lending for each physical copy of the book they had, by use of an encrypted file that would become unusable after the lending period was completed. This Library would remain as such until at least June 30, or until the US national emergency was over, whichever came later.[] At browser Archives s, the Internet Archive allowed authors and rightholders to submit opt-out requests for their works to be omitted from the National Emergency Library.[][][]

The Internet Archive said the National Emergency Library addressed an "unprecedented global and immediate need for access to reading and research material" due to the closures of physical libraries worldwide.[] They justified the move in a number of ways. Legally, they said they were promoting access to those inaccessible resources, which they claimed was an exercise in Fair Use principles. The Archive continued implementing their controlled digital lending policy that predated the National Emergency Library, meaning they still encrypted the lent copies and it was no easier for users to create new copies of the books than before. An ultimate determination of whether or not the National Emergency Library constituted Fair Use could only be made by a court. Morally, browser Archives s, they also pointed out that the Internet Archive was a registered library like any other, that they either paid for the books themselves or received them as donations, and that lending through libraries predated copyright restrictions.[][]

However, the Archive had already been criticized by authors and publishers for its prior lending approach, and upon announcement of the National Emergency Library, authors (like Neil Gaiman and Chuck Wendig), publishers, and groups representing both took further issue, equating the move to copyright infringement and digital piracy, and using the COVID pandemic as a reason to push the boundaries of copyright (see also: Open Library §&#;Copyright violation accusations).[][][][] After the works of some of these authors were ridiculed in responses, the Internet Archive's Jason Scott requested that supporters of the National Emergency Library not denigrate anyone's books: "I realize there's strong debate and disagreement here, browser Archives s, but books are life-giving and life-changing and these writers made them."[]

Publishers' lawsuit[edit]

The operation of the National Emergency Library was part of a lawsuit filed against the Internet Archive by four major book publishers in Junechallenging the copyright validity of the controlled digital lending program.[61][] In response, the Internet Archive closed the National Emergency Library on June 16,rather than the planned June 30,due to the lawsuit.[][] The plaintiffs, supported by the Copyright Alliance,[] claimed in their lawsuit that the Internet Archive's actions constituted a "willful mass copyright infringement". Additionally, Senator Thom Tillis (R-North Carolina), browser Archives s, chairman of the intellectual property subcommittee on the Senate Judiciary Committee, said in a letter to the Internet Archive that he was "concerned that the Internet Archive thinks that it – not Congress – gets to determine the scope of copyright law".[] In August the lawsuit trial was tentatively scheduled to begin in November []

As part of its response to the publishers' lawsuit, in late the Archive launched a campaign called Empowering Libraries (hashtag #EmpoweringLibraries) that portrayed the lawsuit as a threat to all libraries.[]

In DecemberPublishers Weekly included the lawsuit among its "Top 10 Library Stories of ".[]

In a preprint article, Argyri Panezi argued that the case "presents two important, but separate questions related browser Archives s the electronic access to library works; first, it raises questions around the legal practice of digital lending, and second, it asks whether emergency use of copyrighted material might be fair use" and argued that libraries have a public service role to enable "future generations to keep having equal access—or opportunities to access—a plurality of original sources".[]

Wayforward Machine[edit]

Screenshot of viewing English Wikipedia on the Wayforward Machine

In September 30, as a part of 25th anniversary, the Internet Archive launched the "Wayforward Machine", a pseudo-satirical or fictional website covered with pop-ups asking for personal information. The site was intended to depict a potential timeline of events leading to such a future, browser Archives s, such as the repeal of Section of the United States Code.[][] Wayforward Machine will be removed after Internet Archive's 25th anniversary.

Ceramic archivists collection[edit]

Ceramicfigures of Internet Archive employees

The Great Room of the Internet Archive features a collection of more than ceramic figures representing employees of the Internet Archive. This collection, inspired by the statues of the Xian warriors in China, was commissioned by Brewster Kahle, sculpted by Nuala Creed, and is ongoing.[]

[edit]

The Internet Archive visual arts residency,[] organized by Amir Saber Esfahani, is designed to connect emerging and mid-career artists with the Archive's millions of collections and to show what is possible when open access to information intersects with the arts. During this one-year residency, selected artists develop a body of work that responds to and utilizes the Archive's collections in their own practice.[]

Residency Artists: Caleb Duarte, browser Archives s, Whitney Lynn, and Jeffrey Alan Scudder.

Residency Artists: Mieke Marple, Chris Sollars, and Taravat Talepasand.

Residency Artists: Laura Kim, Jeremiah Jenkins, and Browser Archives s Odell

See also[edit]

Similar projects[edit]

Other[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^"Internet Archive: About the Archive", browser Archives s. Wayback Machine. April 8, Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved March 13,
  2. ^"Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved April 13, browser Archives s,
  3. ^"Internet Archive: Universal Access to all Knowledge". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 10, Retrieved April 13,
  4. ^"Internet Archive: Projects", browser Archives s. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 1, browser Archives s, Retrieved March 6,
  5. ^"Brewster Kahle. In Scientific American". Internet Archive, browser Archives s. November 4, Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved April 1,
  6. ^"Internet Archive: In the Collections". Wayback Machine. June 6, Archived from the original on June 6, Retrieved March 15,
  7. ^"Daisy Books for the Print Disabled"Archived January 4,at the Wayback Machine, February 25, Internet Archive.
  8. ^"Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". storycall.us. Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved July 7,
  9. ^"Welcome to Archive torrents"Archived January 19, browser Archives s,at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  10. ^"Used Paired Space". storycall.us. March 8, browser Archives s, Archived from the original on April 2, Retrieved March 8,
  11. ^"How do I make a physical donation to the Internet Archive?". Internet Archive Help Center. Retrieved December 4, See also: "Tag Archives: donations". Internet Archive Blogs. Retrieved December 4,
  12. ^"Donation to the new Library of Alexandria in Egypt"Archived January 25,browser Archives s, at the Wayback Machine; Alexandria, Egypt; April 20, Bibliotheca AlexandrinaArchived September 2, browser Archives s,at the Wayback Machine, browser Archives s. Internet Archive.
  13. ^"Internet Archive officially a library"Archived February 4, browser Archives s,at the Wayback Machine, May 2, Internet Archive
  14. ^"Internet Archive. (). Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved April 13, browser Archives s,
  15. ^"Wayback Machine main page". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, Retrieved December 30,
  16. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved March 2,
  17. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved March 2,
  18. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved March 2,
  19. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 24, Browser Archives s March 2,
  20. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 20, Retrieved March 2,
  21. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved March 2,
  22. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on August 30, Retrieved March 2,
  23. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 14, Retrieved March 2, browser Archives s,
  24. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved March 2,
  25. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on May 31, Retrieved December 9,
  26. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on September 30, Retrieved December 9,
  27. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on June 1, Retrieved December 9,
  28. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 9, Retrieved December 9,
  29. ^Kahle, Brewster (May 23, ). "Books Scanning to be Publicly Funded"Archived September 24,at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive Forums.
  30. ^"Google Books at Internet Archive"Archived October 11,at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  31. ^"List of Google scans"Archived January 26,at the Wayback Machine browser Archives s. Internet Archive.
  32. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:eng OR language:"English")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 15, Retrieved November 27,
  33. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:fre OR language:"French")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, Retrieved November 27,
  34. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:ger OR language:"German")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 14, Retrieved November 27,
  35. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:spa OR language:"Spanish")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
  36. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Chinese OR language:"chi") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
  37. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:ara OR language:"Arabic")". Internet Browser Archives s. Archived from the original on March 22, Retrieved November 27,
  38. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Dutch OR language:"dut") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, browser Archives s, Retrieved November 27,
  39. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Portuguese OR language:"por") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved November 27,
  40. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:rus OR language:"Russian") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 19, Retrieved November 27,
  41. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:urd OR language:"Urdu") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved November 27,
  42. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: (language:Japanese OR language:"jpn") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved November 27,
  43. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: browser Archives s AND date:[ TO ]", browser Archives s. Internet Archive, browser Archives s. Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved July 5,
  44. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, Retrieved July 5,
  45. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved July 5,
  46. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved July 5,
  47. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]", browser Archives s. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, Retrieved July 5,
  48. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, Retrieved July 5,
  49. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 13, Retrieved July 5,
  50. ^"Internet Archive Search&#;: mediatype:texts AND date:[ TO ]", browser Archives s. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, Retrieved July 5,
  51. ^
Источник: [storycall.us]

How to save a web page to the Internet Archive

This short tutorial shows how to take a snapshot of a web page, and save it to the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine.

Method 1: web interface

  1. Go to the Wayback website: storycall.us
  2. Paste the URL of the page you want to archive into the Save Page Now box (at the bottom-right).
  3. Click on the Save Page button browser Archives s press enter).
  4. Wait while the page is being crawled. Once the archiving process is complete, the URL of the archived page appears.

Method 2: bookmarklet

This method is faster than using the web interface, but you will first need to install a bookmarklet (which is just a browser bookmark that contains some JavaScript).

Installation

  1. Go to the Save Page to Wayback Machine Bookmarklet link here: storycall.us%20Page%20to%20Wayback%storycall.us

  2. Click at the left-hand site of the URL bar, and drag it to the bookmarks toolbar of your browser. The figure below shows how this works in FireFox:

    Installation of bookmarklet

    Alternatively you can also use Add Bookmark in the Bookmarks menu.

Using the bookmarklet

  1. Open the web page that you want to save in your browser.
  2. Click on Save Page to Wayback Machine in the bookmarks toolbar.
  3. Wait while the page is being crawled. Once the archiving process is complete, the URL of the archived page appears.

Method 3: Chrome extension

If you’re using the Google Chrome browser, you may want to check out Jimmy Lin’s “Save a Page” extension, browser Archives s. Once installed, it allows you to save a page by simply right-clicking on it, browser Archives s. The extension can be found here:

storycall.us

Just follow the installation instructions on that page.

Limitations

  • Webmasters can use storycall.us to prevent web crawlers from crawling/saving anything on their website.
  • If a webmaster decides to change the storycall.us permissions at some point in the future, a saved page may be removed from the Wayback Machine. For details see: storycall.us

Acknowledgement

This tutorial partially draws from a blog post by Gary Price on Search Engine Land.



Источник: [storycall.us]

Meaning of archive in English

The second, by a remarkable collection of photographs, some from the university archives and other sources and some specifically produced for the book.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

The weather variables of maximum and minimum temperature, rainfall and solar radiation were archived for every crop year.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

If you look in the archives you will find that there have been other suggestions, but joey is the best documented.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Even if the archives browser Archives s which they are linked have been updated, they have not, and their context has changed.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

With untiring zeal he ransacked the archives, exhumed scores of documents and edited many of them.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

In recent years, artists and composers have been increasingly drawn to historical archive material.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

The original source files must be properly archived in text format for future updating, in addition to the run-time application itself.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Oral accounts and archives (the files which were not pitched into the harbour) provide a much different picture.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Current efforts include the ability to adapt user-specified grammars to work on these archived token lists.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

As the classifying and organizing of the archives continued, the catalogue grew accordingly and reached pages in the edition.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

The country's rich intellectual heritage is dispersed among hundreds of libraries and archives across the nation.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Without Terms & Conditions - All Latest Crack Software Free Download there are private archives waiting to be identified and used by historians.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

Now it is the archive agents' turn to interpret the query, and if necessary to request a clarification or confirmation of an interpretation, browser Archives s.

From the Cambridge English Corpus

These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.

Источник: [storycall.us]

ArchiveBox

🗃 Open source self-hosted web archiving. Takes URLs/browser history/bookmarks/Pocket/Pinboard/etc., saves HTML, browser Archives s, JS, PDFs, media, and more

ArchiveBox is a powerful, self-hosted internet archiving solution to collect, save, and view sites you want to preserve offline.

You can set it up as a command-line tool, web app, and desktop app (alpha), on Linux, browser Archives s, macOS, and Windows.

You can feed it URLs one at a time, or schedule regular imports from browser bookmarks or history, feeds like RSS, browser Archives s, bookmark services like Pocket/Pinboard, and more. See input formats for a full list.

It saves snapshots of the URLs you feed it in several formats: HTML, PDF, PNG screenshots, WARC, and more out-of-the-box, with a wide variety of content extracted and preserved automatically (article text, audio/video, git repos, etc.). See output formats for a full list.

The goal is to sleep soundly knowing the part of the internet you care about will be automatically preserved in durable, easily accessible formats for decades after it goes down.

📦  Get ArchiveBox with Docker / / / / etc. (see Quickstart below).

🔢 Example usage: adding links to archive.

🔢 Example usage: viewing the archived content.

Key Features

  • Free & open source, doesn’t require signing up for anything, stores all data locally
  • Powerful, intuitive command line interface with modular optional dependencies
  • Comprehensive documentation, active development, and rich community
  • Extracts a wide variety of content out-of-the-box: media (youtube-dl), articles (readability), code (git), etc.
  • Supports scheduled/realtime importing from many types of sources
  • Uses standard, durable, long-term formats like HTML, JSON, PDF, PNG, and WARC
  • Usable as a oneshot CLI, self-hosted web UI, browser Archives s, Python API (BETA), REST Browser Archives s (ALPHA), or desktop app (ALPHA)
  • Saves all pages to storycall.us as well by default for redundancy (can be disabled for local-only mode)
  • Planned: support for archiving content requiring a login/paywall/cookies (working, but ill-advised until some pending fixes are released)
  • Planned: support for running JS during archiving to adblock, autoscroll, modal-hide, thread-expand…

grassgrass

🖥  Supported OSs: Linux/BSD, browser Archives s, macOS, Windows (Docker/WSL)   👾  CPUs: amd64, x86, arm8, arm7 (raspi>=3)

✳️  Easy Setup

🛠  Package Manager Setup

🎗  Other Options

➡️  Next Steps

Usage

⚡️  CLI Usage

  • to administer your collection
  • to manage Snapshots in the archive
  • to pull in fresh URLs in regularly from boorkmarks/history/Pocket/Pinboard/RSS/etc.

🖥  Web UI Usage

🗄  SQL/Python/Filesystem Usage

grassgrass

. .browser Archives s. . .browser Archives s. . .

DEMO:
Usage browser Archives s Caveats


lego

Input Formats

ArchiveBox supports many input formats for URLs, including Pocket & Pinboard exports, Browser bookmarks, Browser history, browser Archives s, plain browser Archives s, HTML, markdown, and more!

Click these links for instructions on how to prepare your links from these sources:

  • TXT, RSS, XML, JSON, CSV, SQL, HTML, Markdown, or any other text-based browser Archives s src="storycall.us" height="22px">Browser history or browser bookmarks (see instructions for: Chrome, Firefox, Safari, IE, Opera, and more…)
  • Pocket, Pinboard, Instapaper, Shaarli, Delicious, Reddit Saved, Wallabag, storycall.us, OneTab, and more…

See the Usage: CLI page for documentation and examples.

It also includes a built-in scheduled import feature with and browser bookmarklet, so you can pull in URLs from RSS feeds, websites, or the filesystem regularly/on-demand.

Output Formats

Inside each Snapshot folder, browser Archives s, ArchiveBox save these different types of extractor outputs as plain files:

  • Index: & HTML and JSON index files containing metadata and details
  • Title, Favicon, Headers Response headers, site favicon, and parsed site title
  • SingleFile: HTML snapshot rendered with headless Chrome using SingleFile
  • Wget Clone: wget clone of the site with
  • Chrome Headless
    • PDF: Printed PDF of site using headless chrome
    • Screenshot: x screenshot of site using headless chrome
    • DOM Dump: DOM Dump of the HTML after rendering using headless chrome
  • Article Text: Article text extraction using Readability & Mercury
  • storycall.us Permalink: A link to the saved site on storycall.us
  • Audio & Video: all audio/video files + playlists, including subtitles & metadata with youtube-dl
  • Source Code: clone of any repository found on GitHub, browser Archives s, Bitbucket, or GitLab links
  • More coming soon! See the Roadmap…

It does everything out-of-the-box by default, but you can disable or tweak individual archive methods via environment variables / config.

Configuration

ArchiveBox can be configured via environment variables, by using the CLI, or by browser Archives s the config file directly.

These methods also work the same way when run inside Docker, see the Docker Configuration wiki page for details.

The config loading logic with all the options defined is here: .

Most options are also documented on the Configuration Wiki page.

Most Common Options to Tweak

Dependencies

For better security, easier updating, and to avoid polluting your host system with extra dependencies, it is strongly recommended to use the official Docker image with everything pre-installed for the best experience.

To achieve high fidelity archives in as many situations as possible, ArchiveBox depends on a variety of 3rd-party tools and libraries that specialize in extracting browser Archives s types of content. These optional dependencies used for archiving sites include:

  • / (for screenshots, PDF, DOM HTML, browser Archives s, and headless JS scripts)
  • & (for readability, mercury, and singlefile)
  • (for plain HTML, static files, and WARC saving)
  • (for fetching headers, favicon, and posting to storycall.us)
  • (for audio, video, and subtitles)
  • (for cloning git repos)
  • and more as we grow…

You don’t need to browser Archives s every dependency to use ArchiveBox. ArchiveBox will automatically disable extractors that rely on dependencies that aren’t installed, based on what is configured and available in your .

If not using Docker, make sure to keep the dependencies up-to-date yourself and check that ArchiveBox isn’t reporting any incompatibility with the versions you install.

Installing directly on Windows without Docker or WSL/WSL2/Cygwin is not officially supported, but some advanced users have reported getting it working.

Archive Layout

All of ArchiveBox’s state (including the index, snapshot data, and config file) is stored in a single folder called the “ArchiveBox data folder”, browser Archives s. All CLI commands must be run from inside this folder, and you browser Archives s create it by running .

The on-disk layout is optimized to be easy to browse by hand and durable long-term. The main index is a standard database in the root of the data folder (it can also be exported as static JSON/HTML), and the archive snapshots are organized by date-added timestamp in the subfolder.

Each snapshot subfolder includes a static and describing its contents, and the snapshot extractor outputs are plain files within the folder.

Static Archive Exporting

You can export the main index to browse it statically without needing to run a server.

Note about large exports: These exports are not paginated, exporting many URLs or the entire archive at once may be slow. Use the filtering CLI flags on the command to export specific Snapshots or ranges.

The paths in the static exports are relative, make sure to keep them next to your folder when backing them up or viewing them.


browser Archives s graphic">

Caveats

Archiving Private Content

If you’re importing pages with private content or URLs containing secret tokens you don’t want public (e.g Google Docs, paywalled content, unlisted videos, etc.), you may want to disable some of the extractor methods to avoid leaking that content to 3rd party APIs or the public.

Security Risks of Viewing Archived JS

Be aware that malicious archived JS can access the contents of other pages in your archive when viewed. Because the Web UI serves all viewed snapshots from a single domain, they share a request context and typical CSRF/CORS/XSS/CSP protections do not work to prevent cross-site request attacks, browser Archives s. See the Security Overview page and Issue # for more details.

The admin UI is also served from the same origin as replayed JS, so malicious pages could also potentially use your ArchiveBox login cookies to perform admin actions (e.g. adding/removing links, running extractors, etc.). We are planning to fix this security shortcoming in a future version by using separate ports/origins to serve the Admin UI and archived content (see Issue #).

Note: Only the extractor method executes archived JS when viewing snapshots, all other archive methods produce static output that does not execute JS on viewing. If you are worried about these issues ^ you should disable the wget extractor method using .

Saving Multiple Snapshots of a Single URL

First-class support for saving multiple snapshots of each site over time will be added eventually (along with the ability to view diffs of the changes between runs). For now ArchiveBox is designed to only archive each unique URL with each extractor type once. The workaround to take multiple snapshots of the same URL is to make them slightly different by adding a hash:

The Re-Snapshot Button button in the Admin UI is a shortcut for this hash-date workaround.

Storage Requirements

Because ArchiveBox is designed to ingest a firehose of browser history and bookmark feeds to a local disk, it can be much more disk-space intensive than a centralized service like the Internet Archive or storycall.us ArchiveBox can use anywhere from ~1gb per articles, to ~50gb per articles, browser Archives s, mostly dependent on whether you’re saving audio browser Archives s video using and whether you lower .

Disk usage can be reduced by using a compressed/deduplicated filesystem like ZFS/BTRFS, or by turning off extractors methods you don’t need. Don’t store large collections on older filesystems like EXT3/FAT as they may not be able to handle more than 50k directory entries in the folder. Try to keep the file on local drive (not a network mount) or SSD for maximum performance, however the folder can be on a network mount or spinning HDD.


Screenshots


paisley graphic

The aim of ArchiveBox is to enable more of the internet to be archived by empowering people to self-host their own archives. The intent is for all the web content you care about to be viewable with common software in 50 - years without needing to run ArchiveBox or other specialized software to replay it.

Vast treasure troves of knowledge are lost every day on the internet to link rot. As a society, we have an imperative to preserve some important parts of that treasure, just like we preserve our books, browser Archives s, paintings, and music in physical libraries long after the originals go out of print or fade into obscurity.

Whether it’s to resist censorship by saving articles before they get taken down or edited, or just to save a collection of early ’s flash games you love to play, having the tools to archive internet content enables to you save the stuff you care most about before it disappears.

The balance between the permanence and ephemeral nature of content on the internet is part of what makes it beautiful, browser Archives s. I don’t think everything should be preserved in an automated fashion–making all content permanent and never removable, but I do think people should be able to decide for themselves and effectively archive specific content that they care about.

Because modern websites are complicated and often rely on dynamic content, ArchiveBox archives the sites in several different formats beyond what public archiving services like storycall.us save. Using multiple methods and the market-dominant browser to execute JS ensures we can save even the most complex, finicky websites in at least a few high-quality, long-term data formats.

Comparison to Other Projects

comparison

Check out our community page for an index of web archiving initiatives and projects.

A variety of open and closed-source archiving projects exist, but few provide a nice UI and CLI to manage a large, high-fidelity archive collection over time.

ArchiveBox tries to be a robust, set-and-forget archiving solution suitable for archiving RSS feeds, bookmarks, browser Archives s, or your entire browsing history (beware, it may be too big to store), (this is not recommended due to JS replay security concerns).

Comparison With Centralized Public Archives

Not all content is suitable to be archived in a centralized collection, whether because it’s private, copyrighted, too large, or too complex. ArchiveBox hopes to fill that gap.

By having each user store their own content locally, we can save much larger portions of everyone’s browsing history than a shared centralized service would be able to handle. The eventual goal is to work towards federated archiving where users can share portions of their collections with each other.

Comparison With Other Self-Hosted Archiving Options

ArchiveBox differentiates itself from similar self-hosted projects by providing both a comprehensive CLI interface for managing your archive, a Web UI that can be used either independently or together with the CLI, and a simple on-disk data format that can be used without either.

ArchiveBox is neither the highest fidelity, nor the simplest tool available for self-hosted archiving, browser Archives s, rather it’s a jack-of-all-trades that tries to do most things well by default. It can be as simple or advanced as you want, and is designed to do everything out-of-the-box but be tuned to suit your needs.

If you want better fidelity for very complex interactive pages with heavy JS/streams/API requests, check out storycall.us and storycall.us

If you want more bookmark categorization and note-taking features, check out Archivy, Memex, Polar, or LinkAce.

If you need more advanced recursive spider/crawling ability beyondcheck out Browsertrix, Photon, or Scrapy and pipe the outputted URLs into ArchiveBox.

For more alternatives, see our list here…


dependencies graphic

Internet Archiving Ecosystem

Whether you want to learn which organizations are browser Archives s big players in the web archiving space, want to find a specific open-source tool for your web archiving need, or just want to see where archivists hang out online, our Community Wiki page serves as an index of the broader web archiving community. Check it out to learn about some of the coolest web archiving projects and communities on the web!

Need help building a custom archiving solution?

Hire the team that helps build Archivebox to work on your project. (@MonadicalSAS)

(They also do general software consulting across many industries)


browser Archives s alt="documentation graphic">

We use the GitHub wiki system and Read the Docs (WIP) for documentation.

You can also access the docs locally by looking in the folder.

Getting Started

Reference

More Info


development

All contributions to ArchiveBox are welcomed! Check our issues and Roadmap for things to work on, and please open an issue to discuss your proposed implementation before working on things! Otherwise we may have to close your PR if it doesn’t align with our roadmap.

Low hanging fruit / easy first tickets:
Total alerts

Setup the dev environment

Common development tasks

See the folder and read the source of the bash scripts within. You can also run all these in Docker. For more examples see the GitHub Actions CI/CD tests that are run: .

Run in DEBUG mode

Install and run a specific GitHub branch

Run the linters

Run the integration tests

Make migrations or enter a django shell

this project by ArchiveBox can be found on GitHub

Generated with GitHub Pages using Merlot

Источник: browser Archives s

Web Archives: view archived and cached versions of webpages

Web Archives is an open source browser extension for Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, and other Firefox-based and Chromium-based web browsers, which you may use to display archived and cached versions of webpages.

The extension was known previously as View Page Archive & Cache.

Webpages may come and go, entire sites may be pulled from the Internet or content may be changed. Sometimes, content is temporarily inaccessible, for instance during server issues.

Archive and caching browser Archives s such as the Wayback Machine save copies of webpages so that the information is not lost.  You may even preserve webpages using services such as the Wayback Machine.

Some web browsers include functionality to open cached or archived versions of webpages automatically if a page can't be loaded. Brave Browser supports this.

Web Archives

Web Archives is an open source extension that integrates functionality to display pages using more than 10 caching and archiving services. Here is the list of services it supports currently: Wayback Machine, Google Cache, Bing Cache, Yandex Cache, storycall.us, Memento Time Travel, WebCite, Exalead Cache, Gigablast Cache, Sogou Snapshot, Qihoo Search Snapshot, Baidu Snapshot, Naver Cache, Yahoo Japan Cache, Megalodon.

To use it, simply install the extension in a supported browser and activate the icon in the browser's toolbar. Web Archives displays a selection of services and an option to look up the page on all services at once. Only six services are listed, and you may open the options browser Archives s a click on the three-dots and the selection of options to configure the services that are displayed when you activate the menu.

You may add more or less services to the menu. The options page lists several more configuration settings:

  • Define right-click context menu behavior.
  • Enable "show in address bar on server error".
  • Load page archives in new tabs.
  • Open new tabs in the background.

Positive

  • Supports more than ten different archiving and caching services, increasing the chance that a copy exists.
  • Option to customize the services that you want to use, and browser Archives s individual ones or all of them.

Negative

  • No information if cached or archived copies exist before you open the services.

Alternatives to Web Archives

Web Archives is not the only extension of its kind. We have reviewed several in the past, here is a selection of quality extensions that you may want to check out as well:

  • Vandal (Firefox, browser Archives s, Chrome) uses the Internet Archive's Wayback Machine. It offers several usability improvements over using the Wayback Machine directly, including comparing archived copies.
  • Wayback Machine (Firefox, Chrome) is a browser extension that supports only the Wayback Machine archive. May act automatically if certain server errors are thrown when accessing webpages.

Closing Words

Web Archives is a useful extension for Internet users who run into issues opening webpages regularly. Dead or inaccessible content may be resurrected using the extension, and journalists and researchers may use the extension to display previous copies of webpages. All in all, a well designed open source extension.

Now You: what do you do, when you can't access a webpage?

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Источник: [storycall.us]

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