Talk:Turbo Pascal - Wikipedia

68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen

68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen

TURBO GRAPHIX TOOLBOX' Minimum memory: K Requires PC/MS-DOS 2 or later. To custom-tailor software, PECAN offers such programming tools as. Membrane System Design Guidelines for Midsize FilmTec™ Elements Since the development of reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) as. Code. Quantity. Parts per Reel. E. 10 Environmental specifications This can potentially crack the capacitor because the ceramic is sensible to the. 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen Talk5 August (UTC)
They have the original advertising at Borland Museum and it was indeed $ bogdan TalkMay 4, (UTC)

Many of these features are still not in the IDEs that followed. The documentation for most of the languages is often poorly written, disorganized, and incomplete. The code profilers work sporadically and its quite easy to crash your system trying to single step through code. Inlining assembler is considered something unusual and freakish to do. These problems are particularly painful in the 'open source' IDEs but even Microsoft Visual Studio is a morass of confusion in comparison to the old Borland product. IDEs of the later years may never achieve the level of simplicity or integration as Borland Pascal, simply because the underlying systems of the newer IDEs are thousands of times more complex than the system Borland Pascal was written on - the IBM PC hardware and MS DOS software.

IMHO not entirely a rant. I think one could summarize it "The maturity (seven full versions) and the simplicity of the system simply allowed a way better (and more complete) finishing touch. Also the limited number of options keeps the TP/BP7 managable for new developers"

This is btw one of the reasons why TP/BP was used so 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen longer in educational roles when the Dos platform was already replaced largely by Windows. Only when newer generations increasingly missed any Dos/console experience, this started to decline swiftly.2 August (UTC)

Competition with Microsoft Pascal[edit]

Then I (AntoineL, not Frecklefoot) also removed the section below. It was marked as unsourced in April [1], but nobody came. Since I was working on these tools then, I tried to modify it to make it NPOV'ed, but I fail. In fact it is just opinions, nothing here is really relevant about TP, it probably belongs to the Microsoft Pascal article (and I'll copy it to that talk page). The only real fact is that MS distributed the clone QP "for a while", but it is hardly relevant when looked at the whole picture of TP which spans more than 10 years; this information could be added to the Successors section, but I am myself non-neutral on this one and cannot resolve at doing it.

Of course you are free to disagree, to bring it back in and improve the article. AntoineL24 October (UTC)

=== Competition with Microsoft Pascal===
It is likely that Microsoft Pascal was dropped because of the competition provided by Turbo Pascal's good quality and low price.[citation needed] Another theory is that Borland made an agreement with Microsoft to drop development of Turbo BASIC, a BASIC IDE that stems from Turbo Pascal, if Microsoft would stop developing Microsoft Pascal. 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen a while, Microsoft produced QuickPascal, which was almost % compatible with Turbo Pascal.[citation needed]

Original price[edit]

Having owned a copy of Turbo PascalI remember the original price as $ rather than $ Can anybody confirm?

A google search in the newsgroups resulted in several messages that say that it was $ bogdan Talk16 August (UTC)
I first ran it on an I knew there was a CP/M version. If what you say about the is right, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, then why not just take the out of the article? Someone may have jsut been assuming that it would run on CP/M on an Is there a reference that says that it will? Bubba73You talkin' to me?16 August (UTC)
I found my Turbo Pascal manual, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, complete with receipt for $ (US) from Sadly, though this was a well-known property of Turbo Pascal, the manual makes no quickly-accessible mention of the requirement of a Z80 CPU. It mentions the IX and IY registers in an obscure appendix, even says that the "ports" array allows you access to the *Z80* I/O ports, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, but never explicitly states that a Z80 processor is required to run the CP/M version. Nor do the listed error messages even have a warning for the "wrong CPU". A quick dive into Google Books and it's needlessly "improved" interface gives nothing storycall.us the BYTE articles must have got purged. Got to dig up my old paper BYTEs and see if I have a relevant issue. --Wtshymanski (talk)17 August (UTC)
It will be good to know, but probably hard to find out. Bubba73You talkin' to me?68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, 17 August (UTC)
The back cover of the TP 3 manual found on Bitsavers lists under "minimum system requirements" the Z80 processor. They are pretty casual about this limitation, but at least it's something from Borland. --Wtshymanski (talk)17 August (UTC)

I used to run a very old CP/M system using an processor many years ago, and CP/M Turbo Pascal V ran just fine, though I never noticed what the claimed minimum processor was (or if I had, I have forgotten). Luckily: I still have the three CP/M manuals published by Digital Research Inc.

All versions of Turbo Pascal were specified as being CP/M applications. The BDOS of CP/M was written in and designed to run on an processor.[1] Any application claiming to be a CP/M application was officially required to run on an processor (though, I accept that some rogues may exist).[2] Both CP/M itself and the application would also run on a Z80 processor simply because the Z80 was binary code compatible with the (that is: every instruction worked exactly the same way on a Z80). For the same reason CP/M and its applications would also run on an processor.

Despite your manual, all versions of Turbo Pascal purporting to be CP/M do run on an based CP/M system as far as I am aware. However, it is worth noting as CP/M utilities appeared Turbo C++ 4.5 Download With Full Crack Free Download [Latest] the Z80 was introduced, that the as a processor (actually a three chip set) fell very quickly out of vogue due to their hardware complexity, not 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen mention the requirement for three power supply lines which had to be energised and de-energised in the correct sequence (Intel's probably accelerated this somewhat). Many utilities started to state a Z80 requirement if only because it was the CPU with which contemporary CP/M machines were equipped (also saved a shed load of cost because, apart from the single power supply, a Z80 would directly interface with the then new and comparatively cheap dynamic RAM chips, something the was never designed to do and the required an additional support chip [, or ]).

I should point out that it was Digital Research's BDOS part of CP/M that was exclusively written in The machine specific BIOS part (produced by the machine manufacturer or a third party) although required by the system guide to be written in was often written in Z80 for specific machines, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, and I am aware of at least one example written partly in Z80 and partly in Since the application never accessed the BIOS routines directly and since a machine specific BIOS would be unlikely to work with a dissimilar machine there was never any problem. -RFenergy (talk)17 August (UTC)

Frustratingly, checking the ads in and BYTE magazine gives no "system requirements" for the CPU, nor did the BYTE review mention a processor requirement. I'm bemused by the progress from version 1 to version 3 in about 2 years of BYTE ads; things moved fast in those days. And none of the or ads mention the Macintosh version at all! We claim there was one in this article, but where are the ads? --Wtshymanski (talk)18 August (UTC)
I've found what I think is pretty good proof that it required a Z from the old Borland Museum. Two links: Back of the Turbo Pascal Manual and Community release notes for Borland by David Intersimone (previously of Borland). Is this sufficient? — Preceding unsigned comment added by LawrenceWoodman (talk • contribs)18 August (UTC)
I'm trying to source a review or something from BYTE magazines that specifically mentioned this limitation. Yes, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, CP/M 80 was written for the processor but it was not uncommon for programmers to write Z80 code that ran under CP/M but which used Z80 operations internally. ZCPR replaced much of the CP/M internals with Zonly versions to save memory space and add functionality. I don't think the CP/M version of Turbo Pascal made it as high as Version - that was an MS DOS only release, according to the user's guide and reference guide I have sitting next to me. By the time I came to the party, the was pretty much unavailable in affordable desktop machines and all the CP/M installations I ever had access to ran on Z80s. --Wtshymanski (talk)18 August (UTC)
You appear to be right about the version that I ran, because I managed to dig out the discs. It was version However, it very definitely ran on an based system. 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen I don't have the machine any more, I did keep the more useful chips (including the three chips that form the ) and the power supply (which supplies +5, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, +12 and -5 volts, which a Z80, would not require). I hate throwing out perfectly functional stuff!
One of your references stated that the V3 would only run with inch discs under PC-DOS (aka MS-DOS). This is equally untrue. The disc formats were determined entirely by the BDOS part of either CP/M or MS-DOS and not the application. Both CP/M and MS-DOS are user customisable to practically any disc format. MS-DOS could easily by customised to use 8 inch floppy discs by adding its parameters to the format table. I myself customised my CP/M installation to read almost every available format of CP/M disc that there was.
Your comment about based machines matches, more or less, what I said about the systems. However, despite many applications no longer stating that they worked on processors, they did often state that the minimum requirement was a Z80 or a Z80 or Anything that will run on an will also run on an provided it does not use the RIM and SIM instructions (which is extremely unlikely as they only supported a very crude serial I/O capability for which a disk operating system would have no use).
Turbo Pascal V1 was released inwhen the majority of CP/M systems were still based. The Z80 was released as a chip in and made it into a handful of mainstream CP/M computers by However, Z80 based machines took a few more years to displace the based machines because, at that time, users were reluctant to replace relatively new machines (unlike today where a three year life or less is now considered the norm). Even inmy university were still running based CP/M systems and microprocessor development units.
But the elephant in the room is that although all (so called) IBM compatible machines would run CP/M, some would also run the CP/M and most of its associated application software. This was because rather than use the Intel or processors, they instead used the NEC V20 or V30 compatible processor. Though technically they were (V20) or (V30) compatible, both processors would also emulate the Since the was designed specifically to use, and did use support chips, virtually no fiddling was required to make it work though a 'wrapper' was required to switch the processor into mode as CP/M booted up. -RFenergy (talk)19 August (UTC)
The along with all its support chips was still being manufactured as late as Its success and ubiquity was the reason why the was required to be source code compatible. That is: every instruction had an equivalent instruction or instructions, though not necessarily the same object code. -RFenergy (talk)19 August 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen have found a reference for Turbo Pascal V that states that it needs a Z in Byte Magazine Volume 09 Number 02 Feb LawrenceWoodman (talk)20 August (UTC)
This article is not exclusively about Turbo Pascal V It is about Turbo Pascal in general. We need a reference that states than no version of Turbo Pascal would run on an I do not believe such a reference would exist because I know that it is not the case (see above). -RFenergy (talk)20 August (UTC)
The Magazine is dated February and hence before Turbo Pascal v2 was released so this is talking about the earliest release, v1 of TP. Also, it has been a long time and our memories are often not as accurate as we may hope. However, as I said at the start of this thread I can try this today with and Z80 and can confirm that it only works on the Z LawrenceWoodman (talk)20 August (UTC)
Well, we know version would not have run on an because they dropped CP/M support from version 4 on, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen. So that memory is inconsistent with the article. --Wtshymanski (talk)21 August (UTC)
Pity you didn't read the rest of the discussion before putting your brain into gear. -RFenergy (talk)21 August (UTC)
If V1, for any reason, does not run on anthat proves nothing because that would be original research which is not allowed. As said: this article is still not exclusively about V1 anyway. -RFenergy (talk)21 August (UTC)
I'm confused, are you saying that the Byte magazine article that states that the first version of TP needed a Z80 and didn't run on an / is original research or are you referring to my mention of my experience of it. If it is the latter, I mentioned it as a spur to find the correct sources not as any evidence for the article, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen. This is indeed no different than your bringing up your recollections of running TPthen TPon an except that my experience is current and not relying on fading memories, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen. As far as original research, I made it quite clear when I started this thread that my intention was to see reliable sources for my assertion. However, now that you mention original research it seems pretty clear to me that the mentions of / should be removed because no referenced sources support that, we have only been able to find references that support the Z LawrenceWoodman (talk)21 August (UTC)
Your original research is trying it on a Z80 and an Yes it would be true that my recollection is also original research. However: the default position is, that this article has claimed, for the last ten years, that Turbo Pascal has run on anZ80, and x86 (and prior to this, no specific claim that a Z80 is required has been made since the article was created). The version of the article that says it runs on an is therefore the established version and is the accepted version per established consensus (in that no one has claimed otherwise since the article was first written in ).
Along comes a user (with, I am reliably informed, a history of inaccurate, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, unresearched and unreferenced edits) who claims that it does not run on an but does run on an and so therefore requires a Z80 (which is nonsensical). This is because: if it will run on anit will also run on an But even if it ran on an but not an (which is highly unlikely), it still does not require a Z Because the consensual position has stood for so long, a specific secondary reference is required that some versions of Turbo Pascal ran on an but that none ran on an Such a reference has not yet been forthcoming. -RFenergy (talk)21 August (UTC)
I find what you said extraordinary. There is no need to resort to Ad hominem attacks by making things up about me because you disagree with 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen I said. My edits on Wikipedia have been minimal, are publicly viewable and have been maintained. It is clear that even here, I'm not just making a change to the article, but instead discussing what I think is an error and searching for good sources to clarify the situation. I may well be wrong, despite all evidence to the contrary, but the topic here is Turbo Pascal not me.
I want to keep this on topic. As far as running on anI have never said that it could. I have only ever said that it won't work on an and have produced three good references that state that it needs a Z80, one of which goes further by saying that not only 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen it require a Z80 but it won't work on an because of this requirement. With two references from Borland and one from Byte, how much more proof is needed? LawrenceWoodman (talk)22 August (UTC)
I haven't attacked you or made anything up about you. You have not edited the article and I have 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen claimed that you have.
You have produced references that claim that Turbo Pascal V1 will only run on a Z80 but nothing for any of the other versions. Wtshymanski produced a Turbo Pascal document that states that it requires a Z80, but it dates to a time when the was pretty well a dead duck and much software claimed a Z80 was required when it would run on an (though some also stated Z80 or without mentioning the although if it ran on an it would also run on an ).
The situation was rather a mess and today, it is difficult to work out if any particular software would work on an /5 or if it really did require a Z As stated above, if software claimed to be CP/M[], it was required by the CP/M system guide to run on an (which automatically meant that it would run on a Z80 and an ). 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen marketed Turbo Pascal as a CP/M application which meant that Borland were officially claiming compatibility. Nevertheless: as said, software was produced that did not run on an or anand that should not officially have claimed to be a CP/M application though, in reality, it did and it would work with CP/M just fine as long as you had a Z
It also occurred to me that I couldn't recall a CP/M based computer that actually used an processor. I managed to find a list of all machines that ran CP/M (actually CP/M and CP/M). It turns out that there was. There was just one: the IMSAI VDP and VDP - the same machine differing only in the size of the built in video display.
It was a business oriented 'luggable portable' not unlike the Osborne 1 though larger and over four times the weight - it weighed nearly 1cwt (or just over a twentieth of a tonne). I have no idea what contributed to the weight. With 32 or 64kb of memory, assuming that this was dynamic RAM, it seemed to me to be a mystery why they didn't use a Z80 which would have been simpler to interface with the memory not needing the extra support chips plus refresh logic along with the required extra complexity of the PCB (which is probably why nobody else used the ).
However, I discovered that it was fitted with two power supplies one of which was a Amp power supply, which strongly suggests that they used the more expensive static RAM (more expensive in cost, PCB area and power requirements) after all, nothing else could have consumed this much power. As even the 32kb 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen IMSAI cost north of $10, it is not surprising that it did not sell well and why hardly anyone one has heard of it. IMSAI went bankrupt a year after releasing it.
Although listed as a CP/M machine, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, it turns out that it was not supplied with CP/M but with IMDOS (IMSAI Multi-Disk Operating System) supposedly compatible with CP/M. It would only have been able to run CP/M if someone produced a compatible BIOS for the machine. I can find no evidence that IMSAI ever did. -RFenergy (talk)22 August (UTC)

Just because something has been stated in a Wikipedia article for years, doesn't mean it's true. We've had entire imaginary physicists and other phantom topics in WP, let alone errors such as this. Where is it written that Digital Research prohibited advertising Z80 programs as CP/M ? --Wtshymanski (talk)23 August (UTC)

Whilst what you say is largely true: it is also true that Wikipedia is built on consensus. That the article has claimed that Turbo Pascal ran onand Z80 processors means that the claim has been accepted for over ten years as a de facto consensus. If it really is not true, then a reliable WP:SECONDARY source is required that definitively states that no version of Turbo Pascal would have been able to run on an processor is required. A Turbo Pascal manual for a single version stating that runs on a Z80 is a WP:PRIMARY source that does not meet the requirement precisely because it does not definitively state that it does not run on an RFenergy (talk)27 August (UTC)
Informed consensus would make this project more reliable. There is zero quality assurance going on here, so it doesn't mean 10 year old text is any more reliable. --Wtshymanski (talk)4 September (UTC)
Maybe not. But that is the way it works - by consensus right up until reliable sources are found to overrule it. Your opinion (which I have been informed is mostly suspect at the best of times), in spite of what you believe, does not supersede this principle. -RFenergy (talk)4 September (UTC)

A review of Turbo Pasal v by Richard Rodman in the Premier Issue of the magazine Computer Language, Sept states the following on Page "And, if you're still running an antique or processor, you can't use Turbo Pascal. It is only available for Z or family machines." [3] The following quote from another reviewer is included in Borland's advertising for Turbo Pascal v2: "Finally, somebody has done it right. A powerful Pascal Z80 or / 88 single pass native code compiler together with a full screen editor and error checking to make a super programming development package." David Carroll, Microsystems, February [4]I haven't yet been able to obtain a copy of the full review. Chris Burrows (talk)31 August (UTC)

Thank you! --Wtshymanski (talk)4 September (UTC)
Another reminder is required that this article is about Turbo Pascal not Turbo Pascal V specifically. There is still no WP:SECONDARY reference stating that there was no version of Are minecraft premium account generator Pascal that could run on an -RFenergy (talk)4 September (UTC)
So that we can narrow this down. Do we all agree, from the various sources given, that TP v1 and v2, at least, don't run on an ? LawrenceWoodman (talk)9 September (UTC)
That is what I think, based on the 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen I've read. Bubba73You talkin' to me?9 September (UTC)
Certainly all the references presented support the support the idea. -RFenergy (talk)10 September (UTC)
I agree. I have located an additional reference [5] which states: "One potential problem is the fact that the CP/M 80 version is written in and generates Z80 machine code, which will not run on all CP/M systems, e.g. 8 bit Heath/zenith and CompuPro systems using the / CPU. The decision to use Z80 machine code was apparently a compromise based on the Z80' s more powerful instruction set and the fact that the majority of CP/M implementations (including Apples) use the Z80 CPU. Chris Burrows (talk)10 September (UTC)
I think that cinches it! Bubba73You talkin' to me?11 September (UTC)
Er, No: it doesn't clinch anything. It's always a good idea to read the whole article before going off at half cock.
The article cited does not specify which version of Turbo Pascal that it is discussing. However, a read of the first paragraph of the article where it is discussing the "… recently announced by Borland International of Turbo Pascal …" [following the withdrawal of JRT Pascal], makes it obvious that it is discussing a brand new Pascal system and since the publication is the "Washington Apple Pi Journal", along with the rest of he piece, it is clearly discussing the (then new) processor version for the Apple Macintosh machines (which, I believe, we all accept does not run on an - or a Z80 come to that).
Yes, the piece does make reference to Z80 only for "the CP/M 80 version", but no obvious clue is given as to which CP/M version it is discussing. However, a bit of detective work reveals that the issue date of the magazine predates Turbo Pascal V by nearly two and one half years. It also predates the release of V so it can only be discussing V1 (which we do know is the version from which the version was derived). The processor required for V1 is not in contention so there is nothing to clinch. -RFenergy (talk)11 September (UTC)
Источник: [storycall.us]

Graphics processing unit

Specialized electronic circuit; graphics accelerator

"GPU" redirects here. For other uses, see GPU (disambiguation).

For an expansion card that contains a graphics processing unit, see graphics card.

A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device. GPUs are used in embedded systems, mobile phones, personal computers, workstations, and game consoles.

Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics and image processing. Their highly parallel structure makes them more efficient than general-purpose central processing units (CPUs) for algorithms that process large blocks of data in parallel. In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on a video card or embedded on the motherboard. In certain CPUs, they are embedded on the CPU die.[1]

In the s, the term "GPU" originally stood for graphics processor unit and described a programmable processing unit independently working from the CPU and responsible for graphics manipulation and output.[2][3] Later, inSony used the term (now standing for graphics processing unit) in reference to the PlayStation console's Toshiba-designed Sony GPU in [4] The term was popularized by Nvidia inwho marketed the GeForce as "the world's first GPU".[5] It was presented as a "single-chip processor with integrated transform, lighting, triangle setup/clipping, and rendering engines".[6] Rival ATI Technologies coined the term "visual processing unit" or VPU with the release of the Radeon in [7]

History[edit]

See also: Video display controller, List of home computers by video hardware, and Sprite (computer graphics)

s[edit]

Arcade system boards have been using specialized graphics circuits since the s. In early video game hardware, the RAM for frame buffers was expensive, so video chips composited data together as the display was being scanned out on the monitor.[8]

A specialized barrel shifter circuit was used to help the CPU animate the framebuffer graphics for various s arcade games from Midway and Taito, such as Gun Fight (), Sea Wolf () and Space Invaders ().[9][10][11] The Namco Galaxian arcade system in used specialized graphics hardware supporting RGB color, multi-colored sprites and tilemap backgrounds.[12] The Galaxian hardware was widely used during the golden age of arcade video games, by game companies such as Namco, Centuri, Gremlin, Irem, Konami, Midway, Nichibutsu, Sega and Taito.[13][14]

Atari ANTICmicroprocessor on an Atari XE motherboard

In the home market, the Atari in used a video shifter called the Television Interface Adaptor.[15] The Atari 8-bit computers () had ANTIC, a video processor which interpreted instructions describing a "display list"&#;the way the scan lines map to specific bitmapped or character modes and where the memory is stored (so there did not need to be a contiguous frame buffer).[16]machine codesubroutines could be triggered on scan lines by setting a bit on a display list instruction.[17] ANTIC also supported smooth vertical and horizontal scrolling independent of the CPU.[18]

s[edit]

The NEC µPD was the first implementation of a PC graphics display processor as a single Large Scale Integration (LSI) integrated circuit chip, enabling the design of low-cost, high-performance video graphics cards such as those from Number Nine Visual Technology. It became the best-known GPU up until the mids.[19] It was the first fully integrated VLSI (very large-scale integration) metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) graphics display processor for PCs, supported up to x resolution, and laid the foundations for the emerging PC graphics market. It was used in a number of graphics cards, and was licensed for clones such as the Intelthe first of Intel's graphics processing units.[20] The Williams Electronics arcade games Robotron , Joust, Sinistar, and Bubbles, all released incontain custom blitter chips for operating on color bitmaps.[21][22]

InHitachi released ARTC HD, the first major CMOS graphics processor for PC. The ARTC was capable of displaying up to 4K resolution when in monochrome mode, and it was used in a number of PC graphics cards and terminals during the late s.[23] In68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, the Commodore Amiga featured a custom graphics chip, with a blitter unit accelerating bitmap manipulation, line draw, and area fill functions. Also included is a coprocessor with its own simple instruction set, capable of manipulating graphics hardware registers in sync with the video beam (e.g. for per-scanline palette switches, sprite multiplexing, and hardware windowing), or driving the blitter. InTexas Instruments released the TMS, the first fully programmable graphics processor.[24] It could run general-purpose code, but it had a graphics-oriented instruction set. During –, this chip became the basis of the Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture ("TIGA") Windows accelerator cards.

The IBM Micro Channel adapter, with memory add-on.

Inthe IBM graphics system was released as one of[vague] the first video cards for IBM PC compatibles to implement fixed-function 2D primitives in electronic hardware. Sharp's X, released inused a custom graphics chipset[25] with a 65, color palette and hardware support for sprites, scrolling, and multiple playfields,[26] eventually serving as a development machine for Capcom's CP System arcade board. Fujitsu later competed with the FM Towns computer, released in with support for a full 16, color palette.[27] In68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, the first dedicated polygonal 3D graphics boards were introduced in arcades with the Namco System 21[28] and Taito Air System.[29]

IBM's proprietaryVideo Graphics Array (VGA) display standard was introduced inwith a maximum resolution of × pixels. In NovemberNEC 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen Electronics announced its creation of the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) to develop and promote a Super VGA (SVGA) computer display standard as a successor to IBM's proprietary VGA display standard. Super VGA enabled graphics display resolutions up to × pixels, a 36% increase.[30]

s[edit]

InS3 Graphics introduced the S3 86C, which its designers named after the Porsche as an indication of the performance increase it promised.[31] The 86C spawned a host of imitators: byall major PC graphics chip makers had added 2D acceleration support to their chips.[32][33] By this time, fixed-function Windows accelerators had surpassed expensive general-purpose graphics coprocessors in Windows performance, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, and these coprocessors faded away from the PC market.

Throughout the s, 2D GUI acceleration continued to evolve. As manufacturing capabilities improved, so did the level of integration of graphics chips. Additional application programming interfaces (APIs) arrived for a variety of tasks, such as Microsoft's WinGgraphics library for Windows 3.x, and their later DirectDraw interface for hardware acceleration of 2D games within Windows 95 and later.

In the early- and mids, real-time 3D graphics were becoming increasingly common in arcade, computer and console games, which led to an increasing public demand for hardware-accelerated 3D graphics. Early examples of mass-market 3D graphics hardware can be found in arcade system boards such as the Sega Model 1, Namco System 22, and Sega Model 2, and the fifth-generation video game consoles such as the Saturn, PlayStation and Nintendo Arcade systems such as the Sega Model 2 and Namco Magic Edge Hornet Simulator in were capable of hardware T&L (transform, clipping, and lighting) years before appearing in consumer graphics cards.[34][35] Some systems used DSPs to accelerate transformations. Fujitsu, which worked on the Sega Model 2 arcade system,[36] began working on integrating T&L into a single LSI solution for use in home computers in ;[37][38] the Fujitsu Pinolite, the first 3D geometry processor for personal computers, released in [39] The first hardware T&L GPU on homevideo game consoles was the Nintendo 64's Reality Coprocessor, released in [40] InMitsubishi released the 3Dpro/2MP, a fully featured GPU capable of transformation and lighting, for workstations and Windows NT desktops;[41]ATi utilized it for their FireGL graphics card, released in [42]

The term "GPU" was coined by Sony in reference to the bit Sony GPU (designed by Toshiba) in the PlayStation video game 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, released in [4]

In the PC world, notable failed first tries for low-cost 3D graphics chips were the S3ViRGE, ATIRage, and MatroxMystique. These chips were essentially previous-generation 2D accelerators with 3D features bolted on. Many were even pin-compatible with the earlier-generation chips for ease of implementation and minimal cost. Initially, performance 3D graphics were possible only with discrete boards dedicated to accelerating 3D functions (and lacking 2D GUI acceleration entirely) such as the PowerVR and the 3dfxVoodoo. However, as manufacturing technology continued to progress, video, 2D GUI acceleration and 3D functionality were all integrated into one chip. Rendition'sVerite chipsets were among the first to do this well enough to be worthy of note. InRendition went a step further by collaborating with Hercules and Fujitsu on a "Thriller Conspiracy" project which combined a Fujitsu FXG-1 Pinolite geometry processor with a Vérité V core to create a graphics card with a full T&L engine years before Nvidia's GeForce This card, designed to reduce the load placed upon the system's CPU, never made it to market.[citation needed]

OpenGL appeared in the early '90s as a professional graphics API, but originally suffered from performance issues which allowed the Glide API to step in and become a dominant force on the PC in the late '90s.[43] However, these issues were quickly overcome and the Glide API fell by the wayside. Software implementations of OpenGL were common during this time, although the influence of OpenGL eventually led to widespread hardware support. Over time, a parity emerged between features offered in hardware and those offered in OpenGL. DirectX became popular among Windows game developers during the late 90s. Unlike OpenGL, Microsoft insisted on providing strict one-to-one support of hardware, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen. The approach made DirectX less popular as a standalone graphics API initially, since many GPUs provided their own specific features, which existing OpenGL applications were already able to benefit from, leaving DirectX often one generation behind. (See: Comparison of OpenGL and Direct3D.)

Over time, Microsoft began to work more closely with hardware developers, and started to target the releases of DirectX to coincide with those of the supporting graphics hardware. Direct3D was the first version of the burgeoning API to gain widespread adoption in the gaming market, and it competed directly with many more-hardware-specific, often proprietary graphics libraries, while OpenGL maintained a strong following. Direct3D introduced support for hardware-accelerated transform and lighting (T&L) for Direct3D, while OpenGL had this capability already exposed from its inception. 3D accelerator cards moved beyond being just simple rasterizers to add another significant hardware stage to the torrent finale mac Archives 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen pipeline. The NvidiaGeForce (also known as NV10) was the first consumer-level card released on the market with hardware-accelerated T&L, while professional 3D cards already had this capability. Hardware transform and lighting, both already existing features of OpenGL, came to consumer-level hardware in the '90s and set the precedent for later pixel shader and vertex shader units which were far more flexible and programmable.

to [edit]

Nvidia was first to produce a chip capable of programmable shading; the GeForce 3 (code named NV20). Each pixel could now be processed by a short "program" that could include additional image textures as inputs, and each geometric vertex could likewise be processed by a short program before it was projected onto the screen. Used in the Xbox console, it competed with the PlayStation 2, which used a custom vector unit for hardware accelerated vertex processing (commonly referred to as VU0/VU1). The earliest incarnations of shader execution engines used in Xbox were not general purpose and could not execute arbitrary pixel code. Vertices and pixels were processed by different units which had their own resources with pixel shaders having much tighter constraints (being as they are executed at much higher frequencies than with vertices). Pixel 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen engines were actually more akin to a highly customizable function block and didn't really "run" a program. Many of these disparities between vertex and pixel shading were not addressed until much later with the Unified Shader Model.

By Octoberwith the introduction of the ATIRadeon (also known as R), the world's first Direct3D accelerator, pixel and vertex shaders could implement looping and lengthy floating point math, and were quickly becoming as flexible as CPUs, yet orders of magnitude faster for image-array operations. Pixel shading is often used for bump mapping, which adds texture, to make an object look shiny, dull, rough, or even round or extruded.[44]

With the introduction of the Nvidia GeForce 8 series, and then new generic stream processing unit GPUs became a more generalized computing devices. Today, parallel GPUs have begun making computational inroads against the CPU, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, and a subfield of research, dubbed GPU Computing or GPGPU for General Purpose Computing on GPU, has found its way into fields as diverse as machine learning,[45]oil exploration, scientific image processing, linear algebra,[46]statistics,[47]3D reconstruction and even stock options pricing determination. GPGPU at the time was the precursor to what is now called a compute shader (e.g. CUDA, OpenCL, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, DirectCompute) and actually abused the hardware to a degree by treating the data passed to algorithms as texture maps and executing algorithms by drawing a triangle or quad with an Acronis True Image 2021 Crack + Keygen Final [LATEST] pixel shader. This obviously entails some overheads since units like the Scan Converter are involved where they aren't really needed (nor are triangle manipulations even a concern—except to invoke the pixel shader).

Nvidia's CUDA platform, first introduced in ,[48] was the earliest widely adopted programming model for GPU computing. More recently OpenCL has become broadly supported. OpenCL is an open standard defined by the Khronos Group which allows for the development of code for both GPUs and CPUs with an emphasis on portability.[49] OpenCL solutions are supported by Intel, AMD, Nvidia, and ARM, and according to a recent report by Evan's Data, OpenCL is the GPGPU development platform most widely used by developers in both the US and Asia Pacific.[citation needed]

to present[edit]

In68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, Nvidia began a partnership with Audi to power their cars' dashboards, using the Tegra GPUs to provide increased functionality to cars' navigation and entertainment systems.[50] Advances in GPU technology in cars has helped push self-driving technology.[51] AMD's Radeon HD Series cards were released in and inAMD released their M Series discrete GPUs to be used in mobile devices.[52] The Kepler line of graphics cards by Nvidia came out in and were used in the Nvidia's and series cards. A feature 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen this new GPU microarchitecture included GPU boost, a technology that adjusts the clock-speed of a video card to increase or decrease it according to its power draw.[53] The Kepler microarchitecture was manufactured on the 28&#;nm process.

The PS4 and Xbox One were released inthey both use GPUs based on AMD's Radeon HD and [54] Nvidia's Kepler line of GPUs was followed by the Maxwell line, manufactured on the same process. 28&#;nm chips by Nvidia were manufactured by TSMC, the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, that was manufacturing using the 28&#;nm process at the time. Compared to the 40&#;nm technology from the past, this new manufacturing process allowed a 20 percent boost in performance while drawing less power.[55][56]Virtual realityheadsets have very high system requirements. VR headset manufacturers recommended the GTX and the R9 X or better at the time of their release.[57][58]Pascal is the next generation of consumer graphics cards by Nvidia released in The GeForce 10 series of cards are under this generation of graphics cards. They are made using the 16&#;nm manufacturing process which improves upon previous microarchitectures.[59] Nvidia has released one non-consumer card under the new Volta architecture, the Titan V. Changes from the Titan XP, Pascal's high-end card, include an increase in the number of CUDA cores, the addition of tensor cores, and HBM2. Tensor cores are cores specially designed for deep learning, while high-bandwidth memory is on-die, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, stacked, lower-clocked memory that offers an extremely wide memory bus that is useful for the Titan V's intended purpose. To emphasize that the Titan V is not a gaming card, Nvidia removed the "GeForce GTX" suffix it adds to consumer gaming cards.

On August 20,Nvidia launched the RTX 20 series GPUs that add ray-tracing cores to GPUs, improving their performance on lighting effects.[60]Polaris 11 and Polaris 10 GPUs from AMD are fabricated by a nanometer process. Their release results in a substantial increase in the performance per watt of AMD video cards.[61] AMD has also released the Vega GPUs series for the high end market as a competitor to Nvidia's high end Pascal cards, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, also featuring HBM2 like the Titan V.

InAMD released the successor to their Graphics Core 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen (GCN) microarchitecture/instruction set. Dubbed as RDNA, the first product lineup featuring the first generation of RDNA was the Radeon RX series of video cards, which later launched on July 7, [62] Later, the company announced that the successor to the RDNA microarchitecture would be a refresh. Dubbed as RDNA 2, the new microarchitecture was reportedly scheduled for release in Q4 [63]

AMD unveiled the Radeon RX series, its next-gen RDNA 2 graphics cards with support for hardware-accelerated ray tracing at an online event on October 28, [64][65] The lineup initially consists of the RXRX XT and RX XT.[66][67] The RX and XT launched on November 18,with the RX XT being released on December 8, [68] The RX XT, which is based on Navi 22, was launched on March 18, [69][70][71]

The PlayStation 5 and Xbox Series X and Series S were released inthey both use GPUs based on the RDNA 2 microarchitecture with proprietary tweaks and different GPU configurations in each system's implementation.[72][73][74]

GPU companies[edit]

Many companies have produced GPUs under a number of brand names. InIntel, Nvidia and AMD/ATI were the market share leaders, with %, % and % market share respectively. However, those numbers include Intel's integrated graphics solutions as GPUs. Not counting those, Nvidia and AMD control nearly % of the market as of Their respective market shares are 66% and 33%.[75] In addition, Matrox[76] produce GPUs. Modern smartphones also use mostly Adreno GPUs from Qualcomm, PowerVR GPUs from Imagination Technologies and Mali GPUs from ARM.

Computational functions[edit]

Modern GPUs use most of their transistors to do calculations related to 3D computer graphics. In addition to the 3D hardware, today's GPUs include basic 2D acceleration and framebuffer capabilities (usually with a VGA compatibility mode). Newer cards such as AMD/ATI HDHD even lack 2D acceleration; it has to be emulated by 3D hardware. GPUs were initially used to accelerate the memory-intensive work of texture mapping and rendering polygons, later adding units to accelerate geometric calculations such as the rotation and translation of vertices into different coordinate systems. Recent developments in GPUs include support for programmable shaders which can manipulate vertices and textures with many of the same operations supported by CPUs, oversampling and interpolation techniques to reduce aliasing, and very high-precision color spaces. Given that most of these computations involve matrix and vector operations, engineers and scientists have increasingly studied the use of GPUs for non-graphical calculations; they are especially suited to other embarrassingly parallel problems.

Several factors of the GPU's construction enter into the performance of 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen card for real-time rendering. Common factors can include the size of the connector pathways in the semiconductor device fabrication, the clock signal frequency, and the number and size of various on-chip memory caches. Additionally, the number of Streaming Multiprocessors (SM) for NVidia GPUs, or Compute Units (CU) for AMD GPUs, which describe the number of core on-silicon processor units within the GPU chip that perform the core calculations, typically working in parallel with other SM/CUs on the GPU. Performance of GPUs are typically measured in floating point operations per second or FLOPS, with GPUs in the s and s typically delivering performance measured in teraflops (TFLOPS). This is an estimated performance measure as other factors can impact the actual display rate.[77]

With the emergence of deep learning, the importance of GPUs has increased. In research done by Indigo, it was found that while training deep learning neural networks, GPUs can be times faster than CPUs, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen. There has been some level of competition in this area with ASICs, most prominently the Tensor Processing Unit (TPU) made by Google. However, ASICs require changes to existing code and GPUs are still very popular.

GPU accelerated video decoding and encoding[edit]

The ATI HD GPU (above) features UVD which enables it to decode AVC and VC-1 video formats

Most GPUs made since support the YUVcolor space and hardware overlays, important for digital video playback, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, and many GPUs made since also support MPEG primitives such as motion compensation and iDCT. This process of hardware accelerated video decoding, where portions of the video decoding process and video post-processing are offloaded to the GPU hardware, is commonly referred to as "GPU accelerated video decoding", "GPU assisted video decoding", "GPU hardware accelerated video decoding" or "GPU hardware assisted video decoding".

More recent graphics cards even decode high-definition video on the card, offloading the central processing unit. The most common APIs for GPU accelerated video decoding are DxVA for Microsoft Windows operating system and VDPAU, VAAPI, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, XvMC, and XvBA for Linux-based and UNIX-like operating systems. All except XvMC are capable of decoding videos encoded with MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 ASP (MPEG-4 Part 2), MPEG-4 AVC (H / DivX 6), VC-1, WMV3/WMV9, Xvid / OpenDivX (DivX 4), and DivX 5 codecs, while XvMC is only capable of decoding MPEG-1 and MPEG

There are several dedicated hardware video decoding and encoding 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen.

Video decoding processes that can be accelerated[edit]

The video decoding processes that can be accelerated by today's modern GPU hardware are:

The above operations also have applications in video editing, encoding and transcoding

GPU forms[edit]

Terminology[edit]

In personal computers, there are two main forms of GPUs. Each has many synonyms:[78]

Usage specific GPU[edit]

Most GPUs are designed for a specific usage, real-time 3D graphics or other mass calculations:

  1. Gaming
  2. Cloud Gaming
  3. Workstation
  4. Cloud Workstation
  5. Artificial Intelligence training and Cloud
  6. Automated/Driverless car

Dedicated graphics cards[edit]

Main article: Video card

The GPUs of the most powerful class typically interface with the motherboard by means of an expansion slot such as PCI Express (PCIe) or Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) and can usually be replaced or upgraded with relative ease, assuming the motherboard is capable 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen supporting the upgrade. A few graphics cards still use Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots, but their bandwidth is so limited that they are generally used only when a PCIe or AGP slot is not available.

A dedicated GPU is not necessarily removable, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen does it necessarily interface with the motherboard in a standard fashion. The term "dedicated" refers to the fact that dedicated graphics cards have RAM that is dedicated to the card's use, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen to the fact that most dedicated GPUs are removable. Further, this RAM is usually specially selected for the expected serial workload of the graphics card (see GDDR). Sometimes, systems with dedicated, discrete GPUs were called "DIS" systems,[79] as opposed to "UMA" systems (see next section). Dedicated GPUs for portable computers are most commonly interfaced through a non-standard and often proprietary slot due to size and weight constraints. Such ports may still be considered PCIe or AGP in terms of their logical host interface, even if they are not physically interchangeable with their counterparts.

Technologies such as SLI and NVLink by Nvidia and CrossFire by AMD allow multiple GPUs to draw images simultaneously for a single screen, increasing the processing power available for graphics. These technologies, however, are increasingly uncommon, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, as most games do not fully utilize multiple GPUs, as most users cannot afford them.[80][81][82] Multiple GPUs are still used on supercomputers (like in Summit), on workstations to accelerate video (processing multiple videos at once)[83][84][85][86] and 3D rendering,[87][88][89][90][91] for VFX[92][93] and for simulations,[94] and in AI to expedite training, as is the case with Nvidia's lineup of DGX workstations and servers and Tesla GPUs and Intel's upcoming Ponte Vecchio GPUs.

Integrated graphics processing unit[edit]

The position of an integrated GPU in a northbridge/southbridge system layout
An ASRockmotherboard with integrated graphics, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, which has HDMI, VGA and DVI outs.

Integrated graphics processing unit (IGPU), Integrated graphics, shared graphics solutions, integrated graphics processors (IGP) or unified memory architecture (UMA) utilize a portion of a computer's system RAM rather than dedicated graphics memory. IGPs can be integrated onto the motherboard as part of the (northbridge) chipset,[95] or on the same die (integrated circuit) with the CPU (like AMD APU or Intel HD Graphics). On certain motherboards,[96] AMD's IGPs can use dedicated sideport[clarification needed] memory. This is a separate fixed block of high performance memory that is dedicated for use by the GPU. In earlycomputers with integrated graphics account for about 90% of all PC shipments.[97][needs update] They are less costly to implement than dedicated graphics processing, but tend to be less capable. Historically, integrated processing was considered unfit to play 3D games or run graphically intensive programs but could run less intensive programs such as Adobe Flash. Examples of such IGPs would be offerings from SiS and VIA circa [98] However, modern integrated graphics processors such as AMD Accelerated Processing Unit and Intel HD Graphics are more than capable of handling 2D graphics or low stress 3D graphics.

Since the GPU computations are extremely memory-intensive, integrated processing may find itself competing with the CPU for the relatively slow system RAM, as it has minimal or no dedicated video memory. IGPs can have up to &#;GB/s of memory bandwidth from system RAM, whereas a graphics card may have up to &#;GB/s of bandwidth between its RAM and GPU core. This memory bus bandwidth can limit the performance of the GPU, though multi-channel memory can mitigate this deficiency.[99] Older integrated graphics chipsets lacked hardware transform and lighting, but newer ones include it.[][]

Hybrid graphics processing[edit]

This newer class of GPUs competes with integrated graphics in the low-end desktop and notebook markets. The most common implementations of this are ATI's HyperMemory and Nvidia's TurboCache.

Hybrid graphics cards are somewhat more expensive than integrated graphics, but much less expensive than dedicated graphics cards. These share memory with the system and have a small dedicated memory cache, to make up for the high latency of the system RAM. Technologies within PCI Express can make this possible. While these solutions are sometimes advertised as having as much as MB of RAM, this refers to how much can be shared with the system memory.

Stream processing and general purpose GPUs (GPGPU)[edit]

Main articles: GPGPU and Stream processing

It is becoming increasingly common to use a general 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen graphics processing unit (GPGPU) as a modified form of stream processor (or a vector processor), running compute kernels. This concept turns the massive computational power of a modern graphics accelerator's shader pipeline into general-purpose computing power, as opposed to being hardwired solely to do graphical operations. In certain applications requiring massive vector operations, this can yield several orders of magnitude higher performance than a conventional CPU. The two largest discrete (see "Dedicated graphics cards" above) GPU designers, AMD and Nvidia, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen, are beginning to pursue this approach with an array of applications. Both Nvidia and AMD have teamed with Stanford University to create a GPU-based client for the Folding@home distributed computing project, for protein folding calculations. In certain circumstances, the GPU calculates forty times faster than the CPUs traditionally used by such applications.[][]

GPGPU can be used for many types of embarrassingly parallel tasks including ray tracing. They are generally suited to high-throughput type computations that exhibit data-parallelism to exploit the wide vector width SIMD architecture of the GPU.

Furthermore, GPU-based high performance computers are starting to play a significant role in large-scale modelling. Three of the 10 most powerful supercomputers in the world take advantage of GPU acceleration.[]

GPUs support API extensions to the C programming language such as OpenCL and OpenMP. Furthermore, each GPU vendor introduced its own API which only works with their cards, AMD APP SDK and CUDA from AMD and Nvidia, respectively, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen. These technologies allow specified functions called compute kernels from a normal C program to run on the GPU's stream processors. This makes it possible for C programs to take advantage of a GPU's ability to operate on large buffers in parallel, while still using the CPU when appropriate. CUDA is also the first API to allow CPU-based applications to directly access the resources of a GPU for more general purpose computing without the limitations of using a graphics API.[citation needed]

Since there has been interest in using the performance offered by GPUs for evolutionary computation in general, and for accelerating the fitness evaluation in genetic programming in particular. Most approaches compile linear or tree programs on the host PC and transfer the executable to the GPU to be run. Typically the performance advantage is only obtained by running the single active program simultaneously on many example problems in parallel, using the GPU's SIMD architecture.[][] However, substantial acceleration can also be obtained by not compiling the programs, and instead transferring them to the GPU, to be interpreted there.[][] Acceleration can then be obtained by either interpreting multiple programs simultaneously, simultaneously running multiple example problems, or combinations of both. A modern GPU can readily simultaneously interpret hundreds of thousands of very small programs.

Some modern workstation GPUs, such as the Nvidia Quadro workstation cards using the Volta and Turing architectures, feature dedicating processing cores for tensor-based deep learning applications. In Nvidia's current series of GPUs these cores are called Tensor Cores.[] These GPUs usually have significant FLOPS performance increases, utilizing 4x4 matrix multiplication and division, resulting in hardware performance up to TFLOPS in some applications.[] These tensor cores are also supposed to appear in consumer cards running the Turing architecture, and possibly in the Navi series of consumer cards from AMD.[]

External GPU (eGPU)[edit]

An external GPU is a graphics processor located outside of the housing of the computer, similar to a large external hard drive. External graphics processors are sometimes used with laptop computers. Laptops might have a substantial amount of RAM and a sufficiently powerful central processing unit (CPU), but often lack a powerful graphics processor, and instead have a less powerful but more energy-efficient on-board graphics chip. On-board graphics chips are often not powerful enough for playing video games, or for other graphically intensive tasks, such as editing video or 3D animation/rendering.

Therefore, it is desirable to be able to attach a GPU to some external bus of a notebook. PCI Express is the only bus used for this purpose. The port may be, for example, an ExpressCard or mPCIe port (PCIe ×1, up to 5 or Gbit/s respectively) or a Thunderbolt 1, 2, or 3 port (PCIe ×4, up to 10, 20, or 40 Gbit/s respectively). Those ports are only available on certain notebook systems.[][] eGPU enclosures include their own power supply (PSU), because powerful GPUs can easily consume hundreds of watts.[]

Official vendor support for external GPUs has gained traction recently.&#; One notable milestone was Apple's decision to officially support external GPUs with MacOS High Sierra []&#; There are also several major hardware vendors (HP, Alienware, Razer) releasing Thunderbolt 3 eGPU enclosures.[][][] This support has continued to fuel eGPU implementations by enthusiasts.[]

Sales[edit]

Inmillion GPUs were shipped globally and the forecast for was million.[]

See also[edit]

Hardware[edit]

APIs[edit]

Applications[edit]

References[edit]

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Talk22 August (UTC)

External links modified[edit]

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Runtime Error [edit]

The link to the Runtime Error page is now broken, 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen. The page was deleted by User:Explicit So either the page should be restored or the information should be integrated in to this page. AdamTheWebMan (talk)13 December (UTC)

version release dates[edit]

It would be good if the article had the dates of the various releases. Bubba73You talkin' to me?27 April (UTC)

Turbo Pascal never supported the [edit]

I can see a few references on this article that state that Turbo Pascal ran on thehowever this isn't true. I have tried running versions 1, 2 and 3 on hardware and it won't work. It needs a z80 to run on cp/m Unfortunately, I can't find any reliable sources for this, but want to point it out as an area that needs improving 68000 Integrated Development Environment 2 crack serial keygen a good source can be found. LawrenceWoodman (talk)16 August (UTC)

I agree. The original Blue Label Software Pascal that Turbo Pascal was developed from was written for the Zbased Nascom 2 microcomputer and then re-written as Compas for the Zbased Gemini series of CPM microcomputers before being released as Turbo Pascal. None of these forebears were designed for or worked on based machines. That's not to say that Turbo Pascal couldn't have been rewritten to be compatible. It just seems unlikely. Hence references would be good. -- Derek Ross

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