How to protect against file-encrypting malware in Kaspersky Endpoint Security 11 for Windows

Category Archives: Antivirus

Category Archives: Antivirus

With the help of a managed service provider that also provides security services, you can stay ahead of most security threats. Ransomware, Trojans, Phishing. An incident restored from the archive to Management Console (for example, The application allows using preset Kaspersky Lab data categories and creating. Scan Resources: User: \. Event ID: 1001. Symbolic name.

Category Archives: Antivirus - that can

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Antivirus

FortiOS offers the unique ability to implement both flow-based and proxy-based antivirus concurrently, depending on the traffic type, users, and locations. Flow-based antivirus offers higher throughput performance.

FortiOS includes two preloaded antivirus profiles:

You can customize these profiles, or you can create your own to inspect certain protocols, remove viruses, analyze suspicious files with FortiSandbox, and apply botnet protection to network traffic. Once configured, you can add the antivirus profile to a firewall policy.

Note

This functionality requires a subscription to FortiGuard Antivirus.

The following topics provide information about antivirus profiles:

Protocol comparison between antivirus inspection modes

The following table indicates which protocols can be inspected by the designated antivirus scan modes.

Proxy

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes*

Yes

Flow

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

* Proxy mode antivirus inspection on CIFS protocol has the following limitations:

  • Cannot detect infections within some archive files.
  • Cannot detect oversized files.

Other antivirus differences between inspection modes

Starting from 6.4.0, the scan mode option is no longer available for flow-based AV.

This means that AV no longer exclusively uses the default or legacy scan modes when handling traffic on flow-based firewall policies. Instead, AV in flow-based policies uses a hybrid of the two scan modes. Flow AV may use a pre-filtering database for malware detection in some circumstances as opposed to the full AV signature database in others. The scan method is determined by the IPS engine algorithm that is based on the type of file being scanned.

In contrast, proxy mode maintains the scan mode option, which can be toggled between default or legacy mode. In default mode, the WAD daemon receives the file and then decides if it can it can do an in-process scan of the file in simple AV configuration scenarios. If the file is in an oversized archive that is supported by the stream‑based decompressor, then it is sent to stream‑based scan for best effort inspection. Stream‑based scan decompresses and scans the entire archive without archiving the file. If the file is not supported by stream‑based scan, then it is buffered and then sent to the scanunit daemon for inspection on content that is under the oversize limit.

In legacy mode, stream-based scanning is disabled, so oversized archive files and files that cannot be handled by WAD in-process scan are buffered and sent to the scanunit daemon for processing.

AI-based malware detection

The AV Engine AI malware detection model integrates into regular AV scanning to help detect potentially malicious Windows Portable Executables (PEs) in order to mitigate zero-day attacks. Previously, this type of detection was handled by heuristics that analyzed file behavior. With AV Engine AI, the module is trained by FortiGuard AV against many malware samples to identify file features that make up the malware. The AV Engine AI package can be downloaded by FortiOS via FortiGuard on devices with an active AV subscription. The setting is enabled by default at a per-VDOM level. Files detected by the AV Engine AI are identified with the W32/AI.Pallas.Suspicious virus signature.

To configure machine learning-based malware detection:
config antivirus settings set machine-learning-detection {enable

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Glossary

Active key

Key that is used at the moment to work with the application.

Active policy

A policy currently used by the application for Data Leak Prevention. The application can use several policies at once.

Additional key

Key that verifies the use of the application but is not used at the moment.

Anti-virus databases

Databases that contain information about computer security threats known to Kaspersky Lab as of the anti-virus database release date. Anti-virus database signatures help to detect malicious code in scanned objects. Anti-virus databases are created by Kaspersky Lab specialists and updated hourly.

Archived incident

An incident restored from the archive to Management Console (for example, to search for information about similar policy violations in the past).

Archiving

A process of moving closed incidents to an archive in secure format. The application removes incidents from Management Console after archiving them.

Background scan

Operation mode of Anti-Virus for the Mailbox role when Anti-Virus scans messages and other Microsoft Exchange objects stored on a Microsoft Exchange server, searching for viruses and other security threats with the latest version of anti-virus databases. A background scan can be run either manually or upon a set schedule.

Backup

Special storage for backup copies of objects saved before their disinfection, removal or replacement. It is a service subfolder in the application data folder created during Security Server installation.

Black list of key files

Database that contains information about the key files blocked by Kaspersky Lab. The black list file content is updated along with the product databases.

Closed incident

An incident that has been processed, with a decision made on this incident.

Confidential data

Information that is not subject to disclosure and distribution beyond a limited circle of people. Confidential data usually include information listed as a state or trade secret, as well as personal data.

Container object

An object consisting of several objects, for example, an archive or a message with an attached letter. See also simple object.

Corporate security

A scope of regulations and procedures aimed at the protection of a company's business interests. This may include, e.g., collection of information about the company's internal environment or competitors, analysis of market trends, and protection of intellectual property.

Data category

A set of data united with a common feature or subject and corresponding to specific criteria (e.g., a combination of words used in text in a certain order). The application uses data categories for recognizing information in outgoing and internal email messages. The application allows using preset Kaspersky Lab data categories and creating custom data categories.

Data leak

Unauthorized access to confidential data with further uncontrolled distribution.

Data leak prevention

A set of the security officer's actions aimed at preventing any unauthorized access to confidential data (such as removal of a message that was sent by email).

Data subcategory

A nested data category included in a larger category. Each subcategory describes the set of data with a common attribute within a category. For example, the "Magnetic stripe data" subcategory makes part of the "Banking cards" category. You can manage the composition of a category by excluding or including some subcategories. E.g., you can exclude subcategories upon which the application must not monitor data leaks.

Disinfection

A method of processing infected objects that results in full or partial recovery of data. Not all infected objects can be disinfected.

DLP Module (Data Leak Prevention)

A component of Kaspersky Security designed for protection of information sent by email against leakage.

DLP Module status

The current state of the DLP Module. Using the DLP Module status, Kaspersky Security informs you of errors in the operation of the DLP Module and ways of fixing them.

Domain Name System Block List (DNSBL).

Public lists of IP addresses known to generate spam.

Enforced Anti-Spam Updates Service

The service providing quick updates to the Anti-Spam database improving the efficiency of Anti-Spam against new emerging spam. To function properly, Enforced Anti-Spam Updates Service needs a permanent Internet connection.

False positive incident

This is an incident that has visible signs of a data leak without an actual leak occurring. For example, a false positive incident can be provoked by a user's attempt to send a file that contains no financial information but is a template for preparing financial reports.

File mask

Representation of a file name using wildcards. The standard wildcards used in file masks are * and ?, where * represents any number of any characters and ? stands for any single character.

Formal message

Message that is automatically generated and sent by mail clients or robots (for example, informing about the impossibility to deliver a message, or confirming user registration on a web resource).

Incident

The record of an event in the application's operation associated with detection of a possible data leak. E.g., the application creates an incident when a policy is violated.

Incident status

The current state of an incident. The status shows the stage of incident processing. The statuses of incidents are can be used for management of incident processing.

Infected object

An object a portion of whose code completely matches part of the code of known malware. Kaspersky Lab does not recommend using such objects.

Kaspersky CompanyAccount

Portal designed for sending online requests to Kaspersky Lab and tracking their processing by Kaspersky Lab experts.

Kaspersky Lab categories

Predefined data categories developed by Kaspersky Lab specialists. Categories can be updated during application database updates. A security officer cannot modify or delete those predefined categories.

Kaspersky Lab update servers

HTTP and FTP servers of Kaspersky Lab from which Kaspersky Lab applications download database and application module updates.

Kaspersky Security Network (KSN).

Infrastructure of cloud services that provides access to the Kaspersky Lab online knowledge base containing information about the reputation of files, web resources, and software. The use of data from Kaspersky Security Network ensures faster responses by Kaspersky Lab applications to threats, improves the effectiveness of some protection components, and reduces the risk of false positives.

Keywords

Word, phrase, or set of characters that the application finds to recognize data in outgoing and internal email messages that must be protected against leakage. Keywords can be added to data categories.

License certificate

This is a document that is provided to you by Kaspersky Lab together with a key file or activation code. It contains information about the license granted to the user.

License term

A time period during which you have access to the application features and rights to use additional services. Available functionality and specific additional services depend on the license type.

Malicious URLs

Web addresses leading to malicious resources, i.e. web resources designed to spread malware.

Management Console

Kaspersky Security application component. Provides a user interface for managing administrative tools and enables configuration of the application and management of the server component. The management module is implemented as an extension of the Microsoft® Management Console.

Match level

Criterion of how much information in outgoing and internal email messages matches a table data category. You can configure the match level when creating or editing a table data category.

A security officer can specify the number of cells that will affect the match level. The number of cells is created based on unique crossings between columns and rows of the table.

Message deletion

Method of processing an email message, which entails physical removal of this message. It is recommended to apply this method to messages which unambiguously contain spam or malicious objects. Before deleting a message, a copy of it is saved in Backup (unless this option is disabled).

Object removal

The method of processing objects which ends in it being physically deleted from its original location (hard drive, folder, network resource). We recommend that this method be applied to dangerous objects which, for whatever reason, cannot be disinfected.

Opened incident

An incident that has been assigned New or In progress status.

PCL rating

Phishing Confidence Level is a special tag used by Microsoft Exchange mail servers to measure the probability of the risk of phishing threats in a message. The PCL rating ranges from 0 to 8. A mail server considers a message with a PCL rating of 3 or lower to be free from phishing threats. A message with a rating of 4 or higher is considered a phishing message. Kaspersky Security can change the PCL rating of a message depending on the message scan results.

Personal data

Information that can be used to identify a person, directly or indirectly.

Phishing

A kind of online fraud aimed at obtaining unauthorized access to confidential data of users.

Policy

Collection of application settings that provide data protection against leakage. The policy defines the conditions on which users can handle confidential data, as well as actions that must be taken by the application when possible data leakage is detected.

Policy violation

The user's actions that are associated with a violation of the conditions accepted for the sending of confidential data by email. The application views an event as a policy violation if the user specified in the policy settings uploads to a SharePoint website or sends by email some data from a category prohibited by the policy.

Potential spam

A message that cannot be unambiguously considered spam, but has several spam attributes (e.g., certain types of mailings and advertising messages).

Probably infected object

An object whose code contains a modified segment of code of a known threat, or an object resembling a threat in the way it behaves.

Profile

A set of settings applied simultaneously to several Security Servers.

Proxy server

A computer network service which allows users to make indirect requests to other network services. First, a user connects to a proxy server and requests a resource (e.g., a file) located on another server. Then the proxy server either connects to the specified server and obtains the resource from it or returns the resource from its own cache (if the proxy has its own cache). In some cases, a user's request or a server's response can be modified by the proxy server for certain purposes.

SCL rating

Spam Confidence Level is a special tag used by Microsoft Exchange mail servers to measure the spam probability of a message. The SCL rating can range from 0 (minim probability of spam) to 9 (the message is most probably spam). Kaspersky Security can change the SCL rating of a message depending on the message scan results.

Security Officer

An employee in charge of monitoring the compliance with the corporate security requirements in email messaging, as well as monitoring and preventing data leaks.

Security Server

Server component of Kaspersky Security. Scans email traffic for viruses and spam, updates databases, ensures the application integrity, stores data, and provides administrative tools for remote management and configuration.

Simple object

Message body or simple attachment, for example, an executable file. See also container object.

Spam

Unsolicited mass e-mail, most often containing advertising messages.

Spam URI Realtime Block Lists (SURBL)

Public lists of hyperlinks to the resources advertised by spam senders.

Special recipients

A data category designed for monitoring the sending of any data to the addresses of recipients specified in this category. The application monitors all email messages sent to the specified email addresses.

Storage scan

Anti-virus scanning of messages stored on an e-mail server and the content of public folders using the latest database version. Background scans can be launched either automatically (using a schedule) or manually. The scan involves all protected public folders and mailbox storages. Scanning may reveal new viruses that had not been included in the database during earlier scans.

System KPI (Key Performance Indicators)

It is type of application operation report. It contains information about the key performance indicators of the DLP Module.

Table data

Information organized in a table format that must be protected against leakage. Table data is processed in Kaspersky Security using CSV (Comma Separated Values) files.

Unknown virus

A new virus that is not yet registered in the databases. The application usually detects unknown viruses in objects by means of the heuristic analyzer. Such objects are tagged as probably infected.

Update

A function performed by a Kaspersky Lab application that enables it to keep computer protection up-to-date. During the update, an application downloads updates for its databases and modules from Kaspersky Lab's update servers and automatically installs and applies them.

Violation context

A text fragment with data that violate the policy when being sent by email. The violation context is required for making a decision of an incident.

Virus

A program that infects other ones by adding its code to them in order to gain control when infected files are run. This simple definition allows exposing the main action performed by any virus – infection.

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Review event logs and error codes to troubleshoot issues with Microsoft Defender Antivirus

If you see these errors, you can try to update definitions and force a rescan directly on the endpoint.

Internal error codes
Error codeMessage displayedPossible reason for error and resolution
0x80501004 ERROR_MP_NO_INTERNET_CONN Check your Internet connection, then run the scan again.
0x80501000 ERROR_MP_UI_CONSOLIDATION_BASE This is an internal error. The cause is not clearly defined.
0x80501001 ERROR_MP_ACTIONS_FAILED
0x80501002 ERROR_MP_NOENGINE
0x80501003 ERROR_MP_ACTIVE_THREATS
0x805011011 MP_ERROR_CODE_LUA_CANCELLED
0x80501101 ERROR_LUA_CANCELLATION
0x80501102 MP_ERROR_CODE_ALREADY_SHUTDOWN
0x80501103 MP_ERROR_CODE_RDEVICE_S_ASYNC_CALL_PENDING
0x80501104 MP_ERROR_CODE_CANCELLED
0x80501105 MP_ERROR_CODE_NO_TARGETOS
0x80501106 MP_ERROR_CODE_BAD_REGEXP
0x80501107 MP_ERROR_TEST_INDUCED_ERROR
0x80501108 MP_ERROR_SIG_BACKUP_DISABLED
0x80508001 ERR_MP_BAD_INIT_MODULES
0x80508002 ERR_MP_BAD_DATABASE
0x80508004 ERR_MP_BAD_UFS
0x8050800C ERR_MP_BAD_INPUT_DATA
0x8050800D ERR_MP_BAD_GLOBAL_STORAGE
0x8050800E ERR_MP_OBSOLETE
0x8050800F ERR_MP_NOT_SUPPORTED
0x8050800F 0x80508010 ERR_MP_NO_MORE_ITEMS
0x80508011 ERR_MP_DUPLICATE_SCANID
0x80508012 ERR_MP_BAD_SCANID
0x80508013 ERR_MP_BAD_USERDB_VERSION
0x80508014 ERR_MP_RESTORE_FAILED
0x80508016 ERR_MP_BAD_ACTION
0x80508019 ERR_MP_NOT_FOUND
0x80509001 ERR_RELO_BAD_EHANDLE
0x80509003 ERR_RELO_KERNEL_NOT_LOADED
0x8050A001 ERR_MP_BADDB_OPEN
0x8050A002 ERR_MP_BADDB_HEADER
0x8050A003 ERR_MP_BADDB_OLDENGINE
0x8050A004 ERR_MP_BADDB_CONTENT
0x8050A005 ERR_MP_BADDB_NOTSIGNED
0x8050801 ERR_MP_REMOVE_FAILED This is an internal error. It might be triggered when malware removal is not successful.
0x80508018 ERR_MP_SCAN_ABORTED This is an internal error. It might have triggered when a scan fails to complete.

Related topics

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Stay Ahead Of Zero Day ThreatsArchived April 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Enterprise.comodo.com (June 20, 2014). Retrieved on 2017-01-03.
  • ^Kiem, Hoang; Thuy, Nguyen Yhanh and Quang, Truong Minh Nhat (December 2004) "A Machine Learning Approach to Anti-virus System", Joint Workshop of Vietnamese Society of AI, SIGKBS-JSAI, ICS-IPSJ and IEICE-SIGAI on Active Mining; Session 3: Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 67, pp. 61–65
  • ^Data Mining Methods for Malware Detection. 2008. pp. 15–. ISBN . Archived from the original on March 20, 2017.
  • ^Dua, Sumeet; Du, Xian (April 19, 2016). Data Mining and Machine Learning in Cybersecurity. CRC Press. pp. 1–. ISBN . Archived from the original on March 20, 2017.
  • ^Firdausi, Ivan; Lim, Charles; Erwin, Alva; Nugroho, Anto Satriyo (2010). "Analysis of Machine learning Techniques Used in Behavior-Based Malware Detection". 2010 Second International Conference on Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies. p. 201. doi:10.1109/ACT.2010.33. ISBN . S2CID 18522498.
  • ^Siddiqui, Muazzam; Wang, Morgan C.; Lee, Joohan (2008). "A survey of data mining techniques for malware detection using file features". Proceedings of the 46th Annual Southeast Regional Conference on XX – ACM-SE 46. p. 509. doi:10.1145/1593105.1593239. ISBN . S2CID 729418.
  • ^Deng, P.S.; Jau-Hwang Wang; Wen-Gong Shieh; Chih-Pin Yen; Cheng-Tan Tung (2003). "Intelligent automatic malicious code signatures extraction". IEEE 37th Annual 2003 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, 2003. Proceedings. p. 600. doi:10.1109/CCST.2003.1297626. ISBN . S2CID 56533298.
  • ^Komashinskiy, Dmitriy; Kotenko, Igor (2010). "Malware Detection by Data Mining Techniques Based on Positionally Dependent Features". 2010 18th Euromicro Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-based Processing. p. 617. doi:10.1109/PDP.2010.30. ISBN . S2CID 314909.
  • ^Schultz, M.G.; Eskin, E.; Zadok, F.; Stolfo, S.J. (2001). "Data mining methods for detection of new malicious executables". Proceedings 2001 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. S&P 2001. p. 38. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.408.5676. doi:10.1109/SECPRI.2001.924286. ISBN . S2CID 21791.
  • ^Ye, Yanfang; Wang, Dingding; Li, Tao; Ye, Dongyi (2007). "IMDS". Proceedings of the 13th ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining – KDD '07. p. 1043. doi:10.1145/1281192.1281308. ISBN . S2CID 8142630.
  • ^Kolter, J. Zico; Maloof, Marcus A. (December 1, 2006). "Learning to Detect and Classify Malicious Executables in the Wild". J. Mach. Learn. Res. 7: 2721–2744.
  • ^Tabish, S. Momina; Shafiq, M. Zubair; Farooq, Muddassar (2009). "Malware detection using statistical analysis of byte-level file content". Proceedings of the ACM SIGKDD Workshop on Cyber Security and Intelligence Informatics – CSI-KDD '09. p. 23. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.466.5074. doi:10.1145/1599272.1599278. ISBN . S2CID 10661197.
  • ^Ye, Yanfang; Wang, Dingding; Li, Tao; Ye, Dongyi; Jiang, Qingshan (2008). "An intelligent PE-malware detection system based on association mining". Journal in Computer Virology. 4 (4): 323. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.172.4316. doi:10.1007/s11416-008-0082-4. S2CID 207288887.
  • ^Sami, Ashkan; Yadegari, Babak; Peiravian, Naser; Hashemi, Sattar; Hamze, Ali (2010). "Malware detection based on mining API calls". Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing – SAC '10. p. 1020. doi:10.1145/1774088.1774303. ISBN . S2CID 9330550.
  • ^Shabtai, Asaf; Kanonov, Uri; Elovici, Yuval; Glezer, Chanan; Weiss, Yael (2011). ""Andromaly": A behavioral malware detection framework for android devices". Journal of Intelligent Information Systems. 38: 161. doi:10.1007/s10844-010-0148-x. S2CID 6993130.
  • ^Fox-Brewster, Thomas. "Netflix Is Dumping Anti-Virus, Presages Death Of An Industry". Forbes. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  • ^Automatic Malware Signature GenerationArchived
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    Antivirus software

    Computer software to defend against malicious computer viruses

    "Antivirus" redirects here. For the medication, see Antiviral drug.

    ClamTk, an open source antivirus based on the ClamAVantivirus engine, originally developed by Tomasz Kojm in 2001

    Antivirus software, or antivirus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.

    Antivirus software was originally developed to detect and remove computer viruses, hence the name. However, with the proliferation of other malware, antivirus software started to protect from other computer threats. In particular, Category Archives: Antivirus, modern antivirus software can protect users from malicious browser helper objects (BHOs), browser hijackers, ransomware, keyloggers, backdoors, rootkits, trojan horses, worms, malicious LSPs, dialers, fraud tools, adware, and spyware.[1] Some products also include protection from other computer threats, such as infected and malicious URLs, spam, scam and phishing attacks, online identity (privacy), online banking attacks, social engineering techniques, advanced persistent threat (APT), and botnetDDoS attacks. [2]

    History[edit]

    Further Category Archives: Antivirus History of computer viruses

    See also: Timeline of notable computer viruses and worms

    1949–1980 period (pre-antivirus days)[edit]

    Although the roots of the computer virus date back as early as 1949, Category Archives: Antivirus, when the Hungarian scientist John von Neumann published the "Theory of self-reproducing automata",[3] the first known computer virus appeared in 1971 and was dubbed the "Creeper virus".[4] This computer virus infected Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC) PDP-10 mainframe computers running the TENEX operating system.[5][6]

    The Creeper virus was eventually deleted by a program created by Ray Tomlinson and known as "The Reaper".[7] Some people consider "The Reaper" the first antivirus software ever written – it may be the case, but it is important to note that the Reaper was actually a virus itself specifically designed to remove the Creeper virus.[7][8]

    The Creeper virus was followed by several other viruses. The first known that appeared "in the wild" was "Elk Cloner", in 1981, which infected Apple II computers.[9][10][11]

    In 1983, the term "computer virus" was coined by Fred Cohen in one of the first ever published academic papers on computer viruses.[12] Cohen used the term "computer virus" to describe programs that: "affect other computer programs by modifying them in such a way as to include a (possibly evolved) copy of itself."[13] (note that a more recent, and precise, definition of computer virus has been given by the Hungarian security researcher Péter Szőr: "a code that recursively replicates a possibly evolved copy of itself").[14][15]

    The first IBM PC compatible "in the wild" computer virus, and one of Category Archives: Antivirus first real widespread infections, was "Brain" in 1986, Category Archives: Antivirus. From then, the number of viruses has grown exponentially.[16][17] Most of the computer viruses written in the early and mid-1980s were limited to self-reproduction and had no specific damage routine built into the code, Category Archives: Antivirus. That changed when more and more programmers became acquainted with computer virus programming and created viruses that manipulated or even destroyed data on infected computers.[18]

    Before internet connectivity was widespread, computer viruses were typically spread by infected floppy disks. Antivirus software came into use, but was updated relatively infrequently. During this time, virus checkers essentially had to check executable files and the boot sectors of floppy disks and hard disks. However, as internet usage became common, viruses began to spread online.[19]

    1980–1990 period (early days)[edit]

    There are competing claims for the innovator of the first antivirus product. Possibly, the first publicly documented removal of an "in the wild" computer virus (i.e. the "Vienna virus") was Category Archives: Antivirus by Bernd Fix in 1987.[20][21]

    In 1987, Andreas Lüning and Kai Figge, who founded G Data Software in 1985, released their first antivirus product for the Atari ST platform.[22] In 1987, the Ultimate Virus Killer (UVK) was also released.[23] This was the de facto industry standard virus killer for the Atari ST and Atari Falcon, the last version of which (version 9.0) was released in April 2004.[citation needed] In 1987, in the United States, John McAfee founded the McAfee company (was part of Intel Security[24]) and, at the end of that year, he released the first version of VirusScan.[25] Also in 1987 (in Czechoslovakia), Peter Paško, Rudolf Hrubý, and Miroslav Trnka created the first version of NOD antivirus.[26][27]

    In 1987, Fred Cohen wrote that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible computer viruses.[28]

    Finally, at the end of 1987, the first two heuristic antivirus utilities were released: Flushot Plus by Ross Greenberg[29][30][31] and Anti4us by Erwin Lanting.[32] In his O'Reilly book, Malicious Mobile Code: Virus Protection for Windows, Roger Grimes described Flushot Plus as "the first holistic program to fight malicious mobile code (MMC)."[33]

    However, Category Archives: Antivirus, the kind of heuristic used by early AV engines was totally different from those used today. The first product with a heuristic engine resembling modern ones was F-PROT in 1991.[34] Early heuristic engines were based on dividing the binary into different sections: data section, code section (in a legitimate binary, it usually starts always from the same location). Indeed, the initial viruses re-organized the layout of the sections, or overrode the initial portion of a section in order to jump to the very end of the file where malicious code was located—only going back to resume execution of the original code. This was a very specific pattern, not used at the time by any legitimate software, which represented an elegant heuristic to catch suspicious code. Other kinds of more advanced heuristics were later added, such as suspicious section names, incorrect header size, regular expressions, and partial pattern in-memory matching.

    In 1988, the growth of antivirus companies continued. In Germany, Tjark Auerbach founded Avira (H+BEDV at the time) and released the first version of AntiVir (named "Luke Filewalker" at the time), Category Archives: Antivirus. In Bulgaria, Vesselin Bontchev released his first freeware antivirus program (he later joined FRISK Software). Also Frans Veldman released the first version of ThunderByte Antivirus, also known as TBAV (he sold his company to Norman Safeground in 1998). In Czechoslovakia, Pavel Baudiš and Eduard Kučera started avast! (at the time ALWIL Software) and released their first version of avast! antivirus. In June 1988, in South Korea, Ahn Cheol-Soo released its first antivirus software, called V1 (he founded AhnLab later in 1995), Category Archives: Antivirus. Finally, in the Autumn 1988, in United Kingdom, Alan Solomon founded S&S International and created his Dr. Solomon's Anti-Virus Toolkit (although he launched it commercially only in 1991 – in 1998 Solomon's company was acquired by McAfee). In November 1988 a professor at the Panamerican University in Mexico City named Alejandro E. Carriles copyrighted the first antivirus software in Mexico under the name "Byte Matabichos" (Byte Bugkiller) to help solve the rampant virus infestation among students.[35]

    Also in 1988, a mailing list named VIRUS-L[36] was started on the BITNET/EARN network where new viruses and the possibilities of detecting and eliminating viruses were discussed. Some members of this mailing list were: Alan Solomon, Eugene Kaspersky (Kaspersky Lab), Friðrik Skúlason (FRISK Software), John McAfee (McAfee), Luis Corrons (Panda Security), Mikko Hyppönen (F-Secure), Péter Szőr, Tjark Auerbach (Avira) and Vesselin Bontchev (FRISK Software).[36]

    In 1989, Category Archives: Antivirus Iceland, Category Archives: Antivirus, Friðrik Skúlason created the first version of F-PROT Anti-Virus (he founded FRISK Software only in 1993), Category Archives: Antivirus. Meanwhile in the United States, Symantec (founded by Gary Hendrix in 1982) launched its first Symantec antivirus for Macintosh (SAM).[37][38] SAM 2.0, released March 1990, incorporated technology allowing users to easily update SAM to intercept and eliminate new viruses, Category Archives: Antivirus, including many that didn't exist at the time of the program's release.[39]

    In the end Category Archives: Antivirus the 1980s, in United Kingdom, Jan Hruska and Peter Lammer founded the security firm Sophos and began producing their first antivirus and encryption products. In the same period, in Hungary, also VirusBuster was founded (which has recently being incorporated by Sophos).

    1990–2000 period (emergence of the antivirus industry)[edit]

    In 1990, in Spain, Mikel Urizarbarrena founded Panda Security (Panda Software at the time).[40] In Hungary, the security researcher Péter Szőr released the first version of Pasteur antivirus. In Italy, Gianfranco Tonello created the first version of VirIT eXplorer antivirus, then founded TG Soft one year later.[41]

    In 1990, the Computer Antivirus Research Organization (CARO) was founded. In 1991, CARO released the "Virus Naming Scheme", originally written by Friðrik Skúlason and Vesselin Bontchev.[42] Although this naming scheme is now outdated, it remains the only existing standard that most computer security companies and researchers ever attempted to adopt. CARO members includes: Alan Solomon, Costin Raiu, Dmitry Gryaznov, Eugene Kaspersky, Friðrik Skúlason, Igor Muttik, Mikko Hyppönen, Morton Swimmer, Nick FitzGerald, Padgett Peterson, Peter Ferrie, Righard Zwienenberg and Vesselin Bontchev.[43][44]

    In 1991, Category Archives: Antivirus, in the United States, Symantec released the first version of Norton AntiVirus. In the same year, in the Czech Republic, Jan Gritzbach and Tomáš Hofer founded AVG Technologies (Grisoft at the time), although they released the first version of their Anti-Virus Guard (AVG) only in 1992. On the Category Archives: Antivirus hand, in Finland, F-Secure (founded in 1988 by Petri Allas and Risto Siilasmaa – with the name of Data Fellows) released the first version of their antivirus product. F-Secure claims to be the first antivirus firm to establish a presence on the World Wide Web.[45]

    In 1991, the European Institute for Computer Antivirus Research (EICAR) was founded to further antivirus research and improve development of antivirus software.[46][47]

    In 1992, in Russia, Category Archives: Antivirus, Igor Danilov released the first version of SpiderWeb, Category Archives: Antivirus, which later became Dr, Category Archives: Antivirus. Web.[48]

    In 1994, AV-TEST reported that there were 28,613 unique malware samples (based on MD5) in their database.[49]

    Over time other companies were founded. In 1996, in Romania, Bitdefender was founded and released the Category Archives: Antivirus version of Anti-Virus eXpert (AVX).[50] In 1997, in Russia, Category Archives: Antivirus, Eugene Kaspersky and Natalya Kaspersky co-founded security firm Kaspersky Lab.[51]

    In 1996, there was also the first "in the wild" Linux virus, known as "Staog".[52]

    In 1999, AV-TEST reported that there were 98,428 unique malware samples (based on MD5) in their database.[49]

    2000–2005 period[edit]

    In 2000, Rainer Link and Howard Fuhs started the first open source antivirus engine, called OpenAntivirus Project.[53]

    In 2001, Tomasz Kojm released the first version of ClamAV, the first ever open source antivirus engine to be commercialised. In 2007, ClamAV was bought by Sourcefire,[54] which in turn was acquired by Cisco Systems in 2013.[55]

    In 2002, Category Archives: Antivirus, in United Kingdom, Morten Lund and Theis Søndergaard co-founded the antivirus firm BullGuard.[56]

    In 2005, AV-TEST reported that there were 333,425 unique malware samples (based on MD5) in their database.[49]

    2005–2014 period[edit]

    In 2007, AV-TEST reported a number of 5,490,960 new unique malware samples (based on MD5) only for that year.[49] In 2012 and 2013, antivirus firms reported a new malware samples range from 300,000 to over 500,000 per day.[57][58]

    Over Category Archives: Antivirus years it has become necessary for antivirus software to use several different strategies (e.g. specific email and network protection or low level modules) and detection algorithms, as well as to check an increasing variety of files, rather than just executables, for several reasons:

    • Powerful macros used in word processor applications, such as Microsoft Word, presented a risk, Category Archives: Antivirus. Virus writers could use the macros to write viruses embedded within documents. This meant that computers could now also be at risk from infection by opening documents with hidden attached macros.
    • The possibility of embedding executable objects inside otherwise non-executable file formats can make opening those files a risk.[60]
    • Later email programs, in particular Microsoft's Outlook Express and Outlook, were vulnerable to viruses embedded in the email body itself. A user's computer could be infected by just opening or previewing a message.[61]

    In 2005, F-Secure was the first security firm that developed an Anti-Rootkit technology, called BlackLight, Category Archives: Antivirus.

    Because most users are usually connected to the Internet on a continual basis, Jon Oberheide first proposed a Cloud-based antivirus design in 2008.[62]

    In February 2008 McAfee Labs added the industry-first cloud-based anti-malware functionality to VirusScan under the name Artemis. It was tested by AV-Comparatives in February 2008[63] and officially unveiled in August 2008 in McAfee VirusScan.[64]

    Cloud AV created problems for comparative testing of security software – part of the AV definitions was out of testers control (on constantly updated AV company servers) thus making results non-repeatable. As a result, Anti-Malware Testing Standards Organisation (AMTSO) started working on method of testing cloud products which was adopted on May 7, 2009.[65]

    In 2011, Category Archives: Antivirus, AVG introduced a similar cloud service, Category Archives: Antivirus, called Protective Cloud Technology.[66]

    2014–present (rise of next-gen)[edit]

    Following the 2013 release of the APT 1 report from Mandiant, the industry has seen a shift towards signature-less approaches to the problem capable of detecting and mitigating zero-day attacks.[67] Numerous approaches to address these new forms of threats have appeared, including behavioral detection, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and cloud-based file detonation. According to Gartner, it is expected the rise of new entrants, such Carbon Black, Cylance and Crowdstrike will force EPP incumbents into a new phase of innovation and acquisition.[68] One method from Bromium involves micro-virtualization to protect desktops from malicious code execution initiated by the end user. Another approach from SentinelOne and Carbon Black focuses on behavioral detection by building a full context around every process execution path in real time,[69][70] while Cylance leverages an artificial intelligence model based on machine learning.[71] Increasingly, these signature-less approaches have been defined by the media and analyst firms as "next-generation" antivirus[72] and are seeing rapid market adoption as certified antivirus replacement technologies by firms such as Coalfire and DirectDefense.[73] In response, traditional antivirus vendors such as Trend Micro,[74]Symantec and Sophos[75] have responded by incorporating "next-gen" offerings into their portfolios as analyst firms such as Forrester and Gartner have called traditional signature-based antivirus "ineffective" and "outdated".[76]

    Identification methods[edit]

    One of the few solid theoretical results in the study of computer viruses is Frederick B. Cohen's 1987 demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible Category Archives: Antivirus However, using different layers of defense, a good detection rate may be achieved.

    There are several methods which antivirus engines can use to identify malware:

    • Sandbox detection: a particular behavioural-based detection technique that, instead of detecting the behavioural fingerprint at run time, it executes the programs in a virtual environment, logging what actions the program performs. Depending on the actions logged, the antivirus engine can determine if the program is malicious or not.[77] If not, then, the program is executed in the real environment. Albeit this technique has shown Category Archives: Antivirus be quite effective, given its heaviness and slowness, it is rarely used in end-user antivirus solutions.
    • Data mining techniques: one of the latest approaches applied in malware detection. Data mining and machine learning algorithms are used to try to classify the behaviour of a file (as either malicious or benign) given a series of file features, that are extracted from the file itself.[79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92][excessive citations]

    Signature-based detection[edit]

    Traditional antivirus software relies heavily upon signatures to identify malware.[93]

    Substantially, when a malware arrives in the hands of an antivirus firm, it is analysed by malware researchers or by dynamic analysis systems. Then, once it is determined to be a malware, a proper signature of the file is extracted and added to the signatures database of the antivirus software.[94]

    Although the signature-based approach can effectively contain malware outbreaks, malware authors have tried to stay a step ahead of such software by writing "oligomorphic", "polymorphic" and, more recently, Category Archives: Antivirus, "metamorphic" viruses, which encrypt parts of themselves or otherwise modify themselves as a method of disguise, so as to not match virus signatures in the dictionary.

    Heuristics[edit]

    Many viruses start as a single infection and through either mutation or refinements by other attackers, can grow into dozens of slightly different strains, called variants. Generic detection refers to the detection and removal of multiple threats using a single virus definition.[96]

    For example, the Vundotrojan has several family members, depending on the antivirus vendor's classification. Symantec classifies members of the Vundo family into two distinct categories, Trojan.Vundo and Trojan.Vundo.B.[97][98]

    While it may be advantageous to identify a specific virus, it can be quicker to detect a virus family through a generic signature or through an inexact match to an existing signature. Virus researchers find common areas that all viruses in a family share uniquely and can thus create a single generic signature. These signatures often contain non-contiguous code, using wildcard characters where differences lie. These wildcards allow the scanner to detect viruses even if they are padded with extra, meaningless code.[99] A detection that uses this method is said to be "heuristic detection."

    Rootkit detection[edit]

    Main article: Rootkit

    Anti-virus software can attempt to scan for rootkits. A rootkit is a type of malware designed to gain administrative-level control over a computer system without being detected. Rootkits can change how the operating system functions and in some cases can tamper with the anti-virus program and render it ineffective. Rootkits are also difficult to remove, in some cases requiring a complete re-installation of the operating system.[100]

    Real-time protection[edit]

    Real-time protection, on-access scanning, background guard, resident shield, autoprotect, Category Archives: Antivirus, and other synonyms refer to the automatic protection provided by most antivirus, anti-spyware, and other anti-malware programs. This monitors computer systems for suspicious activity such as computer viruses, spyware, adware, and other malicious objects. Real-time protection detects threats in opened files and scans apps in real-time as they are installed on the device.[101] When inserting a CD, opening an email, or browsing the web, or when a file already on the computer is opened or executed.[102]

    Issues of concern[edit]

    Unexpected renewal costs[edit]

    Some commercial antivirus software Category Archives: Antivirus license agreements include a clause that the subscription will be automatically renewed, and the purchaser's Category Archives: Antivirus card automatically billed, at the renewal time without explicit approval. For example, McAfee requires users to unsubscribe at least 60 days before the expiration of Category Archives: Antivirus present subscription[103] while BitDefender sends notifications to unsubscribe 30 days before the renewal.[104]Norton AntiVirus also renews subscriptions automatically by default.[105]

    Rogue security applications[edit]

    Main article: Rogue security software

    Some apparent antivirus programs are actually malware masquerading as legitimate software, such as WinFixer, MS Antivirus, and Mac Defender.[106]

    Problems caused by false positives[edit]

    A "false positive" or "false alarm" is when antivirus software identifies a non-malicious file as malware. When this happens, it can cause serious problems. For example, if an antivirus program is configured to immediately delete or quarantine infected files, as is common on Microsoft Windows antivirus applications, a false positive in an essential file can render the Windows operating system or some applications unusable.[107] Recovering from such damage to Category Archives: Antivirus software infrastructure incurs technical support costs and businesses can be forced to close whilst remedial action is undertaken.[108][109]

    Examples of serious false-positives:

    • May 2007: a faulty virus signature issued by Symantec mistakenly removed essential operating system files, leaving thousands of PCs unable to boot.[110]
    • May 2007: the executable file required by Pegasus Mail on Windows was falsely detected by Norton AntiVirus as being a Trojan and it was automatically removed, preventing Pegasus Mail from running. Norton AntiVirus had falsely identified three releases of Pegasus Mail as malware, and would delete the Pegasus Mail installer file when that happened.[111] In response to this Pegasus Mail stated:

    On the basis that Norton/Symantec has done this for every one of the last three releases of Pegasus Mail, we can only condemn this product as too flawed to use, and recommend in the strongest terms that our users cease using it in favour of alternative, less buggy anti-virus packages.[111]

    • April 2010:McAfee VirusScan detected svchost.exe, a normal Windows binary, as a virus on machines running Windows XP with Service Pack 3, causing a reboot loop and loss of all network access.[112][113]
    • December 2010: a faulty update on the AVG anti-virus suite damaged 64-bit versions of Windows 7, rendering it unable to boot, due to an endless boot loop created.[114]
    • October 2011:Microsoft Security Essentials (MSE) removed the Google Chrome web browser, rival to Microsoft's own Internet Explorer. MSE flagged Chrome as a Zbot banking trojan.[115]
    • September 2012:Sophos' anti-virus suite identified various update-mechanisms, including its own, as malware. If it was configured to automatically delete detected files, Sophos Antivirus could render itself unable to Category Archives: Antivirus, required manual intervention to fix the problem.[116][117]
    • September 2017: the Google Play Protect anti-virus started identifying Motorola's Moto G4 Bluetooth application as malware, causing Bluetooth functionality to become disabled.[118]

    System and interoperability related issues[edit]

    Running (the real-time protection of) multiple antivirus programs concurrently can degrade performance and create conflicts.[119] However, using a concept called multiscanning, several companies (including G Data Software[120] and Microsoft[121]) have created applications which can run multiple engines concurrently.

    It is sometimes necessary to temporarily disable virus protection when installing major updates such as Windows Service Packs or updating graphics card drivers.[122] Active antivirus protection may partially or completely prevent the installation of a major update. Anti-virus software can cause problems during the installation of an operating system upgrade, e.g. when upgrading to a newer version of Windows "in place"—without erasing the previous version of Windows. Microsoft recommends that anti-virus software be disabled to avoid conflicts with the upgrade installation process.[123][124][125] Active anti-virus software can also interfere with a firmware update process.[126]

    The functionality of a few computer programs can be hampered by active anti-virus software. For example, TrueCrypt, a disk encryption program, states on its troubleshooting page that anti-virus programs can conflict with TrueCrypt and cause it to malfunction or operate very slowly.[127] Anti-virus software can impair the performance and stability of games running in the Steam platform.[128]

    Support issues also exist around antivirus application Category Archives: Antivirus with common solutions like SSL VPN remote access and network access control products.[129] These technology solutions often have policy assessment applications that require an up-to-date antivirus to be installed and running. If the antivirus application is not recognized by the policy assessment, whether because the antivirus application has been updated or because it is not part of the policy assessment library, the user will be unable to connect, Category Archives: Antivirus.

    Effectiveness[edit]

    Studies in December 2007 showed that the effectiveness of antivirus software had decreased in the previous year, particularly against unknown or zero day attacks. The computer magazine c't found that detection rates for these threats had dropped from 40 to 50% in 2006 to 20–30% in 2007. At that time, the only exception was the NOD32 antivirus, which managed a detection rate of 68%.[130] According to the ZeuS tracker website the average detection rate for all variants of the well-known ZeuS trojan is as low as 40%.[131]

    The problem is magnified by the changing intent of virus authors. Some years ago it was obvious when a virus infection was present. At the time, viruses were written by amateurs and exhibited destructive behavior or pop-ups. Modern viruses are often written by professionals, financed by criminal organizations.[132]

    In 2008, Eva Chen, CEO of Trend Micro, stated that the anti-virus industry has over-hyped how effective its products are—and so has been misleading customers—for years.[133]

    Independent testing on all the major virus scanners consistently shows that none provides 100% virus detection. The best ones provided as high as 99.9% detection for simulated real-world situations, while the lowest provided 91.1% in tests conducted in August 2013. Many virus scanners produce false positive results as well, identifying benign files as malware.[134]

    Although methods may differ, some notable independent quality testing agencies include AV-Comparatives, ICSA Labs, West Coast Labs, Virus Bulletin, AV-TEST and other members of the Anti-Malware Testing Standards Organization.[135][136]

    New viruses[edit]

    Anti-virus programs are not always effective against new viruses, even those that use non-signature-based methods that should detect new viruses. The reason for this is that the virus designers test their new viruses on the major anti-virus applications to make sure that they are not detected before releasing them into the wild.[137]

    Some new viruses, particularly ransomware, use polymorphic code to avoid detection by Category Archives: Antivirus scanners. Jerome Segura, a security analyst with ParetoLogic, explained:[138]

    It's something that they miss a lot of the time because this type of [ransomware virus] comes from sites that use a polymorphism, which means they basically randomize the file they send you and it gets by well-known antivirus products very easily. I've seen people firsthand getting infected, having all the pop-ups and yet they have antivirus software running and it's not detecting anything. It actually can be pretty hard to get rid of, as well, and you're never really sure if it's really gone. When we see something like that usually we advise to reinstall the operating system or reinstall backups.[138]

    A Category Archives: Antivirus of concept virus has Category Archives: Antivirus the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to avoid detection from anti-virus software. The potential success of this involves bypassing the CPU in order to make it much harder for security researchers to analyse the inner workings of such malware.[139]

    Rootkits[edit]

    Detecting rootkits is a major challenge for anti-virus programs. Rootkits have full administrative access to the computer and are invisible to users and hidden from the list of running processes in the task manager. Rootkits can modify the inner workings of the operating system and tamper with antivirus programs.[140]

    Damaged files[edit]

    If a file has been infected by a computer virus, anti-virus software will attempt to remove the virus code from the file during disinfection, but Category Archives: Antivirus is not always able to restore the file to its undamaged state.[141][142] In such circumstances, damaged files can only be restored from existing backups or shadow copies (this is also true for ransomware[143]); installed software that is damaged requires re-installation[144] (however, see System File Checker).

    Firmware infections[edit]

    Any writeable firmware in the computer can be infected by malicious code.[145] This is a major concern, as an infected BIOS could require the actual BIOS chip to be replaced to ensure the malicious code is completely removed.[146] Anti-virus software is not effective at protecting firmware and the motherboard BIOS from infection.[147] In 2014, Category Archives: Antivirus, security researchers discovered that USB devices contain writeable firmware which can be modified with malicious code (dubbed "BadUSB"), which anti-virus software cannot detect or prevent. The malicious code can run undetected on the computer and could even infect the operating system prior to it booting up.[148][149]

    Performance and other drawbacks[edit]

    Antivirus software has some drawbacks, first of which that it can impact a computer's performance.[150]

    Furthermore, inexperienced users can be lulled into a false sense of security when using the computer, considering their computers to be invulnerable, Category Archives: Antivirus, and may have problems understanding the prompts and decisions that antivirus software presents them with. An incorrect decision may lead to a security breach. If the antivirus software employs heuristic detection, it must be fine-tuned to minimize misidentifying harmless software as malicious (false positive).[151]

    Antivirus software itself usually runs at the highly trusted kernel level of the operating system to allow it access to all the potential malicious process and files, creating a potential avenue of attack.[152] The US National Security Agency (NSA) and the UK Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) intelligence agencies, Category Archives: Antivirus, respectively, have been exploiting anti-virus software to spy on users.[153] Anti-virus software has highly privileged and trusted access to the underlying operating system, which makes it a much more appealing target for remote attacks.[154] Additionally anti-virus software is "years behind security-conscious client-side applications like browsers or document readers. It means that Acrobat Reader, Microsoft Word or Google Chrome are harder to exploit than 90 percent of the anti-virus products out there", according to Joxean Koret, a researcher with Coseinc, a Singapore-based information security consultancy.[154]

    Alternative solutions[edit]

    The command-line virus scanner of Category Archives: Antivirus AV 0.95.2running a virus signature definition update, scanning a file, and identifying a Trojan.

    Antivirus software running on individual computers is the most common method employed of guarding against malware, but it is not the only solution. Other solutions can also be employed by users, including Unified Threat Management (UTM), hardware and network firewalls, Cloud-based antivirus and online scanners.

    Hardware and network firewall[edit]

    Network firewalls prevent unknown programs and processes from accessing the system. However, they are not antivirus systems and make no attempt to identify or remove anything. They may protect against infection from outside the protected computer or network, and limit the activity of any Category Archives: Antivirus software which is present by blocking incoming or outgoing requests on certain TCP/IP ports. A firewall is designed to deal with broader system threats that come from network connections into the system and is not an alternative to a virus protection system.

    Cloud antivirus[edit]

    Cloud antivirus is a technology that uses lightweight agent software on the protected computer, Category Archives: Antivirus, while offloading the majority of data analysis to the provider's infrastructure.[155]

    One approach to implementing cloud antivirus involves scanning suspicious files using multiple antivirus engines, Category Archives: Antivirus. This approach was proposed by an early implementation of the cloud antivirus concept called CloudAV. CloudAV was designed to send programs or documents to a network cloud where multiple antivirus and behavioral detection programs are used simultaneously in order to improve detection rates. Parallel scanning of files using potentially incompatible antivirus scanners is achieved by spawning a virtual machine per detection engine and therefore eliminating any possible issues. CloudAV can also perform "retrospective detection," whereby the cloud detection engine rescans all files in its file access history when a new threat is identified thus improving new threat detection speed. Finally, CloudAV is a solution for effective virus scanning on devices that lack the computing power to perform the scans themselves.[156]

    Some examples of cloud anti-virus products are Panda Cloud Antivirus and Immunet. Comodo Group has also produced cloud-based anti-virus.[157][158]

    Online scanning[edit]

    Some antivirus vendors maintain websites with free online scanning capability of the entire computer, critical areas only, local disks, Category Archives: Antivirus, folders or files, Category Archives: Antivirus. Periodic online scanning is a good idea for those that run antivirus applications on their computers because those applications are frequently slow to catch threats, Category Archives: Antivirus. One of the first things that malicious software does in an attack is disable any existing antivirus software and sometimes the only way to know of an attack is by turning to an online resource that is not installed on the infected computer.[159]

    Specialized tools[edit]

    Virus removal tools are available to help remove stubborn infections or certain types of infection, Category Archives: Antivirus. Examples include Avast Free Anti- Malware,[160]AVG Free Malware Removal Tools,[161] and Avira AntiVir Removal Tool.[162] It is also worth noting that sometimes antivirus software can produce a false positive result, indicating an infection where there is none.[163]

    A rescue disk that is bootable, such as a CD or USB storage device, can be used to run antivirus software outside of the installed operating system, in order to remove infections while they are dormant. A bootable antivirus disk can be useful when, Category Archives: Antivirus, for example, the installed operating system is no longer bootable or has malware that is resisting all attempts to be removed by the installed antivirus software. Examples of some of these bootable disks include the Bitdefender Rescue CD,[164]Kaspersky Rescue Disk 2018,[165] and Windows Defender Offline[166] (integrated into Windows 10 since the Anniversary Update), Category Archives: Antivirus. Most of the Rescue CD software can also be installed onto a USB storage device, that is bootable on newer computers.

    Usage and risks[edit]

    According to an FBI survey, major businesses lose $12 million annually dealing with virus incidents.[167] A survey by Symantec in 2009 found that a third of small to medium-sized business did not use antivirus protection at that time, whereas more than 80% of home users had some kind of antivirus installed.[168] According to a sociological survey conducted by G Data Software in 2010 49% of women did not use any antivirus program at all.[169]

    See also[edit]

    Citations[edit]

    1. ^Henry, Alan. "The Difference Between Antivirus and Anti-Malware (and Which to Use)". Archived from the original on November 22, Category Archives: Antivirus, 2013.
    2. ^"What is antivirus software?". Microsoft. Archived from the original on April 11, 2011.
    3. ^von Neumann, John (1966) Theory of Category Archives: Antivirus automataArchived June 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. University of Illinois Press.
    4. ^Thomas Chen, Jean-Marc Robert (2004), Category Archives: Antivirus. "The Evolution of Viruses and Worms". Archived from the original on May 17, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
    5. ^From the first email to the first YouTube video: a definitive internet historyArchived December 31, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Tom Meltzer and Sarah Phillips. The Guardian. October 23, 2009
    6. ^IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Volumes 27–28. IEEE Computer Society, 2005. 74Archived May 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine: "[.]from one machine to another led to experimentation with the Creeper program, which became the world's first computer worm: a computation that used the network to recreate itself on another node, and spread from node to node."
    7. ^ abJohn Metcalf (2014). "Core War: Creeper & Reaper", Category Archives: Antivirus. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
    8. ^"Creeper – The Virus Encyclopedia". Archived from the original on September 20, 2015.
    9. ^"Elk Cloner". Archived from the original on January 7, 2011. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
    10. ^"Top 10 Computer Viruses: No. 10 – Elk Cloner". Archived from the original on February Category Archives: Antivirus, 2011. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
    11. ^"List of Computer Viruses Developed in 1980s". Archived from the original on July 24, 2011, Category Archives: Antivirus. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
    12. ^Fred Cohen: "Computer Viruses – Theory and Experiments" (1983)Archived June 8, 2011, Category Archives: Antivirus, at the Wayback Machine. Eecs.umich.edu (November 3, 1983), Category Archives: Antivirus. Retrieved on 2017-01-03.
    13. ^Cohen, Category Archives: Antivirus, Fred (April 1, Category Archives: Antivirus, 1988). "Invited Paper: On the Implications of Computer Viruses and Methods of Defense", Category Archives: Antivirus. Computers & Security. 7 (2): 167–184. doi:10.1016/0167-4048(88)90334-3.
    14. ^Szor 2005, p. [page needed].
    15. ^"Virus Bulletin :: In memoriam: Péter Ször 1970–2013". Archived from the original on August 26, 2014.
    16. ^Bassham, Category Archives: Antivirus, Lawrence; Polk, W. (October 1992), Category Archives: Antivirus. "History of Viruses". doi:10.6028/NIST.IR.4939. Archived from the original on April 23, 2011.
    17. ^Leyden, Category Archives: Antivirus, John (January 19, 2006). "PC virus celebrates 20th birthday". The Register, Category Archives: Antivirus. Archived from the original on September 6, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
    18. ^"The History of Computer Viruses". November 10, 2017.
    19. ^Panda Security (April 2004). "(II) Evolution of computer viruses". Archived from the original on August 2, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
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    21. ^Wells, Joe (August 30, 1996). "Virus timeline". IBM. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
    22. ^G Data Software AG (2017). "G Data presents first Antivirus solution in 1987". Archived from the original on March 15, Category Archives: Antivirus, 2017. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
    23. ^Karsmakers, Category Archives: Antivirus, Richard (January 2010). "The ultimate Virus Killer Book and Software". Archived from the original on July 29, 2016. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
    24. ^"McAfee Becomes Intel Security". McAfee Inc. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
    25. ^Cavendish, Marshall (2007). Inventors and Inventions, Volume 4. Paul Bernabeo. p. 1033. ISBN .
    26. ^"About ESET Company". Archived from Category Archives: Antivirus original on October 28, 2016.
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    28. ^ abCohen, Fred, An Undetectable Computer Virus (Archived), 1987, IBM
    29. ^Yevics, Category Archives: Antivirus, Patricia A. "Flu Shot for Computer Viruses". americanbar.org. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014.
    30. ^Strom, David (April 1, 2010). "How friends help friends on the Internet: The Ross Greenberg Story". wordpress.com. Category Archives: Antivirus from the original on August 26, Category Archives: Antivirus, 2014.
    31. ^"Anti-virus is 30 years old". spgedwards.com. April 2012. Archived from the original on April 27, 2015.
    32. ^"A Brief History of Antivirus Software". techlineinfo.com, Category Archives: Antivirus. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014.
    33. ^Grimes, Roger A. (June 1, 2001). Malicious Mobile Code: Virus Protection for Windows. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 522. ISBN . Archived from the original on March 21, 2017.
    34. ^"Friðrik Skúlason ehf" (in Icelandic). Archived from the original on June 17, 2006.
    35. ^Direccion General del Derecho de Autor, SEP, Mexico D.F. Registry 20709/88 Book 8, page 40, dated November 24, 1988.
    36. ^ ab"The 'Security Digest' Archives (TM) : www.phreak.org-virus_l". Archived from the original on January 5, 2010.
    37. ^"Symantec Softwares and Internet Security at PCM". Archived from the original on July 1, 2014.
    38. ^SAM Identifies Virus-Infected Files, Repairs Applications, InfoWorld, Category Archives: Antivirus, May 22, Category Archives: Antivirus, 1989
    39. ^SAM Update Lets Users Program for New Viruses, InfoWorld, February 19, 1990
    40. ^Naveen, Sharanya. "Panda Security", Category Archives: Antivirus. Archived from the original on June 30, Category Archives: Antivirus, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
    41. ^"Who we are – TG Soft Software House". www.tgsoft.it. Archived from the original on October 13, 2014.
    42. ^"A New Virus Naming Convention (1991) – CARO – Computer Antivirus Research Organization". Archived from the original on August 13, 2011.
    43. ^"CARO Members". CARO, Category Archives: Antivirus. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
    44. ^CAROids, Hamburg 2003Archived November 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
    45. ^"F-Secure Weblog : News from the Lab". F-secure.com. Archived from the original on September 23, 2012. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
    46. ^"About EICAR". EICAR official website. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
    47. ^David Harley, Lysa Myers & Eddy Willems. "Test Files and Product Evaluation: the Case for and against Malware Simulation"(PDF). AVAR2010 13th Association of anti Virus Asia Researchers International Conference. Archived from the original(PDF) on September 29, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
    48. ^"Dr. Web LTD Doctor Web / Dr. Web Reviews, Best AntiVirus Software Reviews, Review Centre". Reviewcentre.com, Category Archives: Antivirus. Archived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
    49. ^ abcd[In 1994, AV-Test.org reported 28,613 unique malware samples (based on MD5). "A Brief History of Malware; The First 25 Years"]
    50. ^"BitDefender Product History". Archived from the original on March 17, 2012.
    51. ^"InfoWatch Management". InfoWatch. Archived from the original on August 21, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
    52. ^"Linuxvirus – Community Help Wiki". Archived from the original on March 24, 2017.
    53. ^"Sorry – recovering."Archived from the original on August 26, 2014.
    54. ^"Sourcefire acquires ClamAV". ClamAV. August 17, 2007. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2008.
    55. ^"Cisco Completes Acquisition of Sourcefire". cisco.com. October 7, 2013. Archived from the original on January 13, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
    56. ^Der Unternehmer – brand eins onlineArchived November 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Brandeins.de (July 2009). Retrieved on January 3, 2017.
    57. ^Williams, Greg (April 2012), Category Archives: Antivirus. "The digital detective: Mikko Hypponen's war on malware is escalating", Category Archives: Antivirus. Wired. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016.
    58. ^"Everyday cybercrime – and what you can do about it". Archived from the original on February 20, 2014.
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    60. ^Slipstick Systems (February 2009). "Protecting Microsoft Outlook against Viruses", Category Archives: Antivirus. Archived from the original on June 2, Category Archives: Antivirus, 2009. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
    61. ^"CloudAV: N-Version Antivirus in the Network Cloud", Category Archives: Antivirus. usenix.org. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014.
    62. ^McAfee Artemis Preview ReportArchived April 3, 2016, at the Wayback Category Archives: Antivirus. av-comparatives.org
    63. ^McAfee Third Quarter 2008Archived April 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. corporate-ir.net
    64. ^"AMTSO Best Practices for Testing In-the-Cloud Security Products » Category Archives: Antivirus. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016. Retrieved March 21, 2016.
    65. ^"TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW". AVG Security. Archived from the original on June 2, 2015. Retrieved February 16, Category Archives: Antivirus, 2015.
    66. ^Barrett, Brian (October 18, 2018). "The Mysterious Return of Years-Old Chinese Malware". Wired. Retrieved June 16, 2019 – via www.wired.com.
    67. ^"Magic Quadrant Endpoint Category Archives: Antivirus Platforms 2016". Gartner Research.
    68. ^Messmer, Category Archives: Antivirus, Ellen (August 20, 2014). "Start-up offers up endpoint detection and response for behavior-based malware detection". networkworld.com. Archived Category Archives: Antivirus the original on February 5, 2015.
    69. ^"Homeland Security Today: Bromium Research Reveals Insecurity in Existing Endpoint Malware Protection Category Archives: Antivirus. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015.
    70. ^"Duelling Unicorns: CrowdStrike Vs. Cylance In Brutal Battle To Knock Hackers Out". Forbes, Category Archives: Antivirus. July 6, 2016. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016.
    71. ^Potter, Davitt (June 9, 2016). "Is Anti-virus Dead? The Shift Toward Next-Gen Endpoints", Category Archives: Antivirus. Archived from the original on December 20, Category Archives: Antivirus, 2016.
    72. ^"CylancePROTECT® Achieves HIPAA Security Rule Compliance Certification". Cylance. Archived from the original on October 22, 2016, Category Archives: Antivirus. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
    73. ^"Trend Micro-XGen". Trend Micro. October 18, 2016. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016.
    74. ^"Next-Gen Endpoint". Sophos. Archived from the original on November 6, 2016.
    75. ^The Forrester Wave™: Endpoint Security Suites, Q4 2016Archived October 22, 2016, Category Archives: Antivirus, at the Wayback Machine. Forrester.com (October 19, 2016). Retrieved on 2017-01-03.
    76. ^Sandboxing Protects Endpoints monitor

      Antivirus

      FortiOS offers the unique ability to implement both flow-based and proxy-based antivirus concurrently, depending on the traffic type, Category Archives: Antivirus, users, and locations. Flow-based antivirus offers higher throughput performance.

      FortiOS includes two preloaded antivirus profiles:

      You can customize these profiles, or you can create your own to inspect certain protocols, Category Archives: Antivirus, remove viruses, analyze suspicious files with FortiSandbox, and Category Archives: Antivirus botnet protection to network traffic. Once configured, you can add the antivirus profile to a firewall policy.

      Note

      This functionality requires a subscription to FortiGuard Antivirus.

      The following topics provide information about antivirus profiles:

      Protocol comparison between antivirus inspection modes

      The following table indicates which protocols can be inspected by the designated antivirus scan modes.

      Proxy

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes*

      Yes

      Flow

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      * Proxy mode antivirus inspection on CIFS protocol has the following limitations:

      • Cannot detect infections within some archive files.
      • Cannot detect oversized files.

      Other antivirus differences between inspection modes

      Starting from 6.4.0, the scan mode option is no longer available for flow-based AV.

      This means that AV no longer exclusively uses the default or legacy scan modes when handling traffic on flow-based firewall policies. Instead, Category Archives: Antivirus, AV in flow-based policies uses a hybrid of the two scan modes. Flow AV may use a pre-filtering database for malware detection in some circumstances as opposed to the full AV signature database in others. The scan method is determined by the IPS engine algorithm that is based on the type of file being scanned.

      In contrast, proxy mode maintains the scan mode option, which can be toggled between default or legacy mode. In default mode, the WAD daemon receives the file and then decides if it can it can do an in-process scan of the file in simple AV configuration scenarios. If the file is in an oversized archive that is supported by the stream‑based decompressor, then it is sent to stream‑based scan for best effort inspection. Stream‑based scan decompresses and scans the entire archive without archiving the file. If the file is not supported by stream‑based scan, then it is buffered and then sent to the scanunit daemon for inspection on content that is under the oversize limit.

      In legacy mode, stream-based scanning is disabled, so oversized archive files and files that cannot be handled by WAD in-process scan are buffered and sent to the scanunit daemon for processing.

      AI-based malware detection

      The AV Engine AI malware detection model integrates into Category Archives: Antivirus AV scanning to help detect potentially malicious Windows Portable Executables (PEs) in order to mitigate zero-day attacks. Previously, this type of detection was handled by heuristics that analyzed file behavior. With AV Engine AI, the module is trained by FortiGuard AV against many malware samples to identify file features that make up the malware. The AV Engine AI package can be downloaded by FortiOS via FortiGuard on devices with an active AV subscription. The setting is enabled by default at a per-VDOM level. Files detected by the AV Engine AI are identified with the W32/AI.Pallas.Suspicious virus signature.

      To configure machine learning-based malware detection:
      config antivirus settings set machine-learning-detection {enable

      Glossary

      Active key

      Key that is used at the moment to work with the application.

      Active policy

      A policy currently used by the application for Data Leak Prevention. The application can use several policies at once.

      Additional key

      Key that verifies the use of the application but is not used at the moment.

      Anti-virus databases

      Databases that contain information about computer security threats known to Kaspersky Lab as of the anti-virus database release date, Category Archives: Antivirus. Anti-virus database signatures help to detect malicious code in scanned objects. Anti-virus databases are created by Kaspersky Lab specialists and updated hourly.

      Archived incident

      An incident restored from the archive to Management Console (for example, to search for information about similar policy violations in the past).

      Archiving

      A process of moving closed incidents to an archive in secure format. The application removes incidents from Management Console after archiving them.

      Background scan

      Operation mode of Anti-Virus for the Mailbox role when Anti-Virus scans messages and other Microsoft Exchange objects stored on a Microsoft Exchange server, searching for viruses and other security threats with the latest version of anti-virus databases, Category Archives: Antivirus. A background scan can be run either manually or upon a set schedule.

      Backup

      Special storage for backup copies of objects saved before their disinfection, removal or replacement. It is a service subfolder in the application data folder created during Security Server installation.

      Black list of key files

      Database that contains information about the key files blocked by Kaspersky Lab. The black list file content is updated along with the product databases.

      Closed incident

      An incident that has been processed, with a decision made on this incident.

      Confidential data

      Information that is not subject to disclosure and distribution beyond a limited circle of people. Confidential data usually include information listed as a state or trade secret, as well as personal data.

      Container object

      An object consisting of several objects, for example, Category Archives: Antivirus, an archive or a message with an Category Archives: Antivirus letter. See also simple object.

      Corporate security

      A scope of regulations and procedures aimed at the protection of a company's business interests. This may include, e.g., collection of information about the company's internal environment or competitors, analysis of market trends, and protection of intellectual property.

      Data category

      A set of data united with a common feature or subject and corresponding to specific criteria (e.g., a combination of words used in text in a certain order). The application uses data categories for recognizing information in outgoing and internal email messages. The application allows using preset Kaspersky Lab data categories and creating custom data categories.

      Data leak

      Unauthorized access to confidential data with further uncontrolled distribution.

      Data leak prevention

      A set of the security officer's actions aimed at preventing any unauthorized access to confidential data (such as removal of a message that was sent by email).

      Data subcategory

      A nested data category included in a larger category. Each subcategory describes the set of data with a common attribute within a category, Category Archives: Antivirus. For example, the "Magnetic stripe data" subcategory makes part of the "Banking cards" category. You can manage the composition of a category by excluding or including some subcategories. E.g., you can exclude subcategories upon which the application must not monitor data leaks.

      Disinfection

      A method of processing infected objects that results in full or partial recovery of data. Not all infected objects can be disinfected.

      DLP Module (Data Leak Prevention)

      A component of Kaspersky Security designed for protection of information sent by email against leakage.

      DLP Module status

      The current state of the DLP Module. Using the DLP Module status, Category Archives: Antivirus, Kaspersky Security informs you of errors in the operation of the DLP Module and ways of fixing them.

      Domain Name System Block List (DNSBL).

      Public lists of IP addresses known to generate spam.

      Enforced Anti-Spam Updates Service

      The service providing quick updates to the Anti-Spam database improving the efficiency of Anti-Spam against new emerging spam. To function properly, Enforced Category Archives: Antivirus Updates Service needs a permanent Internet connection.

      False positive incident

      This is an incident that has visible signs of a data leak without an actual leak occurring. For example, a false positive incident can be provoked by a user's attempt to send a file that contains no financial information but is a template for preparing financial reports.

      File mask

      Representation of a file name using wildcards. The standard wildcards used in file masks are * and ?, Category Archives: Antivirus, where * represents any number of any characters and ? stands for any single character.

      Formal message

      Message that is automatically generated and sent by mail clients or robots (for example, informing about the impossibility to deliver a message, or confirming user registration on a web resource).

      Incident

      The record of an event in the application's operation associated with detection of a possible data leak. E.g., the application creates an incident when a policy is violated.

      Incident status

      The current state of an incident. The status shows the stage of incident processing. The statuses of incidents are can be used for management of incident processing.

      Infected object

      An object a portion of whose code completely matches part of the code of known malware. Kaspersky Lab does not recommend using such Category Archives: Antivirus CompanyAccount

      Portal designed for sending online requests to Kaspersky Lab and tracking their processing by Kaspersky Lab experts.

      Kaspersky Lab categories

      Predefined data categories developed by Kaspersky Lab specialists. Categories can be updated during application database updates. A security officer cannot modify or delete those predefined categories.

      Kaspersky Lab update servers

      HTTP and FTP servers of Kaspersky Lab from which Kaspersky Lab applications download database and application module updates.

      Kaspersky Security Network (KSN).

      Infrastructure of cloud services that provides access to the Kaspersky Lab online knowledge base containing information about the reputation of files, web resources, Category Archives: Antivirus, and software. The use of data from Kaspersky Security Network ensures faster responses by Kaspersky Lab applications to threats, improves the effectiveness of some protection components, and reduces the risk of false positives.

      Keywords

      Word, phrase, Category Archives: Antivirus, or set of characters that the application finds to recognize data in outgoing and internal email messages that must be protected against leakage, Category Archives: Antivirus. Keywords can be added to data categories.

      License certificate

      This is a document that is provided to you by Kaspersky Lab together with a key file or activation code. It contains information about the license granted to the user.

      License term

      A time period during which you have access to the application features and rights to use additional services. Available functionality and specific additional services depend on the license type.

      Malicious URLs

      Web addresses leading to malicious resources, i.e. web resources designed to spread malware.

      Management Console

      Kaspersky Security application component. Provides a user interface for managing administrative tools and enables configuration of the application and management of the server component. The management module is implemented as an extension of the Microsoft® Management Console.

      Match level

      Criterion of how much information in outgoing and internal email messages matches a table data category. You can configure the match level when creating or editing a table data category.

      A security officer can specify the number of cells that will affect the match level. The number of cells is created based on unique crossings between columns and rows of the table.

      Message deletion

      Method of processing an email message, which entails physical removal of this message. It is recommended to apply this method to messages which unambiguously contain spam or malicious objects. Before deleting a message, a copy of it is saved in Backup (unless this option is disabled).

      Object removal

      The method of processing objects which ends in it being physically deleted from its original location (hard drive, folder, network resource). We recommend that this method be applied to dangerous objects which, for whatever reason, cannot be disinfected.

      Opened incident

      An incident that has been assigned New or In progress status.

      PCL rating

      Phishing Confidence Level is a special tag Category Archives: Antivirus by Microsoft Exchange mail servers to measure the probability of the risk of phishing threats in a message. The PCL rating ranges from 0 to 8. A mail server considers a message with a PCL rating of 3 or lower to be free from phishing threats. A message with a rating of 4 or higher is considered a phishing message. Kaspersky Security can change the PCL rating of a message depending on the message scan results.

      Personal data

      Information that can be used to identify a person, directly or indirectly.

      Phishing

      A kind of online fraud aimed at obtaining unauthorized access to confidential data of users.

      Policy

      Collection of application settings that provide data protection against leakage. The policy defines the conditions on which users can handle confidential data, Category Archives: Antivirus, as well as actions that must be taken by the application when possible data leakage is detected.

      Policy violation

      The user's actions that are associated with a violation of the conditions accepted for the sending of confidential data by email. The application views an event as a policy violation if the user specified in the policy settings uploads to a SharePoint website or sends by email some data from a category prohibited by the policy.

      Potential spam

      A message that cannot be unambiguously considered spam, but has several spam attributes (e.g., certain types of mailings and advertising messages).

      Probably infected object

      An object whose code contains a modified segment of code of a known threat, or an object resembling a threat in the way it behaves.

      Profile

      A set of settings applied simultaneously to several Security Servers.

      Proxy server

      A computer network service which allows users to make indirect requests to other network services. First, a user connects to a proxy server and requests a resource (e.g., a file) located on another server. Then the proxy server either connects to the specified server and obtains the resource from it or returns the resource from its own cache (if the proxy has its own cache). In some cases, a user's request or a server's response can be modified by the proxy server for certain purposes.

      SCL rating

      Spam Confidence Level is a special tag used by Microsoft Exchange mail servers to measure the spam probability of a message. The SCL rating can range from 0 (minim probability of spam) to 9 (the message is most probably spam). Kaspersky Security can change the SCL Category Archives: Antivirus of a message depending on the message scan results.

      Security Officer

      An employee in charge of monitoring the compliance with the corporate security requirements in email messaging, as well as monitoring and preventing data leaks.

      Security Server

      Server component of Kaspersky Security. Scans email traffic for viruses and spam, updates databases, ensures the application integrity, stores data, and provides administrative tools for remote management and configuration.

      Simple object

      Message body or simple attachment, for example, Category Archives: Antivirus, an executable file. See also Category Archives: Antivirus object.

      Spam

      Unsolicited mass e-mail, most often containing advertising messages.

      Spam URI Realtime Block Lists (SURBL)

      Public lists of hyperlinks to the resources advertised by spam senders.

      Special recipients

      A data category designed for monitoring the sending of any data to the addresses of recipients specified in this category. The application monitors all email messages sent to the specified email addresses.

      Storage scan

      Anti-virus scanning of messages stored on an e-mail server and the content of public folders using the latest database version. Background scans Category Archives: Antivirus be launched either automatically (using a schedule) or manually. The scan involves all protected public folders and mailbox storages. Scanning may reveal new viruses that had not been included in the database during earlier scans.

      System KPI (Key Performance Indicators)

      It is type of application operation report. It contains information about the key performance indicators of the DLP Module.

      Table data

      Information organized in a table format that must be protected against leakage. Table data is processed in Kaspersky Security using CSV (Comma Separated Values) files.

      Unknown virus

      A new virus that is not yet registered in the databases. The application usually detects unknown viruses in objects by means of the heuristic analyzer. Such objects are tagged as probably infected.

      Update

      A function performed by a Kaspersky Lab application that enables it to keep computer protection up-to-date. During the update, Category Archives: Antivirus, an application downloads updates for its databases and modules from Kaspersky Lab's update servers and automatically installs and applies them.

      Violation context

      A text fragment with data that violate the policy when being sent by email. The violation context is required for making a decision of an incident.

      Virus

      A program that infects other ones by adding its code to them in order to gain control when infected files are run. Category Archives: Antivirus simple definition allows exposing the main action performed by any virus – Category Archives: Antivirus top

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      Meet the Team

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      Collinson, Daehnke, Inlow & Greco is a civil litigation boutique defense firm that practices in a variety of civil litigation matters. The attorneys of Collinson, Daehnke, Inlow & Greco have successfully defended a broad range of clients, including Fortune 500 Category Archives: Antivirus as well as insured individuals involved in personal injury actions and motor vehicle claims.

      The attorneys of Collinson, Daehnke, Inlow & Greco share the same philosophy: aggressively defend all cases. This philosophy consistently leads to defense verdicts, dismissals, and nominal settlements for our clients. Our investigative strategies nearly always result in powerful tools that can be utilized at trial or settlement conferences to obtain very positive results for our clients, Category Archives: Antivirus. The attorneys at Collinson, Daehnke, Inlow & Greco are experienced, professional, approachable, and accessible. Collinson, Daehnke, Inlow & Greco also has an excellent staff of friendly and knowledgeable legal assistants and paralegals.

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      In addition to excellent results, we strive for a cost-effective defense. Clients who can choose any firm often choose us because cost-effective representation can make the difference between a meaningful victory and a symbolic one. We are not only lawyers with winning track records; we can do so without breaking our clients’ budgets. As a woman owned law firm, we also help our clients meet their diversity goals.

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      Test je taalgevoel!

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        • Category Archives: Antivirus
        • Category Archives: Antivirus
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        Category Archives: Antivirus
        Correct

        Juist, Category Archives: Antivirus. Goed gedaan!

         

        Groene Boekje – Regel 6.J: Als het grondwoord een letter, cijfer of symbool of initiaalwoord is, gebruiken we een apostrof om een meervoud, een bezitsvorm, een verkleinwoord of een andere afleiding te vormen: sms’je, gsm’s. Je kunt voor meer informatie ook naar Spelling van zelfstandige naamwoorden_Afleidingen.

         

        Klik hieronder op de rode knop voor meer taaltesten.

        Incorrect
        Category Archives: Antivirus

        Helaas, dat is niet juist.

         

        Groene Boekje – Regel 6.J: Als het grondwoord een letter, cijfer of symbool of initiaalwoord is, gebruiken we een apostrof om een meervoud, een bezitsvorm, een verkleinwoord of een andere afleiding te vormen: sms’je, gsm’s, Category Archives: Antivirus. Je kunt voor meer informatie ook naar Spelling van zelfstandige naamwoorden_Afleidingen.

         

        Klik hieronder op de rode knop voor meer taaltesten.

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