Emoji - Wikipedia

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Emoji

Symbols often used as emotional cues in text

The "Grinning Face" emoji, from the Twemoji set

An emoji (i-MOH-jee; plural emoji or emojis[1]) is a pictogram, logogram, ideogram or smiley embedded in text and used in electronic messages and web pages. The primary function of emoji is to fill in emotional cues otherwise missing from typed conversation.[2] Some examples of emoji are 😂, 😃, 🧘🏻‍♂️, 🌍, 🍞, 🚗, 📞, 🎉, ❤️, 🍆, and 🏁. Emoji exist in various genres, including facial expressions, common objects, places and types of weather, and animals. They are much like emoticons, but emoji are pictures rather than typographic approximations; the term "emoji" in the strict sense refers to such pictures which can be represented as encoded characters, but it is sometimes applied to messaging stickers by extension.[3] Originally meaning pictograph, the word emoji comes from Japanese e (絵, 'picture')&#;+&#;moji (文字, 'character'); the resemblance to the English words emotion and emoticon is purely coincidental.[4] The ISO script code for emoji is .

Originating on Japanese mobile phones in , emoji became increasingly popular worldwide in the s after being added to several mobile operating systems.[5][6][7] They are now considered to be a large part of popular culture in the West and around the world.[8][9] In , Oxford Dictionaries named the Face with Tears of Joy emoji (😂) the word of the year.[10][11]

History

PLATO system (s)

Mary Kalantzis and Bill Cope write that the first digital emojis were created by Bruce Parello, a student at the University of Illinois, on PLATO IV, the first e-learning system, in [12][13]

Evolution from emoticons (s)

The emoji was predated by the emoticon,[14] a concept first put into practice in by computer scientist Scott Fahlman when he suggested text-based symbols such as&#;:-) and&#;:-( could be used to replace language.[15] Theories about language replacement can be traced back to the s, when Russian novelist and professor Vladimir Nabokov stated in an interview with The New York Times: "I often think there should exist a special typographical sign for a smile — some sort of concave mark, a supine round bracket."[16] It did not become a mainstream concept until the s when Japanese, American and European companies started experimenting with modified versions of Fahlman's idea.[17][18]

Wingdings icons, including smiling and frowning faces

Wingdings, a font invented by Charles Bigelow and Kris Holmes, was first used by Microsoft in [19] It could be used to send pictographs in rich text messages, but would only load on devices with the Wingdings font installed.[20] In , the French newspaper Le Monde announced that Alcatel would be launching a new phone, the BC&#; Its welcome screen displayed a digital smiley face, replacing the usual text seen as part of the "welcome message" often seen on other devices at the time.[21] In , J-Phone launched the SkyWalker DPSW, which contained a set of 90 emoji. It is thought to be the first set of its kind. Its designs, each measuring 12 by 12 pixels were black and white, depicting numbers, sports, the time, moon phases and the weather. It notably contained the Pile of Poo emoji.[20] The J-Phone model experienced low sales, and the emoji set was thus rarely used.[22]

In , Shigetaka Kurita created emoji as part of NTT DoCoMo's i-mode, used on its mobile platform.[23][24][25] They were intended to help facilitate electronic communication, and to serve as a distinguishing feature from other services.[5] Due to their influence, Kurita's designs were once frequently claimed to be the first cellular emoji;[20] however, Kurita has denied this to be the case.[26][27] According to interviews, he took inspiration from Japanese manga where characters are often drawn with symbolic representations called manpu (such as a water drop on a face representing representing nervousness or confusion), and weather pictograms used to depict the weather conditions at any given time. He also drew inspiration from Chinese characters and street sign pictograms.[25][28][29] Kurita's work is now displayed in the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.[30]

Kurita's emoji were brightly colored, albeit with a single color per glyph. General-use emoji, such as sports, actions and weather, can easily be traced back to Kurita's emoji set.[31] The notable absentee from the set was the use of pictograms that demonstrated emotion. The yellow-faced emoji commonly used today evolved from other emoticon sets and cannot be traced back to Kurita's work.[31] His set was also made up of generic images much like the J-Phones. Elsewhere in the s, Nokia phones began including preset pictograms in its text messaging app, which they defined as "smileys and symbols".[32] A third notable emoji set was introduced by Japanese mobile phone brand au by KDDI.[20][33]

Development of emoji sets (–)

The basic bypixel emoji in Japan grew in popularity across various platforms over the next decade. This was aided by the popularity of DoCoMo i-mode, which for many was the origins of the smartphone.[clarification needed] The i-mode service also saw the introduction of emoji in conversation form on messenger apps. By , i-mode had 40 million subscribers, meaning numerous people were exposed to the emoji for the first time between and The popularity of i-mode led to other manufacturers competing with similar offerings and therefore developed their own emoji sets. While emoji adoption was high in Japan during this time, the companies failed to collaborate and come up with a uniform set of emoji to be used across all platforms in the country.[34]

Smiley faces from DOS code page

The Universal Coded Character Set (Unicode), overseen by the Unicode Consortium and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2, had already been established as the international standard for text representation (ISO/IEC ) since , although variants of Shift JIS remained relatively common in Japan. Unicode included several characters which would subsequently be classified as emoji, including some from North American or Western European sources such as DOS code page , ITC Zapf Dingbats or the WordPerfect Iconic Symbols set.[35][36] Unicode's coverage of written characters was extended several times by new editions during the s, with little interest in incorporating the Japanese cellular emoji sets (which were deemed out of scope),[37] although symbol characters which would subsequently be classified as emoji continued to be added. For example, Unicode release contained 16 new emoji, which included direction arrows, a warning triangle, and an eject button.[38] Besides Zapf Dingbats, other dingbat fonts such as Wingdings or Webdings also included additional pictographic symbols in their own custom pi font encodings; unlike Zapf Dingbats, however, many of these would not be available as Unicode emoji until [39]

The Smiley Company developed The Smiley Dictionary, which was launched in The desktop platform was aimed at allowing people to insert smileys as text when sending emails and writing on a desktop computer.[40] The smiley toolbar offered a variety of symbols and smileys and was used on platforms such as MSN Messenger.[41]Nokia as one of the largest telecoms companies globally at the time, were still referring to today's emoji sets as smileys in [42] The digital smiley movement was headed up by Nicolas Loufrani, the CEO of The Smiley Company.[40] He created a smiley toolbar, which was available at storycall.us during the early s to be sent as emoji are today.[43]

Beginnings of Unicode emoji (–)

Mobile providers in both the United States and Europe began discussions on how to introduce their own emoji sets from onwards. Many companies did not begin to take emoji seriously until Google employees requested that Unicode look into the possibility of a uniform emoji set. Apple quickly followed and began to collaborate with not only Google, but also providers in Europe and Japan. In August , Mark Davis and his colleagues Kat Momoi and Markus Scherer wrote the first draft for consideration by the Unicode Technical Committee (UTC) to introduce emoji into the Unicode standard. The UTC, having previously deemed emoji to be out of scope for Unicode, made the decision to broaden this scope, to enable compatibility with the Japanese cellular carrier formats which were becoming more widespread.[37] Peter Edberg and Yasuo Kida joined the collaborative efforts from Apple Inc. shortly after and the official UTC proposal as co-authors came in January

Pending the assignment of standard Unicode code points, Google and Apple implemented emoji support via Private Use Area schemes. Google first introduced emoji in Gmail in October , in collaboration with au by KDDI,[44] and Apple introduced the first release of Apple Color Emoji to iPhone OS on 21 November [45] Initially, Apple's emoji support was implemented for holders of a SoftBank SIM card; the emoji themselves were represented using SoftBank's Private Use Area scheme and mostly resembled the SoftBank designs.[46] Gmail emoji used their own Private Use Area scheme, in a supplementary Private Use plane.[47][48]

Separately, a proposal had been submitted in to add the ARIB extended characters used in broadcasting in Japan to Unicode. This included several pictographic symbols.[49] These were added in Unicode in , a year before the cellular emoji sets were fully added; they include several characters which either also appeared amongst the cellular emoji[47] or were subsequently classified as emoji.[50]

After iPhone users in the United States discovered that downloading Japanese apps allowed access to the keyboard, pressure grew to expand the availability of the emoji keyboard beyond Japan.[51] The Emoji application for iOS, which altered the Settings app to allow access to the emoji keyboard, was created by Josh Gare in February [52] Before the existence of Gare's Emoji app, Apple had intended for the emoji keyboard to only be available in Japan in iOS version [53]

Throughout , members of the Unicode Consortium and national standardization bodies of various countries gave feedback and proposed changes to the international standardization of the emoji. The feedback from various bodies in the United States, Europe, and Japan agreed on a set of emoji as the standard set. This would be released in October in Unicode [54] Apple made the emoji keyboard available to those outside of Japan in iOS version in [55] Later, Unicode (June ) added the character repertoires of the Webdings and Wingdings fonts to Unicode, resulting in approximately more Unicode emoji.[39]

The Unicode emoji whose code points were assigned in or earlier are therefore taken from several sources. A single character could exist in multiple sources, and characters from a source were unified with existing characters where appropriate: for example, the "shower" weather symbol (☔️) from the ARIB source was unified with an existing umbrella with raindrops character,[56] which had been added for KPS compatibility.[57] The emoji characters named "Rain" ("雨", ame) from all three Japanese carriers were in turn unified with the ARIB character.[47] However, the Unicode Consortium groups the most significant sources of emoji into four categories:[58]

UTS #51 and modern emoji (–present)

In late , a Public Review Issue was created by the Unicode Technical Committee, seeking feedback on a proposed Unicode Technical Report (UTR) titled "Unicode Emoji". This was intended to improve interoperability of emoji between vendors, and define a means of supporting multiple skin tones. The feedback period closed in January [63] Also in January , the use of the zero width joiner to indicate that a sequence of emoji could be shown as a single equivalent glyph (analogous to a ligature) as a means of implementing emoji without atomic code points, such as varied compositions of families, was discussed within the "emoji ad-hoc committee".[64]

Unicode (June ) added another 41 emoji, including articles of sports equipment such as the cricket bat, food items such as the taco, new facial expressions, and symbols for places of worship, as well as five characters (crab, scorpion, lion face, bow and arrow, amphora) to improve support for pictorial rather than symbolic representations of the signs of the Zodiac.[b][66]

Also in June , the first approved version ("Emoji ") of the Unicode Emoji report was published as Unicode Technical Report #51 (UTR #51). This introduced the mechanism of skin tone indicators, the first official recommendations about which Unicode characters were to be considered emoji, and the first official recommendations about which characters were to be displayed in an emoji font in absence of a variation selector, and listed the zero width joiner sequences for families and couples that were implemented by existing vendors.[67] Maintenance of UTR #51, taking emoji requests, and creating proposals for emoji characters and emoji mechanisms was made the responsibility of the Unicode Emoji Subcommittee (ESC), operating as a subcommittee of the Unicode Technical Committee,[68][69]

With the release of version in May alongside Unicode , UTR #51 was redesignated a Unicode Technical Standard (UTS #51), making it an independent specification rather than merely an informative document.[70] As of July&#;[update], there were 2, Unicode emoji listed.[71] The next version of UTS #51 (published in May ) skipped to the version number Emoji , so as to synchronise its major version number with the corresponding version of the Unicode Standard.[72]

The popularity of emoji has caused pressure from vendors and international markets to add additional designs into the Unicode standard to meet the demands of different cultures. Some characters now defined as emoji are inherited from a variety of pre-Unicode messenger systems not only used in Japan, including Yahoo and MSN Messenger.[73]

Corporate demand for emoji standardization has placed pressures on the Unicode Consortium, with some members complaining that it had overtaken the group's traditional focus on standardizing characters used for minority languages and transcribing historical records. Conversely, the Consortium recognises that public desire for emoji support has put pressure on vendors to improve their Unicode support,[75] which is especially true for characters outside the Basic Multilingual Plane,[76] thus leading to better support for Unicode's historic and minority scripts in deployed software.[75]

Cultural influence

Oxford Dictionaries named U+1F FACE WITH TEARS OF JOY[77] its Word of the Year.[78] Oxford noted that had seen a sizable increase in the use of the word "emoji" and recognized its impact on popular culture.[78] Oxford Dictionaries President Caspar Grathwohl expressed that "traditional alphabet scripts have been struggling to meet the rapid-fire, visually focused demands of 21st Century communication. It's not surprising that a pictographic script like emoji has stepped in to fill those gaps—it's flexible, immediate, and infuses tone beautifully."[79]SwiftKey found that "Face with Tears of Joy" was the most popular emoji across the world.[80] The American Dialect Society declared U+1F AUBERGINE to be the "Most Notable Emoji" of in their Word of the Year vote.[81]

Some emoji are specific to Japanese culture, such as a bowing businessman (U+1F ), the shoshinsha mark used to indicate a beginner driver (U+1F ), a white flower (U+1F4AE 💮) used to denote "brilliant homework",[82] or a group of emoji representing popular foods: ramen noodles (U+1F35C 🍜), dango (U+1F ), onigiri (U+1F ), Japanese curry (U+1F35B 🍛), and sushi (U+1F ). Unicode Consortium founder Mark Davis compared the use of emoji to a developing language, particularly mentioning the American use of eggplant (U+1F ) to represent a phallus.[83] Some linguists have classified emoji and emoticons as discourse markers.[84]

In December a sentiment analysis of emoji was published,[85] and the Emoji Sentiment Ranking [86] was provided. In , a musical about emoji premiered in Los Angeles.[87][88] The computer-animated The Emoji Movie was released in summer [89][90]

In January , in what is believed to be the first large-scale study of emoji usage, researchers at the University of Michigan analysed over billion messages input via the Kika Emoji Keyboard[91] and announced that the Face With Tears of Joy was the most popular emoji. The Heart and the Heart eyes emoji stood second and third respectively. The study also found that the French use heart emoji the most.[92] People in countries like Australia, France and the Czech Republic used more happy emoji, while this was not so for people in Mexico, Colombia, Chile and Argentina, where people used more negative emoji in comparison to cultural hubs known for restraint and self-discipline, like Turkey, France and Russia.[93]

There has been discussion among legal experts on whether or not emoji could be admissible as evidence in court trials.[94][95] Furthermore, as emoji continue to develop and grow as a "language" of symbols, there may also be the potential of the formation of emoji "dialects".[96] Emoji are being used as more than just to show reactions and emotions.[97] Snapchat has even incorporated emoji in its trophy and friends system with each emoji showing a complex meaning.[98]

Emoji that further modern causes

On March 5, ,[99] a drop of blood emoji was released, which is intended to help break the stigma of menstruation.[] In addition to normalizing periods, it will also be relevant to describe medical topics such as donating blood and other blood-related activities.[]

A mosquito emoji was added in to raise awareness for diseases spread by the insect, such as dengue and malaria.[]

Emoji communication problems

Research has shown that emoji are often misunderstood. In some cases, this misunderstanding is related to how the actual emoji design is interpreted by the viewer;[] in other cases, the emoji that was sent is not shown in the same way on the receiving side.[]

The first issue relates to the cultural or contextual interpretation of the emoji. When the author picks an emoji, they think about it in a certain way, but the same character may not trigger the same thoughts in the mind of the receiver[] (see also Models of communication).

For example, people in China have developed a system for using emoji subversively, so that a smiley face could be sent to convey a despising, mocking, and even obnoxious attitude, as the orbicularis oculi (the muscle near that upper eye corner) on the face of the emoji does not move, and the orbicularis oris (the one near the mouth) tightens, which is believed to be a sign of suppressing a smile.[]

The second problem relates to technology and branding. When an author of a message picks an emoji from a list, it is normally encoded in a non-graphical manner during the transmission, and if the author and the reader do not use the same software or operating system for their devices, the reader's device may visualize the same emoji in a different way. Small changes to a character's look may completely alter its perceived meaning with the receiver. As an example, in April , British actress and presenter Jameela Jamil posted a tweet from her iPhone using the Face with Hand Over Mouth emoji (🤭) as part of a comment on people shopping for food during the COVID pandemic. On Apple's iOS, the emoji expression is neutral and pensive, but on other platforms the emoji shows as a giggling face. Many fans were initially upset thinking that she, as a well off celebrity, was mocking poor people, but this was not her intended meaning.[]

Researchers from German Studies Institute at Ruhr-Universität Bochum found that most people can easily understand an emoji when it replaces a word directly – like an icon for a rose instead of the word 'rose' – yet it takes people about 50 percent longer to comprehend the emoji.

Variation and ambiguity

Emoji characters vary slightly between platforms within the limits in meaning defined by the Unicode specification, as companies have tried to provide artistic presentations of ideas and objects.[] For example, following an Apple tradition, the calendar emoji on Apple products always shows July 17, the date in Apple announced its iCal calendar application for macOS. This led some Apple product users to initially nickname July 17 "World Emoji Day".[] Other emoji fonts show different dates or do not show a specific one.[]

Some Apple emoji are very similar to the SoftBank standard, since SoftBank was the first Japanese network on which the iPhone launched. For example, U+1F DANCER is female on Apple and SoftBank standards but male or gender-neutral on others.[]

Journalists have noted that the ambiguity of emoji has allowed them to take on culture-specific meanings not present in the original glyphs. For example, U+1F NAIL POLISH has been described as being used in English-language communities to signify "non-caring fabulousness"[] and "anything from shutting haters down to a sense of accomplishment".[][] Unicode manuals sometimes provide notes on auxiliary meanings of an object to guide designers on how emoji may be used, for example noting that some users may expect U+1F4BA 💺SEAT to stand for "a reserved or ticketed seat, as for an airplane, train, or theater".[]

Controversial emoji

Some emoji have been involved in controversy due to their perceived meanings. Multiple arrests and imprisonments have followed usage of pistol (U+1F52B 🔫), knife (U+1F5E1 🗡), and bomb (U+1F4A3 💣) emoji in ways that authorities deemed credible threats.[]

In the lead-up to the Summer Olympics, the Unicode Consortium considered proposals to add several Olympic-related emoji, including medals and events such as handball and water polo.[] By October , these candidate emoji included "rifle" (U+1F ) and "modern pentathlon" (U+1F93B 🤻).[][] However, in , Apple and Microsoft opposed these two emoji, and the characters were added without emoji presentations, meaning that software is expected to render them in black-and-white rather than color, and emoji-specific software such as onscreen keyboards will generally not include them. In addition, while the original incarnations of the modern pentathlon emoji depicted its five events, including a man pointing a gun, the final glyph contains a person riding a horse, along with a laser pistol target in the corner.[][][]

On August 1, , Apple announced that in iOS 10, the pistol emoji (U+1F52B 🔫) would be changed from a realistic revolver to a water pistol.[] Conversely, the following day, Microsoft pushed out an update to Windows 10 that changed its longstanding depiction of the pistol emoji as a toy ray-gun to a real revolver.[] Microsoft stated that the change was made to bring the glyph more in line with industry-standard designs and customer expectations.[] By , most major platforms such as Google, Microsoft, Samsung, Facebook, and Twitter had transitioned their rendering of the pistol emoji to match Apple's water gun implementation.[] Apple's change of depiction from a realistic gun to a toy gun was criticised by among others the editor of Emojipedia, because it could lead to messages appearing differently to the receiver than the sender had intended.[]Insider's Rob Price said it created the potential for "serious miscommunication across different platforms", and asked "What if a joke sent from an Apple user to a Google user is misconstrued because of differences in rendering? Or if a genuine threat sent by a Google user to an Apple user goes unreported because it is taken as a joke?"[]

The eggplant (aubergine) emoji (U+1F ) has also seen controversy due to it being used, almost solely[better&#;source&#;needed] in North America to represent a penis.[81][83][][] Beginning in December , the hashtag#EggplantFridays began to rise to popularity on Instagram for use in marking photos featuring clothed or unclothed penises.[][] This became such a popular trend that beginning in April , Instagram disabled the ability to search for not only the #EggplantFridays tag, but also other eggplant-containing hashtags, including simply #eggplant and #🍆.[][][]

The peach emoji (U+1F ) has likewise been used as a euphemistic icon for buttocks, with a Emojipedia analysis revealing that only seven percent of English language tweets with the peach emoji refer to the actual fruit.[][][] In , Apple attempted to redesign the emoji to less resemble buttocks. This was met with fierce backlash in beta testing and Apple reversed its decision by the time it went live to the public.[]

In December , a lawyer in Delhi, India, threatened to file a lawsuit against WhatsApp for allowing use of the middle finger emoji (U+1F ) on the basis that the company is "directly abetting the use of an offensive, lewd, obscene gesture" in violation of the Indian Penal Code.[]

Emoji implementation

Main article: Implementation of Emojis

Early implementation in Japan

Various, often incompatible, character encoding schemes were developed by the different mobile providers in Japan for their own emoji sets.[47][61] For example, the extended Shift JIS representation F is used for a convenience store (🏪) by SoftBank, but for a wristwatch (⌚️) by KDDI.[61][47] All three vendors also developed schemes for encoding their emoji in the Unicode Private Use Area: DoCoMo, for example, used the range U+E63E through U+E[47] Versions of iOS prior to encoded emoji in the SoftBank private use area.[][]

Most, but not all, emoji are included in the Supplementary Multilingual Plane (SMP) of Unicode, which is also used for ancient scripts, some modern scripts such as Adlam or Osage, and special-use characters such as Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols.[] Some systems introduced prior to the advent of Unicode emoji were only designed to support characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP), on the assumption that non-BMP characters would rarely be encountered,[76] although failure to properly handle characters outside of the BMP precludes Unicode compliance.[]

The introduction of Unicode emoji created an incentive for vendors to improve their support for non-BMP characters.[76] The Unicode Consortium notes that "[b]ecause of the demand for emoji, many implementations have upgraded their Unicode support substantially", also helping support for minority languages that use those features.[75]

Color support

Any operating system that supports adding additional fonts to the system can add an emoji-supporting font. However, inclusion of colorful emoji in existing font formats requires dedicated support for color glyphs. Not all operating systems have support for color fonts, so in these cases emoji might have to be rendered as black-and-white line art or not at all. There are four different formats used for multi-color glyphs in an SFNT font,[] not all of which are necessarily supported by a given operating system library or software package such as a web browser or graphical program.[] This means that color fonts may need to be supplied in several formats to be usable on multiple operating systems, or in multiple applications.

Implementation by different platforms and vendors

Apple first introduced emoji to their desktop operating system with the release of OS X Lion, in Users can view emoji characters sent through email and messaging applications, which are commonly shared by mobile users, as well as any other application. Users can create emoji symbols using the "Characters" special input panel from almost any native application by selecting the "Edit" menu and pulling down to "Special Characters", or by the key combination ++. The emoji keyboard was first available in Japan with the release of iPhone OS version in [] The emoji keyboard was not officially made available outside of Japan until iOS version [] From iPhone OS through to iOS (), those outside Japan could access the keyboard but had to use a third party app to enable it. Apple has revealed that the "face with tears of joy" is the most popular emoji among English speaking Americans. On second place is the "heart" emoji followed by the "Loudly Crying Face".[][]

An update for Windows 7 and Windows Server R2 brought a subset of the monochrome Unicode set to those operating systems as part of the Segoe UI Symbol font.[] As of Windows Preview, the Segoe UI Emoji font is included, which supplies full-color pictographs. The plain Segoe UI font lacks emoji characters, whereas Segoe UI Symbol and Segoe UI Emoji include them. Emoji characters are accessed through the onscreen keyboard's key, or through the physical keyboard shortcut +.

Facebook and Twitter replace all Unicode emoji used on their websites with their own custom graphics. Prior to October , Facebook had different sets for the main site and for its Messenger service, where only the former provides complete coverage. Messenger now uses Apple emoji on iOS, and the main Facebook set elsewhere.[]Facebook reactions are only partially compatible with standard emoji.[citation needed]

Modifiers

Emoji versus text presentation

Unicode defines variation sequences for many of its emoji to indicate their desired presentation.

Emoji characters can have two main kinds of presentation:

  • an emoji presentation, with colorful and perhaps whimsical shapes, even animated
  • a text presentation, such as black & white

    —&#;Unicode Technical Report # Unicode Emoji[58]

Specifying the desired presentation is done by following the base emoji with either U+FE0E VARIATION SELECTOR (VS15) for text or U+FE0F VARIATION SELECTOR (VS16) for emoji-style.[]

Skin color

Main article: Emoji modifiers

Five symbol modifier characters were added with Unicode to provide a range of skin tones for human emoji. These modifiers are called EMOJI MODIFIER FITZPATRICK TYPE, -3, -4, -5, and -6 (U+1F3FB–U+1F3FF): 🏻 🏼 🏽 🏾 🏿. They are based on the Fitzpatrick scale for classifying human skin color. Human emoji that are not followed by one of these five modifiers should be displayed in a generic, non-realistic skin tone, such as bright yellow (■), blue (■), or gray (■).[58] Non-human emoji (like U+26FD ⛽FUEL PUMP) are unaffected by the Fitzpatrick modifiers. As of Unicode , Fitzpatrick modifiers can be used with human emoji spread across seven blocks: Dingbats, Emoticons, Miscellaneous Symbols, Miscellaneous Symbols and Pictographs, Supplemental Symbols and Pictographs, Transport and Map Symbols, and Symbols and Pictographs Extended-A.[]

The following table shows both the Unicode characters and the open-source "Twemoji" images, designed by Twitter:

Joining

Behaviour of the ZWJand ZWNJformat controls with various types of character, including emoji.

Implementations may use a zero-width joiner (ZWJ) between multiple emoji to make them behave like a single, unique emoji character.[58] For example, the sequence U+1F MAN, U+D ZWJ, U+1F WOMAN, U+D ZWJ, U+1F GIRL (👨‍👩‍👧) could be displayed as a single emoji depicting a family with a man, a woman, and a girl if the implementation supports it. Systems that do not support it would ignore the ZWJs, displaying only the three base emoji in order (👨👩👧).

Unicode previously maintained a catalog of emoji ZWJ sequences that were supported on at least one commonly available platform. The consortium has since switched to documenting sequences that are recommended for general interchange (RGI). These are clusters that emoji fonts are expected to include as part of the standard.[]

Unicode blocks

Main articles: Dingbats (Unicode block), Emoticons (Unicode block), Miscellaneous Symbols (Unicode block), Miscellaneous Symbols and Pictographs (Unicode block), Supplemental Symbols and Pictographs (Unicode block), Symbols and Pictographs Extended-A (Unicode block), and Transport and Map Symbols (Unicode block)

Unicode represents emoji using 1, characters spread across 24 blocks, of which 26 are Regional Indicator Symbols that combine in pairs to form flag emoji, and 12 (#, * and 0–9) are base characters for keycap emoji sequences:[][58]

of the code points in the Miscellaneous Symbols and Pictographs block are considered emoji. of the code points in the Supplemental Symbols and Pictographs block are considered emoji. All of the 88 code points in the Symbols and Pictographs Extended-A block are considered emoji. All of the 80 code points in the Emoticons block are considered emoji. of the code points in the Transport and Map Symbols block are considered emoji. 83 of the code points in the Miscellaneous Symbols block are considered emoji. 33 of the code points in the Dingbats block are considered emoji.

Источник: [storycall.us]

F# and F# tools update for Visual Studio

Phillip

We&#;re excited to announce updates to the F# tools for Visual Studio For this release, we&#;re continuing our trend of improving the F# experience in Visual Studio to build upon what was released in the VS update last February.

  • Support for Go to Definition on external symbols
  • Better support for mixing C# and F# projects in a solution
  • More quick fixes and refactorings
  • More tooling performance and responsiveness improvements
  • More core compiler improvements

Let&#;s dive in!

Go to Definition on external symbols

This one&#;s been a long time coming. We&#;ve had a feature request since and several trial implementations throughout the years. Now it&#;s here!

As shown in the video, you can either use the key or to navigate to a declaration, just like in source code in your own solution.

When you navigate, Visual Studio generates a complete F# Signature File that represents the module or namespace that the symbol lives under, with XML documentation if it is present. This allows colorization, tooltips, and further navigation to work exactly as if they had been declared as signature files in your own codebase.

Better mixing of C# and F# projects in your solution

One of the biggest annoyances when working with C# and F# projects that interoperate in the same codebase is that you need to rebuild projects to see updates in other projects if they cross the C# <-> F# boundary.

Starting with the VS release, if you make a change to a C# project, you don&#;t need to rebuild it to see changes in an F# project!

As shown in the video, I can make any modification and immediately see changes in the F# project.

The inverse is still not true today, and there remains more work to be done to make the C# <-> F# interop boundaries clean from a tooling standpoint. To summarize the current state of things, here&#;s a checklist:

  • ✔️ F# projects can &#;see&#; changes in C# projects without rebuilding
  • ✔️ You can Go to Definition on any C# symbol from F# and navigate to that spot in a C# codebase
  • ❌ C# projects cannot &#;see&#; changes in an F# project without rebuilding
  • ❌ You cannot Go to Definition on any F# symbol from C# and navigate to that spot in the F# codebase

We&#;re doing more work to turn the remaining crosses into green check marks. The work is quite low-level and starts with some changes to the F# compiler and will likely also involve changes in the C# tooling as well.

XML documentation scaffolding

At the start of Visual Studio , we disabled a feature that allowed you to scaffold XML documentation in source due to performance concerns. The implementation was found to be a significant source of UI delays, which could be detrimental to an overall Visual Studio experience, especially if combined with large memory consumption.

Over the span of Visual Studio , we&#;ve made big strides in performance for the F# tools, including changing the implementation of the XML documentation scaffolding feature so it doesn&#;t impact UI delays anymore. So it&#;s now re-enabled!

You can trigger it by typing the character within a triple-slash comment at the top of a construct, like the following video will demonstrate.

More quick fixes and refactorings

Like the last release, we&#;re bringing in some more quick fixes and refactorings for the VS release!

Remove unused binding quick fix

If you have an unused binding in any scope, we&#;ll offer to remove it for you if it&#;s considered removable:

Remove unused binding code fix

Use proper inequality operator quick fix

Some beginners from other languages might use and get confused by the error it produces. This quick fix will correct their operator usage to use :

Use proper inequality operator code fix

Add type annotation to object of indeterminate type quick fix

The F# compiler can give a confusing error, where code technically doesn&#;t compile, but the F# tools can actually infer a type that the compiler can&#;t. This quick fix will bring that known type into a suggestion:

Add type annotation to object of indeterminate type quick fix, F# and F# tools update for Visual Studio

Add type annotation refactoring

Finally, we&#;ve added the first refactoring in the F# tools for Visual Studio. Refactorings are different from quick fixes in that they aren&#;t triggered by warnings or errors. Instead, lightbulbs (with no error icon next to them) indicate that a code refactoring is available at your cursor position.

Add type annotation refactoring

Even more tooling performance and responsiveness

Just like the past several Visual Studio releases, we&#;re continuing to chip away at tooling performance and responsiveness for larger codebases.

Reduced memory usage

We identified another &#;win&#; for memory usage for large solutions. When Visual Studio colors constructs in an open document, this is actually the result of a process known as &#;classification&#;. Classification runs in two passes:

  1. Syntactical classification
  2. Semantic classification

Syntactical classification can do things like identify keywords from non-keyworks. It&#;s very lightweight because it doesn&#;t require typechecking anything. You may notice for a very, very large file that keywords are colored before types are colored.

Semantic classification is an expensive operation. It does things like distinguish classes, structs, enums, methods, properties, etc. The end result is more nuanced colorization in a document. However, since it is typically the first semantic operation kicked off by a language service, it also fills caches.

One of the caches used by semantic classification is the actual classification information itself. This information used to be stored in one big array. This could consume significant RAM over time (especially if you have a lot of large documents open). To address this, we backed the data with a memory-mapped file, an approach we&#;ve taken for several other large stores of data in the F# tools for Visual Studio. This has lead to savings of up to MB in the F# codebase, depending on how many files are open in a Visual Studio session.

This change was contributed by Saurav Tiwary. Thanks, Saurav!

More IDE features respond immediately

Last release, we started some work in the F# language service to make requests for semantic information no longer serial. As a refresher, the machinery involved serializes requests that require semantic information because there may be a circumstance where a typechecking operation can have downstream effects. It uses a queue to process requests in order. In practice, however, this approach is rarely necessary. In this release, we&#;ve pulled even more operations off of this queue.

With these changes, you should notice that tooling features in larger codebases react to your inputs faster than before, especially in larger codebases.

Core compiler improvements

Finally, we&#;ve got some more compiler improvements to share!

Support for WarnOn in project files

Prior to this release, if you wanted to introduce warnings for specific compiler codes, you&#;d have to use in an property in your project file.

You can now just use and pass the numbers directly in, just like in C#.

This was implemented by Chet Husk. Thanks, Chet!

Support for ApplicationIcon in project files

Prior to this release, setting in F# project files would do nothing.

Now, you can set this property in a project file just like in C#. A compiler flag, , was also added.

This was implemented by albert-du. Thanks!

More span optimizations

Jérémie Chassaing implemented a lovely optimization for looping over a /.

The following F# code:

Now emits cleaner IL that removes a bounds check, allowing the runtime to more aggressively optimize the loop. This optimization also applies to loops.

Looking forward

With this release, we&#;re officially shifting gears to support three initiatives:

  1. Great support for F# in .NET 6
  2. Great support for F# in .NET Interactive
  3. Great support for F# in Visual Studio

For the first initiative, we&#;re going to lock down on the language features we intend on releasing with soon. We&#;re not intending on adding many language features this time. We feel that there is more value in core compiler improvements and core tooling improvements (F# interactive, Visual Studio) right now. .NET 6 is an LTS release, we&#;re prioritizing existing feature-completeness, performance, and reliability. That doesn&#;t necessarily mean a feature freeze. In fact, we may also end up releasing a &#;compiler feature&#; or two, especially when related to improving build times. But it does mean that the set of new language features will be smaller when compared to F# 5. When we have a finalized set of language changes going into .NET 6, we&#;ll announce it and the version number that we&#;ll assign the release.

For the second initiative, we&#;re focused mainly on making sure that F# code gives great output (plaintext, charting), has great tooling (intellisense, tooltips), and gives a good experience using a broad set of libraries, especially those tailored towards data science and machine learning. To that end, we&#;ve already accomplished much of what we intend to do, especially in supporting some exotic package layouts for bringing in different packages with native dependencies. But there is still work to be done, such as ensuring tooling experiences (completion, tooltips, etc.) all work well. We&#;re committed to delivering an incredible F# experience when .NET Interactive releases in GA.

Lastly, we&#;re heavily focused on making sure we deliver a great F# experience in Visual Studio Since Visual Studio is going to be bit, that means that there will be higher memory usage when compared to today. We have a lot of performance analysis work ahead of us. Our preliminary builds indicate that memory usage is ~2x when loading the F# codebase and running an expensive operation like Find All References. We are committed to bringing this factor down as much as possible. On top of that, we want to continue to iterate on Visual Studio productivity features and bring features like Inline Hints, better C# interop, faster build times, and more.

Stay tuned, and happy F# coding!

Источник: [storycall.us]

PowerShell Support Lifecycle

  • 11 minutes to read

Note

This document is about support for PowerShell. Windows PowerShell ( - ) is a component of the Windows operating system. Components receive the same support as their parent product or platform. For more information, see Product and Services Lifecycle Information.

PowerShell is supported under the Microsoft Modern Lifecycle Policy, but support dates are linked to .NET Core's support lifecycle. In this servicing approach, customers can choose Long Term Support (LTS) releases or current releases.

An LTS release of PowerShell is built on an LTS release of .NET. Updates to an LTS release only contain critical security updates and servicing fixes that are designed to minimize impact to existing workloads. LTS releases of PowerShell are supported until the end-of-support for .NET.

A current release is a release that occurs between LTS releases. Current releases can contain critical fixes, innovations, and new features. A current release is supported for six months after the next release (current or LTS).

Important

You must have the latest patch update installed to qualify for support. For example, if you're running PowerShell and has been released, you must update to to qualify for support.

Supported platforms

PowerShell runs on multiple operating systems (OS) and processor architectures. To be supported by Microsoft, the OS must meet the following criteria:

  • The version and processor architecture of the OS is supported by .NET Core.
  • The version of the OS is supported for at least one year.
  • The version of the OS is not an interim release or equivalent.
  • The version of the OS is currently supported by the OS publisher.
  • The PowerShell team has tested the version of the distribution.

When a platform version reaches end-of-life as defined by the platform owner, PowerShell also ends support on that platform version. Previously released packages remain available for customers needing access but formal support and updates of any kind are no longer be provided.

Windows

The following table is a list of PowerShell releases and the versions of Windows they are supported on. These versions are supported until either the version of PowerShell reaches end-of-support or the version of Windows reaches end-of-support.

  • A ✅ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell is still supported
  • A ❌ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell isn't supported
  • A 🟡 indicates the version of PowerShell is no longer supported on that version of the OS
  • When both the version of the OS and the version of PowerShell have ✅, that combination is supported
Windows (LTS) (LTS-current)
✅ Windows Server , , or
✅ Windows Server R2
✅ Windows Server Core ( R2 or higher)
✅ Windows Server Nano ( or higher)
❌ Windows Server 🟡🟡
❌ Windows Server R2🟡🟡
✅ Windows 11
✅ Windows 10 +
✅ Windows

Note

Support for a specific version of Windows is determined by the Microsoft Support Lifecycle policies. For more information, see:

PowerShell is supported on Windows for the following processor architectures.

Windows (LTS) (LTS-current)
Nano Server Version +x64, Arm32x64x64
Windows Server R2+x64, x86x64, x86x64, x86
Windows Server Core R2+x64, x86x64, x86x64, x86
Windows 10 or 11 Clientx64, x86x64, x86, Arm64x64, x86, Arm64
Windows Clientx64, x86x64, x86x64, x86

macOS

The following table is a list of currently supported PowerShell releases and the versions of Windows they are supported on. These versions remain supported until either the version of PowerShell reaches end-of-support or the version of [macOS reaches end-of-support][eol-windows].

  • A ✅ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell is still supported
  • A ❌ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell isn't supported
  • A 🟡 indicates the version of PowerShell is no longer supported on that version of the OS
  • When both the version of the OS and the version of PowerShell have ✅, that combination is supported
macOS (LTS) (LTS-current)
✅ macOS Big Sur
✅ macOS Catalina
✅ macOS Mojave
✅ macOS High Sierra

macOS Monterey has not been tested.

Support of macOS is defined by Apple. For more information, see:

PowerShell is supported on macOS for the following processor architectures:

macOS (LTS) (LTS-current)
macOS Big Sur x64x64x64, Arm64
macOS High Sierra +x64x64x64

Alpine Linux

The following table lists the supported PowerShell releases and the versions of Alpine they're supported on. These versions are supported until either the version of PowerShell reaches end-of-support or the version of Alpine reaches end-of-life.

  • A ✅ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell is still supported
  • A ❌ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell isn't supported
  • A 🟡 indicates the version of PowerShell is no longer supported on that version of the OS
  • When both the version of the OS and the version of PowerShell have ✅, that combination is supported
Alpine (LTS) (LTS-current)
🟡🟡
🟡🟡

PowerShell has not been tested on Alpine versions and

Note

CIM, PowerShell Remoting, and DSC are not supported on Alpine.

PowerShell is supported on Alpine for the following processor architectures.

Alpine (LTS) (LTS-current)
All supported versionsx64x64x64

PowerShell has not been tested on Alpine using Arm processors.

CentOS Linux

The following table is a list of currently supported PowerShell releases and the versions of CentOS they are supported on. These versions remain supported until either the version of PowerShell reaches end-of-support or the version of CentOS reaches end-of-support.

  • A ✅ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell is still supported
  • A ❌ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell isn't supported
  • A 🟡 indicates the version of PowerShell is no longer supported on that version of the OS
  • When both the version of the OS and the version of PowerShell have ✅, that combination is supported
CentOS (LTS) (current) (LTS-current)
✅ 8
✅ 7

Microsoft does not officially support PowerShell on the CentOS Stream releases. For more information, see Comparing CentOS Linux and CentOS Stream. CentOS Stream is community supported. For more information, see Community supported distributions.

PowerShell is supported on CentOS for the following processor architectures.

CentOS (LTS) (current) (LTS-current)
All supported versionsx64x64x64

Debian Linux

The following table is a list of currently supported PowerShell releases and the versions of Debian they're supported on. These versions remain supported until either the version of PowerShell reaches end-of-support or the version of Debian reaches end-of-life.

  • A ✅ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell is still supported
  • A ❌ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell isn't supported
  • A 🟡 indicates the version of PowerShell is no longer supported on that version of the OS
  • When both the version of the OS and the version of PowerShell have ✅, that combination is supported
Debian (LTS) (LTS-current)
✅ 10
✅ 9
❌ 8🟡

PowerShell is supported on Debian for the following processor architectures.

Debian (LTS) (LTS-current)
Version 9+x64, Arm32, Arm64x64, Arm32, Arm64x64, Arm32, Arm64

Fedora Linux

The following table lists the supported PowerShell releases and the versions of Fedora they're supported on. These versions are supported until either the version of PowerShell reaches end-of-support or the version of Fedora reaches end-of-life.

  • A ✅ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell is still supported
  • A ❌ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell isn't supported
  • A 🟡 indicates the version of PowerShell is no longer supported on that version of the OS
  • When both the version of the OS and the version of PowerShell have ✅, that combination is supported
Fedora (LTS) (current) (LTS-current)
✅ 32🟡🟡
❌ 31🟡🟡
❌ 30🟡🟡

PowerShell has not been tested on Fedora versions 33 and

PowerShell is supported on Fedora for the following processor architectures.

Fedora (LTS) (current) (LTS-current)
All supported versionsx64x64x64

Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL)

The following table is a list of currently supported versions of PowerShell and the versions of RHEL they are supported on. These versions remain supported until either the version of PowerShell reaches end-of-support or the version of RHEL reaches end-of-support.

  • A ✅ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell is still supported
  • A ❌ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell isn't supported
  • A 🟡 indicates the version of PowerShell is no longer supported on that version of the OS
  • When both the version of the OS and the version of PowerShell have ✅, that combination is supported
RHEL (LTS) (LTS-current)
✅ 8
✅ 7

PowerShell is supported on RHEL for the following processor architectures.

RHEL (LTS) (LTS-current)
All supported versionsx64x64x64, Arm64

Ubuntu Linux

The following table is a list of currently supported PowerShell releases and the versions of Ubuntu they are supported on. These versions remain supported until either the version of PowerShell reaches end-of-support or the version of Ubuntu reaches end-of-support.

  • A ✅ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell is still supported
  • A ❌ indicates that the version of the OS or PowerShell isn't supported
  • A 🟡 indicates the version of PowerShell is no longer supported on that version of the OS
  • When both the version of the OS and the version of PowerShell have ✅, that combination is supported
Ubuntu (LTS) (LTS-current)
✅ (LTS)
✅ (LTS)
❌ (LTS)🟡🟡

Only the LTS releases of Ubuntu are officially supported. Microsoft does not support interim releases or their equivalent. Interim releases are community supported. For more information, see Community supported distributions.

PowerShell is supported on Ubuntu for the following processor architectures.

Ubuntu (LTS) (LTS-current)
All supported versionsx64, Arm32, Arm64x64, Arm32, Arm64x64, Arm32, Arm64

Raspberry Pi OS

Raspberry Pi OS (formerly Raspbian) is a free operating system based on Debian.

Important

.NET is not supported on ARMv6 architecture devices, including Raspberry Pi Zero and Raspberry Pi devices prior to Raspberry Pi 2.

Windows PowerShell Compatibility

The support lifecycle for PowerShell doesn't cover modules that ship outside of the PowerShell release package. For example, using the module that ships as part of Windows Server is supported under the Windows Support Lifecycle.

Experimental features

Experimental features are limited to community support.

Notes on licensing

PowerShell is released under the MIT license. Under this license, and without a paid support agreement, users are limited to community support. With community support, Microsoft makes no guarantees of responsiveness or fixes.

Getting support

Support for PowerShell is delivered via traditional Microsoft support agreements, including paid support, Microsoft Enterprise Agreements, and Microsoft Software Assurance. You can also pay for assisted support for PowerShell by filing a support request for your problem.

There are also community support options. You can file an issue, bug, or feature request on GitHub. Also, you may find help from other members of the community in the Microsoft PowerShell Tech Community or any of the forums listed in the community section of PowerShell hub page. We offer no guarantee there that the community will address or resolve your issue in a timely manner. If you have a problem that requires immediate attention, you should use the traditional, paid support options.

Important

You must have the latest patch update installed to qualify for support. For example, if you're running PowerShell and has been released, you must update to to qualify for support.

PowerShell End-of-support dates

Based on these lifecycle policies, the following table lists the dates when various releases are no longer be supported.

VersionEnd-of-support
(LTS-current)November (projected)
May 31,
(LTS)December 3,
September 4,
September 28,
February 13,

Support for PowerShell on a specific platforms is based on the support policy of the version of .NET used.

Release history

The following table contains a timeline of the major releases of PowerShell. This table is provided for historical reference. It is not intended for use to determine the support lifecycle.

VersionRelease DateNote
PowerShell (LTS-current)NovBuilt on .NET (LTS-current).
PowerShell NovBuilt on .NET
PowerShell (LTS)MarBuilt on .NET Core (LTS).
PowerShell Mar
PowerShell SepBuilt on .NET Core
PowerShell JanFirst release, built on .NET Core Installable on Windows, Linux, and macOS.
Windows PowerShell AugReleased in Windows 10 Anniversary Update and Windows Server , WMF
Windows PowerShell FebReleased in Windows Management Framework (WMF)
Windows PowerShell OctIntegrated in Windows and with Windows Server R2, WMF
Windows PowerShell OctIntegrated in Windows 8 and with Windows Server WMF
Windows PowerShell JulIntegrated in Windows 7 and Windows Server R2, WMF
Windows PowerShell NovOptional component of Windows Server
Источник: [storycall.us]

How to strikethrough in Excel

This short tutorial explains different ways to add, use and remove strikethrough format in Excel desktop, Excel Online and Excel for Mac.

Excel is great for manipulating numbers, but it does not always make clear how to format text values the way you want. Strikethrough is a vivid example.

It is super easy to cross out text in Microsoft Word - you simply click the strikethrough button Strikethrough button on the ribbon. Naturally, you'd expect to see the same button on the Excel ribbon. But it's nowhere to be found. So, how do I strikethrough text in Excel? By using any of the six methods described in this tutorial :)

How to strikethrough in Excel

To ensure that everyone is on the same page, let's define the term first. What does it mean to strikethrough in Excel? Simply, to put a line through a value in a cell. There are a handful of different ways to do this, and we are going to begin with the fastest one.

Excel strikethrough shortcut

Want to have the job done as quickly as possible? Press a hotkey or key combination.

Here's the keyboard shortcut to strikethrough in Excel: Ctrl + 5

The shortcut can be used on an entire cell, certain part of the cell contents, or a range of cells.

To apply the strikethrough format to a cell, select that cell, and press the shortcut:
Excel strikethrough shortcut

To draw a line through all values in a range, select the range:
Apply Excel strikethrough shortcut to a range.

To strikethrough non-adjacent cells, select multiple cells while holding the Ctrl key, and then press the strikethrough shortcut:
Apply the strikethrough shortcut non-adjacent cells.

To cross out part of the cell value, double-click the cell to enter the Edit mode, and select the text you want to strikethrough:
Apply the strikethrough shortcut to cross out specific words in a cell.

Apply strikethrough via cell format options

Another quick way to draw a line through a cell value in Excel is by using the Format Cells dialog. Here's how:

  1. Select one or more cells on which you want to apply the strikethrough format.
  2. Press Ctrl + 1 or right-click the selected cell(s) and choose Format Cells… from the context menu.
  3. In the Format Cells dialog box, go to the Font tab, and tick off the Strikethrough option under Effects.
  4. Click OK to save the change and close the dialog.

Add strikethrough via the Format Cells dialog.

Add a strikethrough button to Quick Access Toolbar

If you think that the above method requires too many steps, add the strikethrough button to the Quick Access Toolbar to always have it at your fingertips.

  1. Click the small arrow in the upper left corner of the Excel window, and then click More Commands…
    Add more commands to the Quick Access Toolbar.
  2. Under Choose commands from, select Commands Not in the Ribbon, then select Strikethrough in the list of commands, and click the Add button. This will add Strikethrough to the list of commands on the right pane, and you click OK:
    Adding a strikethrough button to the Quick Access Toolbar

Look at the upper left corner of your worksheet again, and you will find the new button there:
The strikethrough button is added to QAT.

Put a strikethrough button onto Excel ribbon

If your Quick Access Toolbar is reserved only for the most frequently used commands, which strikethrough is not, place it onto the ribbon instead. As with QAT, it's also one-time setup, performed in this way:

  1. Right-click anywhere on the ribbon and select Customize the Ribbon… from the pop-up menu:
    Customizing Excel ribbon
  2. Since new buttons can only be added to custom groups, let's create one. For this, select the target tab (Home in our case) and click the New Group button. Then, click Rename… to name the newly created group to your liking, say My Formats:
    Creating a new ribbon group
  3. With the new group selected, perform the already familiar steps: under Choose commands from, select Commands Not in the Ribbon, find Strikethrough in the list of commands, select it, and click Add:
    Adding a strikethrough button to a custom ribbon group
  4. Click OK to save the changes, and find the Strikethrough button on your Excel ribbon:
    The strikethrough button is added to the Excel ribbon.

You can now cross out text in Excel with a single button click! And it will also remind you the keyboard shortcut in case you forget it :)

Tip. By using Up and Down arrows in the Excel Options dialog box, you can move your custom group with the Strikethrough button to any position on the ribbon:
Move the Strikethrough button to any position on the ribbon.

How to strikethrough automatically with conditional formatting

In case you are planning to use a strikethrough to cross out the completed tasks or activities in a checklist or to-do list, you may want Excel to do it for you automatically as you enter some text in a related cell, for example "done":
Strikethrough is applied automatically based on another cell value.

The task can be easily accomplished with Excel Conditional Formatting:

  1. Select all the cells you want to cross out on condition (A2:A6 in this example).
  2. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click Conditional Formatting > New Rule…
  3. In the New Formatting Rule dialog box, select Use a formula to determine which cells to format.
  4. In the Format values where this formula is true box, enter the formula that expresses the condition for your topmost cell:
  5. Click the Format…
    Creating a conditional formatting rule to strikethrough in Excel
  6. In the Format Cells dialog box, switch to the Font tab and select the Strikethrough Optionally, you can make some other formatting changes, e.g. set a light grey font color for crossed out entries:
    Select the Strikethrough effect.
  7. Click OK to close the Format Cells dialog box, then click OK one more time to close the New Formatting Rule window, and you are all set!
    Strikethrough is applied automatically based on a conditional formatting rule.

Instead of defining a task status with text, you can insert checkboxes, link them to some cells (which you can hide later) and base your conditional formatting rule on the value in the linked cells (TRUE is a checkbox is checked, FALSE if not checked).

As the result, Excel will check off the completed tasks automatically depending on whether the checkbox is selected or not.
Check off the completed tasks automatically based on the checkbox status.

If you'd like to create something similar in your worksheets, the detailed steps can be found here: How to create a checklist with conditional formatting.

Add strikethrough with a macro

If you are not allergic to using VBA in your Excel worksheets, you can apply strikethrough on all selected cells with this line of code:

Sub ApplyStrikethrough() storycall.usthrough = True End Sub

The step-by-step instructions on how to insert VBA code in Excel can be found here.

How to use strikethrough in Excel Online

In Excel Online, the strikethrough option is exactly where you'd expect to find it - next to the other formatting buttons on the Home tab, in the Font group:
Using strikethrough in Excel Online

However, there's a fly in the ointment - it's not possible to select non-adjacent cells or ranges in Excel Online. So, if you need to cross out multiple entries in different parts of your sheet, you will have to select each cell or a range of contiguous cells individually, and then click the strikethrough button.

The strikethrough shortcut (Ctrl + 5) works perfectly in Excel Online too and is often the fastest way to toggle the strikethrough formatting on and off.

How to strikethrough in Excel for Mac

A quick way to strikethrough text in Excel for Mac is by using this keyboard shortcut: &#; + SHIFT + X
The shortcut to strikethrough in Excel for Mac

It can also be done from the Format Cells dialog in the same way as in Excel for Windows:

  1. Select the cell(s) or part of a cell value you wish to cross out.
  2. Right-click the selection and chose Format Cells from the popup menu.
  3. In the Format Cells dialog box, switch to the Font tab and select the Strikethrough checkbox:
    Add strikethrough in Excel for Mac via the cell format options.

How to remove strikethrough in Excel

The correct way to remove strikethrough from a cell depends on how you've added it.

Remove strikethrough added manually

If you applied strikethrough via a shortcut or cell format, then press Ctrl + 5 again, and the formatting will be gone.

A longer way would be opening the Format Cells dialog (Ctrl + 1) and unchecking the Strikethrough box there:
Removing strikethrough in Excel

Remove strikethrough added with conditional formatting

If strikethrough is added by a conditional formatting rule, then you need to remove that rule to get rid of strikethrough.

To have it done, select all the cells from which you want to remove strikethrough, go to the Home tab > ­ Styles group, and click Conditional Formatting > Clear Rules > Clear Rules from Selected Cells:
Deleting a strikethrough conditional formatting rule

If some other conditional formatting rule(s) is applied to the same cells and you'd like to keep that rule, then click conditional Formatting > Manage Rules… and delete only the strikethrough rule.

For more information, please see How to delete conditional formatting rules in Excel.

That's how you can add and remove the strikethrough formatting in Excel. I thank you for reading and hope to see you on our blog next week!

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Источник: [storycall.us]
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    Phillip

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