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The Internet Archive is an American digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge". It provides free public access to. of fixing security bugs in such a model. Companies should inspect their overall SDLC to ensure that security is an integral part of the development process. A patch named Redpill was necessary to reveal the new Metro UI as well as the redesigned Start Screen, Lock Screen and apps. Several applications have tried to.

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Internet Archive

For other uses, see Internet archive (disambiguation).

For help citing the Wayback Machine (an Internet Archive service) in the English Wikipedia, see Help:Using the Wayback Machine.

"archive.org" redirects here. It is not to be confused with arXiv.org.

American non-profit organization providing archives of digital media since 1996

Coordinates: 37°46′56″N122°28′18″W / 37.782321°N 122.47161137°W / 37.782321; -122.47161137

The Internet Archive is an American digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge".[notes 2][notes 3] It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating a free and open Internet. As of November 2021, the Internet Archive holds over 33 million books and texts, 7.3 million movies, videos and TV shows, 785,000 software programs, 13,901,000 audio files, 4 million images, and 627 billion web pages in the Wayback Machine.

The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains hundreds of billions of web captures.[notes 4][3] The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

History[edit]

Headquarters in Building 116 of the Presidio of San Francisco in 2008

Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in May 1996 around the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet.[notes 5] In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities,[notes 6] though it saved the earliest pages in May 1996.[4][5] The archived content first became available to the general public in 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine.

In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archives. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Soon after that, the Archive began working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled; publicly accessible books were made available in a protected Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) format.[notes 7]

According to its website:[notes 8]

Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.

In August 2012, the Archive announced[6] that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for more than 1.3 million existing files, and all newly uploaded files.[7][8] This method is the fastest means of downloading media from the Archive, as files are served from two Archive data centers, in addition to other torrent clients which have downloaded and continue to serve the files.[7][notes 9] On November 6, 2013, the Internet Archive's headquarters in San Francisco's Richmond District caught fire,[9] destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.[10] According to the Archive, it lost a side-building housing one of 30 of its scanning centers; cameras, lights, and scanning equipment worth hundreds of thousands of dollars; and "maybe 20 boxes of books and film, some irreplaceable, most already digitized, and some replaceable".[11] The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage.[12]

An overhaul of the site was launched as beta in November 2014, and the legacy layout was removed in March 2016.[13][14]

In November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the Archive to be based somewhere in Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build a backup archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump.[15][16][17] Kahle was quoted as saying:

On November 9th in America, we woke up to a new administration promising radical change. It was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and perpetually accessible. It means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions. It means serving patrons in a world in which government surveillance is not going away; indeed it looks like it will increase. Throughout history, libraries have fought against terrible violations of privacy—where people have been rounded up simply for what they read. At the Internet Archive, we are fighting to protect our readers' privacy in the digital world.[15]

Beginning in 2017, OCLC and the Internet Archive have collaborated to make the Archive's records of digitized books available in WorldCat.[18]

Since 2018, the Internet Archive visual arts residency, which is organized by Amir Saber Esfahani and Andrew McClintock, helps connect artists with the Archive's over 48 petabytes[notes 10] of digitized materials. Over the course of the yearlong residency, visual artists create a body of work which culminates in an exhibition. The hope is to connect digital history with the arts and create something for future generations to appreciate online or off.[19] Previous artists in residence include Taravat Talepasand, Whitney Lynn, and Jenny Odell.[20]

In 2019, its headquarters in San Francisco received a bomb threat which forced a temporary evacuation of the building.[21]

The Internet Archive acquires most materials from donations,[notes 11] such as hundreds of thousands of 78 rpm discs from Boston Public Library in 2017,[22] a donation of 250,000 books from Trent University in 2018,[23] and the entire collection of Marygrove College's library in 2020 after it closed.[24] All material is then digitized and retained in digital storage, while a digital copy is returned to the original holder and the Internet Archive's copy, if not in the public domain, is lent to patrons worldwide one at a time under the controlled digital lending (CDL) theory of the first-sale doctrine.[25]

Operations[edit]

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(May 2020)

The Archive is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[26] The Internet Archive also manages periodic funding campaigns. For instance, a December 2019 campaign had a goal of reaching $6 million in donations.[citation needed]

The Archive is headquartered in San Francisco, California. From 1996 to 2009, its headquarters were in the Presidio of San Francisco, a former U.S. military base. Since 2009, its headquarters have been at 300 Funston Avenue in San Francisco, a former Christian Science Church. At one time, most of its staff worked in its book-scanning centers; as of 2019, scanning is performed by 100 paid operators worldwide.[27] The Archive also has data centers in three Californian cities: San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To reduce the risk of data loss, the Archive creates copies of parts of its collection at more distant locations, including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina[notes 12] in Egypt and a facility in Amsterdam.[28]

The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium[29] and was officially designated as a library by the state of California in 2007.[notes 13][30]

Web archiving[edit]

Main article: Web archiving

Wayback Machine[edit]

Main article: Wayback Machine

Wayback Machine logo, used since 2001

The Internet Archive capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon (specifically, Peabody's Improbable History), and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.[31] This service allows users to view some of the archived web pages. The Wayback Machine was created as a joint effort between Alexa Internet (owned by Amazon.com) and the Internet Archive when a three-dimensional index was built to allow for the browsing of archived web content.[notes 14] Millions of web sites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of web sites used to look like, to grab original source code from web sites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit web sites that no longer even exist. Not all web sites are available because many web site owners choose to exclude their sites. As with all sites based on data from web crawlers, the Internet Archive misses large areas of the web for a variety of other reasons. A 2004 paper found international biases in the coverage, but deemed them "not intentional".[32]

A purchase of additional storage at the Internet Archive
Serversat the Internet Archive headquarters in San Francisco

A "Save Page Now" archiving feature was made available in October 2013,[33] accessible on the lower right of the Wayback Machine's main page.[notes 15] Once a target URL is entered and saved, the web page will become part of the Wayback Machine.[33] Through the Internet address web.archive.org,[34] users can upload to the Wayback Machine a large variety of contents, including PDF and data compression file formats. The Wayback Machine creates a permanent local URL of the upload content, that is accessible in the web, even if not listed while searching in the http://archive.org official website.

May 12, 1996, is the date of the oldest archived pages on the archive.org WayBack Machine, such as infoseek.com.[35]

In October 2016, it was announced that the way web pages are counted would be changed, resulting in the decrease of the archived pages counts shown.[36]

In September 2020, the Internet Archive announced a partnership with Cloudflare to automatically index websites served via its "Always Online" services.[38]

Archive-It[edit]

Brewster Kahleof the Internet Archive talks about archiving operations

Created in early 2006, Archive-It[39] is a web archiving subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives. Archive-It allows the user to customize their capture or exclusion of web content they want to preserve for cultural heritage reasons. Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, browse, search, and view their archived collections.[40]

In terms of accessibility, the archived web sites are full text searchable within seven days of capture.[41] Content collected through Archive-It is captured and stored as a WARC file. A primary and back-up copy is stored at the Internet Archive data centers. A copy of the WARC file can be given to subscribing partner institutions for geo-redundant preservation and storage purposes to their best practice standards.[42] Periodically, the data captured through Archive-It is indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive.

As of March 2014[update], Archive-It had more than 275 partner institutions in 46 U.S. states and 16 countries that have captured more than 7.4 billion URLs for more than 2,444 public collections. Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, state archives, federal institutions, museums, law libraries, and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, North Carolina State Archives and Library, Stanford University, Columbia University, American University in Cairo, Georgetown Law Library, and many others.

Internet Archive Scholar[edit]

In September 2020 Internet Archive announced a new initiative to archive and preserve open access academic journals, called the "Internet Archive Scholar".[43][44] Its fulltext search index includes over 25 million research articles and other scholarly documents preserved in the Internet Archive. The collection spans from digitized copies of eighteenth century journals through the latest Open Access conference proceedings and pre-prints crawled from the World Wide Web.

General Index[edit]

In 2021, the Internet Archive announced the initial version of the General Index, a publicly available index to a collection of 107 million academic journal articles.[45][46]

Book collections[edit]

Text collection[edit]

The Internet Archive operates 33 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1,000 books a day for a total of more than 2 million books,[47] financially supported by libraries and foundations.[notes 29] As of July 2013[update], the collection included 4.4 million books with more than 15 million downloads per month.[47] As of November 2008[update], when there were approximately 1 million texts, the entire collection was greater than 0.5 petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.[48] Between about 2006 and 2008, Microsoft had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning more than 300,000 books that were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, 2008, Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.[49] Microsoft made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.[49]

An Internet Archive in-house scan ongoing

Around October 2007, Archive users began uploading public domain books from Google Book Search.[notes 30] As of November 2013[update], there were more than 900,000 Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection;[notes 31] the books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download.[50] Brewster Kahle revealed in 2013 that this archival effort was coordinated by Aaron Swartz, who with a "bunch of friends" downloaded the public domain books from Google slow enough and from enough computers to stay within Google's restrictions. They did this to ensure public access to the public domain. The Archive ensured the items were attributed and linked back to Google, which never complained, while libraries "grumbled". According to Kahle, this is an example of Swartz's "genius" to work on what could give the most to the public good for millions of people.[51]Besides books, the Archive offers free and anonymous public access to more than four million court opinions, legal briefs, or exhibits uploaded from the United States Federal Courts' PACER electronic document system via the RECAP web browser plugin. These documents had been kept behind a federal court paywall. On the Archive, they had been accessed by more than six million people by 2013.[51]

The Archive's BookReader web app,[52] built into its website, has features such as single-page, two-page, and thumbnail modes; fullscreen mode; page zooming of high-resolution images; and flip page animation.[52][53]

Number of texts for each language[edit]

Number of all texts
(December 9, 2019)
22,197,912[54]
Language Number of texts
(November 27, 2015)
English6,553,945[notes 32]
French358,721[notes 33]
German344,810[notes 34]
Spanish134,170[notes 35]
Chinese84,147[notes 36]
Arabic66,786[notes 37]
Dutch30,237[notes 38]
Portuguese25,938[notes 39]
Russian22,731[notes 40]
Urdu14,978[notes 41]
Japanese14,795[notes 42]

Number of texts for each decade[edit]

Decade Number of texts
(July 5, 2021)
1800s 82,587[notes 43]
1810s 100,048[notes 44]
1820s 151,669[notes 45]
1830s 203,287[notes 46]
1840s 239,343[notes 47]
1850s 307,302[notes 48]
1860s 322,843[notes 49]
1870s 336,637[notes 50]
1880s 445,046[notes 51]
1890s 570,017[notes 52]
Decade Number of texts
(July 5, 2021)
1900s 767,201[notes 53]
1910s 744,445[notes 54]
1920s 473,331[notes 55]
1930s 342,779[notes 56]
1940s 400,490[notes 57]
1950s 560,730[notes 58]
1960s 711,449[notes 59]
1970s 2,540,807[notes 60]
1980s 1,124,927[notes 61]
1990s 1,379,398[notes 62]

Open Library[edit]

Main article: Open Library

The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The wiki seeks to include a web page for every book ever published: it holds 25 million catalog records of editions. It also seeks to be a web-accessible public library: it contains the full texts of approximately 1,600,000 public domain books (out of the more than five million from the main texts collection), as well as in-print and in-copyright books,[55] many of which are fully readable, downloadable[56][57] and full-text searchable;[58] it offers a two-week loan of e-books in its controlled digital lending program for over 647,784 books not in the public domain, in partnership with over 1,000 library partners from 6 countries[47][59] after a free registration on the web site. Open Library is a free and open-source software project, with its source code freely available on GitHub.

The Open Library faces objections from some authors and the Society of Authors, who hold that the project is distributing books without authorization and is thus in violation of copyright laws,[60] and four major publishers initiated a copyright infringement lawsuit against the Internet Archive in June 2020 to stop the Open Library project.[61]

[edit]

Many large institutional sponsors have helped the Internet Archive provide millions of scanned publications (text items).[62] Some sponsors that have digitized large quantities of texts include the University of Toronto's Robarts Library, the University of Alberta Libraries, the University of Ottawa, the Library of Congress, Boston Library Consortium member libraries, the Boston Public Library, the Princeton Theological Seminary Library, and many others.[63]

In 2017, the MIT Press authorized the Internet Archive to digitize and lend books from the press's backlist,[64] with financial support from the Arcadia Fund.[65][66] A year later, the Internet Archive received further funding from the Arcadia Fund to invite some other university presses to partner with the Internet Archive to digitize books, a project called "Unlocking University Press Books".[67][68]

The Library of Congress has created numerous handle system identifiers that point to free digitized books in the Internet Archive.[69] The Internet Archive and Open Library are listed on the Library of Congress website as a source of e-books.[70]

Media collections[edit]

Microfilms at the Internet Archive

In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. Media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes a "Community" sub-collection (formerly named "Open Source") where general contributions by the public are stored.

Audio[edit]

Audio Archive[edit]

The Audio Archive is an audio archive that includes music, audiobooks, news broadcasts, old time radio shows, and a wide variety of other audio files. There are more than 200,000 free digital recordings in the collection. The subcollections include audio books and poetry, podcasts, non-English audio, and many others.[notes 66] The sound collections are curated by B. George, director of the ARChive of Contemporary Music.[71]

Next to the stock HTML5 audio player, Winamp-resembling Webamp is available.

Live Music Archive[edit]

Main article: Live Music Archive

The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes more than 170,000 concert recordings from independent musicians, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts, such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Also, Jordan Zevon has allowed the Internet Archive to host a definitive collection of his father Warren Zevon's concert recordings. The Zevon collection ranges from 1976 to 2001 and contains 126 concerts including 1,137 songs.[72]

The Great 78 Project[edit]

Main article: The Great 78 Project

The Great 78 Project aims to digitize 250,000 78 rpm singles (500,000 songs) from the period between 1880 and 1960, donated by various collectors and institutions. It has been developed in collaboration with the Archive of Contemporary Music and George Blood Audio, responsible for the audio digitization.[71]

Netlabels[edit]

Not to be confused with Netlabel.

The Archive has a collection of freely distributable music that is streamed and available for download via its Netlabels service. The music in this collection generally has Creative Commons-license catalogs of virtual record labels.[notes 67][73]

Images collection[edit]

This collection contains more than 3.5 million items.[74]Cover Art Archive, Metropolitan Museum of Art - Gallery Images, NASA Images, Occupy Wall StreetFlickr Archive, and USGS Maps and are some sub-collections of Image collection.

Cover Art Archive[edit]

Logo of Cover Art Archive

The Cover Art Archive is a joint project between the Internet Archive and MusicBrainz, whose goal is to make cover art images on the Internet. As of April 2021,[update] this collection contains more than 1,400,000 items.[notes 68]

Metropolitan Museum of Art images[edit]

The images of this collection are from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This collection contains more than 140,000 items.[notes 69]

NASA Images[edit]

The NASA Images archive was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive and NASA to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The IA NASA Images team worked closely with all of the NASA centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection.[75] The nasaimages.org site launched in July 2008 and had more than 100,000 items online at the end of its hosting in 2012.

Occupy Wall Street Flickr archive[edit]

This collection contains creative commons licensed photographs from Flickr related to the Occupy Wall Street movement. This collection contains more than 15,000 items.[notes 70]

USGS Maps[edit]

This collection contains more than 59,000 items from Libre Map Project.[notes 71]

Mathematical images[edit]

This collection contains mathematical images created by mathematical artist Hamid Naderi Yeganeh.[notes 72]

Machinima Archive[edit]

One of the sub-collections of the Internet Archive's Video Archive is the Machinima Archive. This small section hosts many Machinima videos. Machinima is a digital artform in which computer games, game engines, or software engines are used in a sandbox-like mode to create motion pictures, recreate plays, or even publish presentations or keynotes. The archive collects a range of Machinima films from internet publishers such as Rooster Teeth and Machinima.com as well as independent producers. The sub-collection is a collaborative effort among the Internet Archive, the How They Got Game research project at Stanford University, the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences, and Machinima.com.[notes 73]

Microfilm collection[edit]

This collection contains approximately 160,000 microfilmed items from a variety of libraries including the University of Chicago Libraries, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Alberta, Allen County Public Library, and the National Technical Information Service.[notes 74][notes 75]

Moving image collection[edit]

See also: Wikipedia list of films freely available on the Internet Archive

The Internet Archive holds a collection of approximately 3,863 feature films.[notes 76] Additionally, the Internet Archive's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels, classic cartoons, pro- and anti-war propaganda, The Video Cellar Collection, Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection, early television, and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational, and industrial films, as well as amateur and home movie collections.

Subcategories of this collection include:

  • IA's Brick Films collection, which contains stop-motion animation filmed with Lego bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films.
  • IA's Election 2004 collection, a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the 2004 United States presidential election.
  • IA's FedFlix collection, Joint Venture NTIS-1832 between the National Technical Information Service and Public.Resource.Org that features "the best movies of the United States Government, from training films to history, from our national parks to the U.S. Fire Academy and the Postal Inspectors"[notes 77]
  • IA's Independent News collection, which includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition from 2001, in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters". Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.
  • IA's September 11 Television Archive, which contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, as they unfolded on live television.[notes 78]

Open Educational Resources[edit]

Open Educational Resources is a digital collection at archive.org. This collection contains hundreds of free courses, video lectures, and supplemental materials from universities in the United States and China. The contributors of this collection are ArsDigita University, Hewlett Foundation, MIT, Monterey Institute, and Naropa University.[notes 79]

TV News Search & Borrow[edit]

TV tuners at the Internet Archive

In September 2012, the Internet Archive launched the TV News Search & Borrow service for searching U.S. national news programs.[notes 80] The service is built on closed captioning transcripts and allows users to search and stream 30-second video clips. Upon launch, the service contained "350,000 news programs collected over 3 years from national U.S. networks and stations in San Francisco and Washington D.C."[76] According to Kahle, the service was inspired by the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a similar library of televised network news programs.[77] In contrast to Vanderbilt, which limits access to streaming video to individuals associated with subscribing colleges and universities, the TV News Search & Borrow allows open access to its streaming video clips. In 2013, the Archive received an additional donation of "approximately 40,000 well-organized tapes" from the estate of a Philadelphia woman, Marion Stokes. Stokes "had recorded more than 35 years of TV news in Philadelphia and Boston with her VHS and Betamax machines."[78]

Miscellaneous collections[edit]

Brooklyn Museum[edit]

This collection contains approximately 3,000 items from Brooklyn Museum.[notes 81]

Michelson library[edit]

In December 2020, the film research library of Lillian Michelson was donated to the archive.[79]

Other services and endeavors[edit]

Physical media[edit]

A vintage wall intercom, an example of another "archived" item

Voicing a strong reaction to the idea of books simply being thrown away, and inspired by the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Kahle now envisions collecting one copy of every book ever published. "We're not going to get there, but that's our goal", he said. Alongside the books, Kahle plans to store the Internet Archive's old servers, which were replaced in 2010.[80]

Software[edit]

The Internet Archive has "the largest collection of historical software online in the world", spanning 50 years of computer history in terabytes of computer magazines and journals, books, shareware discs, FTP sites, video games, etc. The Internet Archive has created an archive of what it describes as "vintage software", as a way to preserve them.[notes 82] The project advocated for an exemption from the United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act to permit them to bypass copy protection, which was approved in 2003 for a period of three years.[notes 83] The Archive does not offer the software for download, as the exemption is solely "for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive."[81] The exemption was renewed in 2006, and in 2009 was indefinitely extended pending further rulemakings.[82] The Library reiterated the exemption as a "Final Rule" with no expiration date in 2010.[83] In 2013, the Internet Archive began to provide abandonware video games browser-playable via MESS, for instance the Atari 2600 game E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[84] Since December 23, 2014, the Internet Archive presents, via a browser-based DOSBox emulation, thousands of DOS/PC games[85][86][notes 84][87] for "scholarship and research purposes only".[notes 85][88][89] In November 2020, the Archive introduced a new emulator for Adobe Flash called Ruffle, and began archiving Flash animations and games ahead of the December 31, 2020 end-of-life for the Flash plugin across all computer systems.[90]

Table Top Scribe System[edit]

A combined hardware software system has been developed that performs a safe method of digitizing content.[notes 86][91]

Credit Union[edit]

From 2012 to November 2015, the Internet Archive operated the Internet Archive Federal Credit Union, a federal credit union based in New Brunswick, New Jersey, with the goal of providing access to low- and middle-income people. Throughout its short existence, the IAFCU experienced significant conflicts with the National Credit Union Administration, which severely limited the IAFCU's loan portfolio and concerns over serving Bitcoin firms. At the time of its dissolution, it consisted of 395 members and was worth $2.5 million.[92][93]

Controversies and legal disputes[edit]

See also: Wayback Machine § In legal evidence

The main hall of the current headquarters

Grateful Dead[edit]

In November 2005, free downloads of Grateful Dead concerts were removed from the site. John Perry Barlow identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann as the instigators of the change, according to an article in The New York Times.[94]Phil Lesh commented on the change in a November 30, 2005, posting to his personal web site:

It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead shows were taken down from Archive.org right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to be pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those who want it.[95]

A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only. Concerts have since been re-added.[notes 87]

National security letters[edit]

On May 8, 2008, it was revealed that the Internet Archive had successfully challenged an FBInational security letter asking for logs on an undisclosed user.[96][97]

On November 28, 2016, it was revealed that a second FBI national security letter had been successfully challenged that had been asking for logs on another undisclosed user.[98]

Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills[edit]

The Internet Archive blacked out its web site for 12 hours on January 18, 2012, in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act and the PROTECT IP Actbills, two pieces of legislation in the United States Congress that they claimed would "negatively affect the ecosystem of web publishing that led to the emergence of the Internet Archive". This occurred in conjunction with the English Wikipedia blackout, as well as numerous other protests across the Internet.[99]

Opposition to Google Books settlement[edit]

The Internet Archive is a member of the Open Book Alliance, which has been among the most outspoken critics of the Google Book Settlement. The Archive advocates an alternative digital library project.[100]

Nintendo Power magazine[edit]

In February 2016, Internet Archive users had begun archiving digital copies of Nintendo Power, Nintendo's official magazine for their games and products, which ran from 1988 to 2012. The first 140 issues had been collected, before Nintendo had the archive removed on August 8, 2016. In response to the take-down, Nintendo told gaming website Polygon, "[Nintendo] must protect our own characters, trademarks and other content. The unapproved use of Nintendo's intellectual property can weaken our ability to protect and preserve it, or to possibly use it for new projects".[101]

Government of India[edit]

In August 2017, the Department of Telecommunications of the Government of India blocked the Internet Archive along with other file-sharing websites, in accordance with two court orders issued by the Madras High Court,[102] citing piracy concerns after copies of two Bollywood films were allegedly shared via the service.[103] The HTTP version of the Archive was blocked but it remained accessible using the HTTPS protocol.[102]

Turkey[edit]

See also: Censorship in Turkey

On October 9, 2016, the Internet Archive was temporarily blocked in Turkey after it was used (amongst other file hosting services) by hackers to host 17 GB of leaked government emails.[104][105]

National Emergency Library[edit]

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic which closed many schools, universities, and libraries, the Archive announced on March 24, 2020 that it was creating the National Emergency Library by removing the lending restrictions it had in place for 1.4 million digitized books in its Open Library but otherwise limiting users to the number of books they could check out and enforcing their return; normally, the site would only allow one digital lending for each physical copy of the book they had, by use of an encrypted file that would become unusable after the lending period was completed. This Library would remain as such until at least June 30, 2020 or until the US national emergency was over, whichever came later.[106] At launch, the Internet Archive allowed authors and rightholders to submit opt-out requests for their works to be omitted from the National Emergency Library.[107][108][109]

The Internet Archive said the National Emergency Library addressed an "unprecedented global and immediate need for access to reading and research material" due to the closures of physical libraries worldwide.[110] They justified the move in a number of ways. Legally, they said they were promoting access to those inaccessible resources, which they claimed was an exercise in Fair Use principles. The Archive continued implementing their controlled digital lending policy that predated the National Emergency Library, meaning they still encrypted the lent copies and it was no easier for users to create new copies of the books than before. An ultimate determination of whether or not the National Emergency Library constituted Fair Use could only be made by a court. Morally, they also pointed out that the Internet Archive was a registered library like any other, that they either paid for the books themselves or received them as donations, and that lending through libraries predated copyright restrictions.[107][111]

However, the Archive had already been criticized by authors and publishers for its prior lending approach, and upon announcement of the National Emergency Library, authors (like Neil Gaiman and Chuck Wendig), publishers, and groups representing both took further issue, equating the move to copyright infringement and digital piracy, and using the COVID-19 pandemic as a reason to push the boundaries of copyright (see also: Open Library § Copyright violation accusations).[112][113][114][115] After the works of some of these authors were ridiculed in responses, the Internet Archive's Jason Scott requested that supporters of the National Emergency Library not denigrate anyone's books: "I realize there's strong debate and disagreement here, but books are life-giving and life-changing and these writers made them."[116]

Publishers' lawsuit[edit]

The operation of the National Emergency Library was part of a lawsuit filed against the Internet Archive by four major book publishers in June 2020, challenging the copyright validity of the controlled digital lending program.[61][117] In response, the Internet Archive closed the National Emergency Library on June 16, 2020, rather than the planned June 30, 2020, due to the lawsuit.[118][119] The plaintiffs, supported by the Copyright Alliance,[120] claimed in their lawsuit that the Internet Archive's actions constituted a "willful mass copyright infringement". Additionally, Senator Thom Tillis (R-North Carolina), chairman of the intellectual property subcommittee on the Senate Judiciary Committee, said in a letter to the Internet Archive that he was "concerned that the Internet Archive thinks that it – not Congress – gets to determine the scope of copyright law".[121] In August 2020 the lawsuit trial was tentatively scheduled to begin in November 2021.[122]

As part of its response to the publishers' lawsuit, in late 2020 the Archive launched a campaign called Empowering Libraries (hashtag #EmpoweringLibraries) that portrayed the lawsuit as a threat to all libraries.[123]

In December 2020, Publishers Weekly included the lawsuit among its "Top 10 Library Stories of 2020".[124]

In a 2021 preprint article, Argyri Panezi argued that the case "presents two important, but separate questions related to the electronic access to library works; first, it raises questions around the legal practice of digital lending, and second, it asks whether emergency use of copyrighted material might be fair use" and argued that libraries have a public service role to enable "future generations to keep having equal access—or opportunities to access—a plurality of original sources".[125]

Wayforward Machine[edit]

Screenshot of viewing English Wikipedia on the Wayforward Machine

In September 30, 2021. as a part of 25th anniversary, the Internet Archive launched the "Wayforward Machine", a pseudo-satirical or fictional website covered with pop-ups asking for personal information. The site was intended to depict a potential timeline of events leading to such a future, such as the repeal of Section 230 of the United States Code.[126][127] Wayforward Machine will be removed after Internet Archive's 25th anniversary.

Ceramic archivists collection[edit]

Ceramicfigures of Internet Archive employees

The Great Room of the Internet Archive features a collection of more than 100 ceramic figures representing employees of the Internet Archive. This collection, inspired by the statues of the Xian warriors in China, was commissioned by Brewster Kahle, sculpted by Nuala Creed, and is ongoing.[128]

[edit]

The Internet Archive visual arts residency,[129] organized by Amir Saber Esfahani, is designed to connect emerging and mid-career artists with the Archive's millions of collections and to show what is possible when open access to information intersects with the arts. During this one-year residency, selected artists develop a body of work that responds to and utilizes the Archive's collections in their own practice.[130]

2019 Residency Artists: Caleb Duarte, Whitney Lynn, and Jeffrey Alan Scudder.

2018 Residency Artists: Mieke Marple, Chris Sollars, and Taravat Talepasand.

2017 Residency Artists: Laura Kim, Jeremiah Jenkins, and Jenny Odell

See also[edit]

Similar projects[edit]

Other[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^"Internet Archive: About the Archive". Wayback Machine. April 8, 2000. Archived from the original on April 8, 2000. Retrieved March 13, 2016.
  2. ^"Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
  3. ^"Internet Archive: Universal Access to all Knowledge". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
  4. ^"Internet Archive: Projects". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 1, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
  5. ^"Brewster Kahle . In Scientific American". Internet Archive. November 4, 1997. Archived from the original on October 11, 1997. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  6. ^"Internet Archive: In the Collections". Wayback Machine. June 6, 2000. Archived from the original on June 6, 2000. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
  7. ^"Daisy Books for the Print Disabled"Archived January 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, February 25, 2013. Internet Archive.
  8. ^"Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". archive.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  9. ^"Welcome to Archive torrents"Archived January 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  10. ^"Used Paired Space". archive.org. March 8, 2019. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  11. ^"How do I make a physical donation to the Internet Archive?". Internet Archive Help Center. Retrieved December 4, 2020. See also: "Tag Archives: donations". Internet Archive Blogs. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  12. ^"Donation to the new Library of Alexandria in Egypt"Archived January 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine; Alexandria, Egypt; April 20, 2002. Bibliotheca AlexandrinaArchived September 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  13. ^"Internet Archive officially a library"Archived February 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, May 2, 2007. Internet Archive
  14. ^"Internet Archive. (2012). Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
  15. ^"Wayback Machine main page". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
  16. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, 2005. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
  17. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, 2006. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
  18. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 28, 2007. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
  19. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
  20. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 20, 2009. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
  21. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 30, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
  22. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on August 30, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
  23. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 14, 2002. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
  24. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
  25. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on May 31, 2015. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  26. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on September 30, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  27. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on June 1, 2017. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  28. ^"Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  29. ^Kahle, Brewster (May 23, 2008). "Books Scanning to be Publicly Funded"Archived September 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive Forums.
  30. ^"Google Books at Internet Archive"Archived October 11, 1997, at the Wayback Machine. Internet Archive.
  31. ^"List of Google scans"Archived January 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine (search). Internet Archive.
  32. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:eng OR language:"English")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 15, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  33. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:fre OR language:"French")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  34. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:ger OR language:"German")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 14, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  35. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:spa OR language:"Spanish")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  36. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:Chinese OR language:"chi") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  37. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:ara OR language:"Arabic")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  38. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:Dutch OR language:"dut") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  39. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:Portuguese OR language:"por") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  40. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:rus OR language:"Russian") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  41. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:urd OR language:"Urdu") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  42. ^"Internet Archive Search : (language:Japanese OR language:"jpn") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  43. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1800-01-01 TO 1809-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  44. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1810-01-01 TO 1819-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  45. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1820-01-01 TO 1829-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  46. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1830-01-01 TO 1839-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  47. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1840-01-01 TO 1849-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  48. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1850-01-01 TO 1859-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  49. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1860-01-01 TO 1869-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 13, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  50. ^"Internet Archive Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1870-01-01 TO 1879-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  51. ^
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Answer
Hi Broke. I'm Greg, an installation specialist, 10 year Windows MVP, and Volunteer Moderator here to help you.

Do not interrupt the Disk Check. If it's hanging like that it likely means it moved data off of a bad sector to repair the file system and then move it back or block out that space from use. This is serious and can even lead to disk failure.

So if it doesn't complete by tomorrow morning, you can turn it off by holding in the power button until it cuts power, let it cool down, then start it up to see what happens.

Whether or not it starts, Test the hard drive or SSD with diagnostics:
https://www.lifewire.com/free-hard-drive-testin...
https://mashtips.com/ssd-health-test-and-perfor...

Best is to use the HDD/SSD manufacturer's own if there is one, otherwise use Seatools bootable long test: http://blog.nowherelan.com/2013/04/04/boot-seat... If WIndows won't start you'll likely need to use this.

Follow this up with a full Disk Check from the Command Prompt in Repair Mode or from bootable media: https://www.groovypost.com/howto/check-hard-dri... if necessary from the Command Prompt at boot: https://www.tenforums.com/tutorials/2294-advanc...

If the disk is failing, I'd replace it with an SSD which is the best Upgrade one can have - lightning fast, faster than a new higher-end PC without one - especially if you do the gold standard Clean Install in this link which compiles the best possible install which will stay that way as long as you stick with the tools and methods given, has zero reported problems, and is better than any amount of money could buy: http://answers.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/wiki...

To create bootable Windows 10 Installation Media (on another PC if necessary) install Media Creation Tool and follow the directions in the middle of the download page here: https://www.microsoft.com/en-hk/software-downlo...

Insert media, boot it by powering up PC while pressing the BIOS Boot Menu Key for your PC maker given in this chart: https://www.sysnative.com/forums/hardware-tutor...

If the media won't boot you may need to enter BIOS/UEFI Setup (pressing key given in chart in link above) to turn off Fast Boot or Fast Startup first.

Choose the boot device as a UEFI device if offered, then on second screen choose Install Now, then Custom Install, then at the drive selection screen delete all partitions down to Unallocated Space to get it cleanest, select the Unallocated Space, click Next to let it create and format the needed partitions and start install - this makes it foolproof.

There is a step to rescue your files first using the booted media if you don't have them backed up: http://answers.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/wiki...

You will get and keep the best possible install to the exact extent you stick with the steps, tools and methods in the linked tutorial. It's a better install than any amount of money could buy and a great learning experience that will make you the master of your PC because you will learn everything that works best and how to apply it with your own hands.

I hope this helps. Feel free to ask back any questions and let us know how it goes. I will keep working with you until it's resolved.

________________________________________________________
Standard Disclaimer: There are links to non-Microsoft websites. The pages appear to be providing accurate, safe information. Watch out for ads on the sites that may advertise products frequently classified as a PUP (Potentially Unwanted Products). Thoroughly research any product advertised on the sites before you decide to download and install it.
_________________

Windows MVP 2010-20

Millions helped via my tutorials and personally in forums for 12 years. Now an Independent Advisor.

I do not quit for those who are polite and cooperative.

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Windows 8

Personal computer operating system by Microsoft released in 2012

Windows 8 logo and wordmark.svg
Windows 8 Start Screen.png

Windows 8 Start screen, showing default live tile arrangement.

DeveloperMicrosoft
Source model
Released to
manufacturing
August 1, 2012; 9 years ago (2012-08-01)[2]
General
availability
October 26, 2012; 9 years ago (2012-10-26)[3]
Latest release6.2.9200 / December 13, 2016; 4 years ago (2016-12-13)
Update methodWindows Update, Windows Store, Windows Server Update Services
PlatformsIA-32, x86-64, ARM (Windows RT)
Kernel typeHybrid
UserlandWindows API, NTVDM
LicenseTrialware, Microsoft Software Assurance, MSDN subscription, DreamSpark
Preceded byWindows 7 (2009)
Succeeded byWindows 8.1 (2013)
Official websitewindows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows-8/meet (archived at Wayback Machine)
All editions except Windows Embedded 8 Standard:
  • Unsupported as of January 12, 2016
  • Users must install the Windows 8.1 update for their edition or Windows 10 in order to continue to receive updates and support.[4]

Windows Embedded 8 Standard:

Windows 8 is a major release of the Windows NToperating system developed by Microsoft. The product was released to manufacturing on August 1, 2012, and generally to retail on October 26, 2012.[6] Windows 8 was made available for download via MSDN and TechNet and available as an upgrade to all Windows 7 users via Windows Update.[citation needed]

Windows 8 introduced major changes to the operating system's platform and user interface intended to improve its user experience on tablets, where Windows was now competing with mobile operating systems, including Android and iOS.[7] In particular, these changes included a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft's "Metro"design language and the Start screen (which displays programs and dynamically updated content on a grid of tiles), a new platform for developing "apps" with an emphasis on touchscreen input, integration with online services (including the ability to synchronize apps and settings between devices), and Windows Store, an online distribution for downloading and purchasing new software, and a new keyboard shortcut for screenshots.[8] Many of these features were adoptions from Windows Phone. Windows 8 added support for USB 3.0, Advanced Format hard drives, near field communications, and cloud computing. Additional security features were introduced, such as built-in antivirus software, integration with Microsoft SmartScreenphishing filtering service and support for UEFI Secure Boot on supported devices with UEFI firmware, to prevent malware from infecting the boot process.

Windows 8 is the first version of Windows to support the ARM architecture, under the Windows RT branding.

Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, and improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was widely criticized for being potentially confusing and difficult to learn, especially when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen. Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses were sold through January 2013, a number that included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs.[9]

Microsoft released Windows 8.1 in October 2013, addressing some aspects of Windows 8 that were criticized by reviewers and early adopters and incorporated additional improvements to various aspects of the operating system.[10][11] Windows 8 was ultimately succeeded by Windows 10 in July 2015. Support for IE10 on Windows Server 2012[12][13] and Windows Embedded 8 Standard[14] ended on January 31, 2020. Market share had fallen to 1.06% by October 2020.[15]

In August 2019, computer experts reported that the BlueKeepsecurity vulnerability, CVE-2019-0708, that potentially affects older unpatched Microsoft Windows versions via the program's Remote Desktop Protocol, allowing for the possibility of remote code execution, may now include related flaws, collectively named DejaBlue, affecting newer Windows versions (i.e., Windows 7 and all recent versions).[16] In addition, experts reported a Microsoftsecurity vulnerability, CVE-2019-1162, based on legacy code involving Microsoft CTF and ctfmon (ctfmon.exe), that affects all Windows versions from the older Windows XP version to the most recent Windows 10 versions; a patch to correct the flaw is currently available.[17]

Development history[edit]

Early development[edit]

Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009.[18] At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARMsystem-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors, especially AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise."[19][20][21][22] Details also began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML (similarly to Windows Phone and Silverlight) that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store.[23]

The earliest build of Windows 8 is build 7700, compiled in January 2010.[24] The build was identical to Windows 7 except for the wallpaper being different - the same one from the Beta and Release Candidate. In addition, there were references to Windows 8 in this build.

In late 2010, an optional 3D desktop user interface for high-end systems named "Wind" was rumored.[25]

Two milestone releases of Windows 8 and one of Windows Server 2012leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011.[26] It was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was also probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, and its wallpaper had the text shhh. let's not leak our hard work. However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010.[27] The leaked copy was Enterprise edition, with other editions leaking later. In 2020, it was discovered that Metro existed in this build, after enabling the 'Redpill'. The start screen was very primitive, being a white screen with gray tiles. The charms bar was also included, but was unusable. The OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011. The traditional Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) was replaced by a new black screen,[28] although it was later reverted to a different blue color. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. The "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". Both builds 7850 and 7955 leaked alongside Windows Server 2012 build 7959. On June 17, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked. It introduced a new boot screen featuring the same Betta fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, which was later replaced, and the circling dots as featured in the final (although the final version comes with smaller circling dots throbber). It also had the text Welcome below them, although this was scrapped.[29] The boot screen was not new to this build though - it came from build 7973, a slightly earlier build. It is worth mentioning that most of these leaks "hid" the main Metro UI features that were to come in tweak known as Redlock in order to prevent relevant leaks. A patch named Redpill was necessary to reveal the new Metro UI as well as the redesigned Start Screen, Lock Screen and apps.[citation needed] Several applications have tried to replicate this patch as closely as possible, although one called Redlock is the most accurate, supporting the enabling of builds' Metro UI from 7850-8056. It also worked on the Developer Preview.

This build also leaked in the x86 architecture as a debug build, with the setup having a slight change - the theme was now Windows Basic in setup, rather than Classic.

Build 8008 was the first build to remove the User Tile. A new wallpaper was introduced and Metro was updated to be more like the final version of Windows 8.

On June 1, 2011, Microsoft unveiled Windows 8's new user interface, as well as additional features at both Computex Taipei and the D9: All Things Digital conference in California.[30][31]

The "Building Windows 8" blog launched on August 15, 2011, featuring details surrounding Windows 8's features and its development process.[32]

Previews[edit]

A screenshot of Windows Developer Preview running on a multi-monitor system, showcasing some features

As Windows 8 transitioned away from being in the Milestone phase of development, the Developer Preview was beginning to take shape.

Build 8032 changed the branding to Windows Developer Preview and was the last build to use Windows 7 branding anywhere.

Build 8056 introduced several changes to the interface and small stability improvements. Metro was updated to be more like the Metro in Developer Preview (although it was still different) and a new wallpaper was introduced.

Microsoft unveiled more Windows 8 features and improvements on the first day of the Build conference on September 13, 2011.[33] Microsoft released the first public beta build of Windows 8, Windows Developer Preview (build 8102) at the event. A Samsung tablet running the build was also distributed to conference attendees.

The build was released for download later that day in standard 32-bit and 64-bit variants, plus a special 64-bit variant which included SDKs and developer tools (Visual Studio Express and Expression Blend) for developing Metro-style apps.[34] The Windows Store was announced during the presentation, but was not available in this build.[35][36] According to Microsoft, there were about 535,000 downloads of the developer preview within the first 12 hours of its release.[37] Originally set to expire on March 11, 2012, in February 2012 the Developer Preview's expiry date was changed to January 15, 2013.[38]

The new File Explorer interface with "Ribbon" in Windows 8

The next step was the Consumer Preview, sometimes called Windows 8 Beta in the builds before it.

Build 8118 is the earliest leaked post-Developer Preview build. This build disables Redpill, and Metro can be manually enabled through the editing of system files.

Build 8128 removed Redpill, and Metro was enabled by default with no way to disable it (although build 8102 is being distributed by Microsoft with Redpill already applied and can be disabled with a registry key[39]).[40]

Build 8176 featured new branding - Windows 8 Beta. The Consumer Preview wallpapers have now been added, and the setup color has been changed to be the same as the final Consumer Preview.

Build 8195 is largely the same as 8176, although it removes the Start Button from the taskbar. While the start button could be removed in early Milestone 2 (and this persisted through Windows 8 development) with a registry key, this build disabled it by default with no way to turn it back on. The branding is now identical to the Consumer Preview.

On February 17, 2012, Microsoft unveiled a new logo to be adopted for Windows 8. Designed by Pentagram partner Paula Scher, the Windows logo was changed to resemble a set of four window panes. Additionally, the entire logo is now rendered in a single solid color.[41]

On February 29, 2012, Microsoft released Windows 8 Consumer Preview, the beta version of Windows 8, build 8250. Alongside other changes, the build brought over the big change from build 8195: removing the Start button from the taskbar for the first time in a public build since its debut on Windows 95; according to Windows manager Chaitanya Sareen, the Start button was removed to reflect their view that on Windows 8, the desktop was an "app" itself, and not the primary interface of the operating system.[42][43] Windows president Steven Sinofsky said more than 100,000 changes had been made since the developer version went public.[43] The day after its release, Windows 8 Consumer Preview had been downloaded over one million times.[44] Like the Developer Preview, the Consumer Preview expired on January 15, 2013.

Development on the third and final preview of Windows 8, the Release Preview, began shortly after Consumer Preview (note: build 8277 was compiled on February 8, 2012, before 8250[45][46]). Build 8330 was a build in between the Consumer and Release Previews. This build includes a new default wallpaper and several changes, such as the new logo replacing the old one and appearing in the About Windows dialog box.

Many other builds may exist or were released until Japan's Developers Day conference when Steven Sinofsky announced that Windows 8 Release Preview (build 8400) would be released during the first week of June.[47] On May 28, 2012, Windows 8 Release Preview (Standard Simplified Chinese x64 edition, not China-specific variant, build 8400) was leaked online on various Chinese and BitTorrent websites.[48] On May 31, 2012, Windows 8 Release Preview was released to the public by Microsoft.[49] Major items in the Release Preview included the addition of Sports, Travel, and News apps, along with an integrated variant of Adobe Flash Player in Internet Explorer.[50] Like the Developer Preview and the Consumer Preview, the release preview expired on January 15, 2013.

Release[edit]

Windows 8 launch event at Pier 57in New York City

With the Release Preview of Windows 8 finished, Microsoft began work on the final release.

Build 8423 is the last leaked build to contain Aero. It was dropped in build 8432 and seen for two builds after 8423.

Build 8438 removed Desktop Gadgets. It was identical to 8432, which removed Aero. This build and the x86 variant of build 8330 were built in the interestingly named 'fbl_ie_longhorn' branch.

Build 8888 was leaked in December 2014, and was identical to the RTM with the exception of the timebomb and missing apps.

On August 1, 2012, Windows 8 (build 9200[51]) was released to manufacturing with the build number 6.2.9200.16384.[52] Microsoft planned to hold a launch event on October 25, 2012[53] and release Windows 8 for general availability on the next day.[54] However, only a day after its release to manufacturing, a copy of the final version of Windows 8 Enterprise N (a variant for European markets which lacks bundled media players to comply with an antitrust ruling) leaked online, followed by leaks of the final versions of Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise a few days later.[55][56] On August 15, 2012, Windows 8 was made available to download for MSDN and TechNet subscribers.[57] Windows 8 was made available to Software Assurance customers on August 16, 2012.[58] Windows 8 was made available for students with a DreamSpark Premium subscription on August 22, 2012, earlier than advertised.[59] Windows 8 became generally available for download to all MSDN and TechNet customers on August 15 and for retail purchase on October 26, 2012.

Relatively few changes were made from the Release Preview to the final version; these included updated versions of its pre-loaded apps, the renaming of Windows Explorer to File Explorer, the replacement of the Aero Glass theme from Windows Vista and 7 with a new flat and solid-color theme as seen in build 8432, and the addition of new background options for the Start screen, lock screen, and desktop.[60] Prior to its general availability on October 26, 2012, updates were released for some of Windows 8's bundled apps, and a "General Availability Cumulative Update" (which included fixes to improve performance, compatibility, and battery life) was released on Tuesday, October 9, 2012. Microsoft indicated that due to improvements to its testing infrastructure, general improvements of this nature are to be released more frequently through Windows Update instead of being relegated to OEMs and service packs only.[61][62]

Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012.[7] Microsoft's advertising budget of US$1.5–1.8 billion was significantly larger than the US$200 million campaign used to promote Windows 95.[63] As part of its campaign, Microsoft set up 34 pop-up stores inside malls to showcase the Surface product line, provided training for retail employees in partnership with Intel, and collaborated with the electronics store chain Best Buy to design expanded spaces to showcase devices. In an effort to make retail displays of Windows 8 devices more "personal", Microsoft also developed a character known in English-speaking markets as "Allison Brown", whose fictional profile (including personal photos, contacts, and emails) is also featured on demonstration units of Windows 8 devices.[64] All Windows 7 PCs plan to offer a new Windows 8 upgrade on December 31, 2012, and Microsoft upgraded it as a product of currently supported Windows 7 PCs in January 2013 via Windows Update.

Windows 8 Pro DVD case, containing a 32-bit and a 64-bit installation disc

In May 2013, Microsoft launched a new television campaign for Windows 8 illustrating the capabilities and pricing of Windows 8 tablets in comparison to the iPad, which featured the voice of Siri remarking on the iPad's limitations in a parody of Apple's "Get a Mac" advertisements.[65][66] On June 12, 2013 during game 1 of the 2013 Stanley Cup Finals, Microsoft premiered the first ad in its "Windows Everywhere" campaign, which promoted Windows 8, Windows Phone 8, and the company's suite of online services as an interconnected platform.[67][68]

New and changed features[edit]

Main article: Features new to Windows 8

New features and functionality in Windows 8 include a faster startup through UEFI integration and the new "Hybrid Boot" mode (which hibernates the Windows kernel on shutdown to speed up the subsequent boot),[69] a new lock screen with a clock and notifications,[70] and the ability for enterprise users to create live USB variants of Windows (known as Windows To Go).[71][72] Windows 8 also adds native support for USB 3.0 devices, which allow for faster data transfers and improved power management with compatible devices,[73][74] and hard disk 4KB Advanced Format support,[75] as well as support for near field communication to facilitate sharing and communication between devices.[76]

Windows Explorer, which has been renamed File Explorer, now includes a ribbon in place of the command bar. File operation dialog boxes have been updated to provide more detailed statistics, the ability to pause file transfers, and improvements in the ability to manage conflicts when copying files.[77] A new "File History" function allows incremental revisions of files to be backed up to and restored from a secondary storage device,[78] while Storage Spaces allows users to combine different sized hard disks into virtual drives and specify mirroring, parity, or no redundancy on a folder-by-folder basis.[79] For easier management of files and folders, Windows 8 introduces the ability to move selected files or folders via drag and drop from a parent folder into a subfolder listed within the breadcrumb hierarchy of the address bar in File Explorer.[80]

Task Manager has been redesigned, including a new processes tab with the option to display fewer or more details of running applications and background processes, a heat map using different colors indicating the level of resource usage, network and disk counters, grouping by process type (e.g. applications, background processes and Windows processes), friendly names for processes and a new option which allows users to search the web to find information about obscure processes.[81] Additionally, the Blue Screen of Death has been updated with a simpler and modern design with less technical information displayed.[82][83]

Safety and security[edit]

New security features in Windows 8 include two new authentication methods tailored towards touchscreens (PINs and picture passwords),[84] the addition of antivirus capabilities to Windows Defender (bringing it in parity with Microsoft Security Essentials).[85]SmartScreen filtering integrated into Windows,[86]Family Safety offers Parental controls, which allows parents to monitor and manage their children's activities on a device with activity reports and safety controls.[87][88][89] Windows 8 also provides integrated system recovery through the new "Refresh" and "Reset" functions,[90] including system recovery from USB drive.[91] Windows 8's first security patches would be released on November 13, 2012; it would contain three fixes deemed "critical" by the company.[92]

Windows 8 supports a feature of the UEFI specification known as "Secure boot", which uses a public-key infrastructure to verify the integrity of the operating system and prevent unauthorized programs such as bootkits from infecting the device's boot process.[93] Some pre-built devices may be described as "certified" by Microsoft; these must have secure boot enabled by default, and provide ways for users to disable or re-configure the feature. ARM-based Windows RT devices must have secure boot permanently enabled.[94][95][96]

Online services and functionality[edit]

Windows 8 provides heavier integration with online services from Microsoft and others. A user can now log into Windows with a Microsoft account, which can be used to access services and synchronize applications and settings between devices. Windows 8 also ships with a client app for Microsoft's SkyDrivecloud storage service, which also allows apps to save files directly to SkyDrive. A SkyDrive client for the desktop and File Explorer is not included in Windows 8, and must be downloaded separately.[97] Bundled multimedia apps are provided under the Xbox brand, including Xbox Music, Xbox Video, and the Xbox SmartGlass companion for use with an Xbox 360 console. Games can integrate into an Xbox Live hub app, which also allows users to view their profile and Gamerscore.[98] Other bundled apps provide the ability to link Flickr and Facebook.[99] Due to Facebook Connect service changes, Facebook support is disabled in all bundled apps effective June 8, 2015.[100]

Internet Explorer 10 is included as both a desktop program and a touch-optimized app, and includes increased support for HTML5, CSS3, and hardware acceleration. The Internet Explorer app does not support plugins or ActiveX components, but includes a variant of Adobe Flash Player that is optimized for touch and low power usage. Initially, Adobe Flash would only work on sites included on a "Compatibility View" whitelist; however, after feedback from users and additional compatibility tests, an update in March 2013 changed this behavior to use a smaller blacklist of sites with known compatibility issues instead, allowing Flash to be used on most sites by default.[101] The desktop variant does not contain these limitations.[102]

Windows 8 also incorporates improved support for mobile broadband; the operating system can now detect the insertion of a SIM card and automatically configure connection settings (including APNs and carrier branding), and reduce its Internet usage to conserve bandwidth on metered networks. Windows 8 also adds an integrated airplane mode setting to globally disable all wireless connectivity as well. Carriers can also offer account management systems through Windows Store apps, which can be automatically installed as a part of the connection process and offer usage statistics on their respective tile.[103]

Windows Store apps[edit]

Snap feature: Xbox Music, alongside Photos snapped into a sidebarto the right side of the screen
Snap feature: Desktop, along Wikipedia Appsnapped into a sidebar to the right side of the screen. In Windows 8, desktop and everything on it is treated as one Metro-style app.

Windows 8 introduces a new style of application, Windows Store apps. According to Microsoft developer Jensen Harris, these apps are to be optimized for touchscreen environments and are more specialized than current desktop applications. Apps can run either in a full-screen mode or be snapped to the side of a screen.[104] Apps can provide toast notifications on screen or animate their tiles on the Start screen with dynamic content. Apps can use "contracts"; a collection of hooks to provide common functionality that can integrate with other apps, including search and sharing.[104] Apps can also provide integration with other services; for example, the People app can connect to a variety of different social networks and services (such as Facebook, Skype, and People service), while the Photos app can aggregate photos from services such as Facebook and Flickr.[99]

Windows Store apps run within a new set of APIs known as Windows Runtime, which supports programming languages such as C, C++, Visual Basic .NET, C#, along with HTML5 and JavaScript.[104] If written in some "high-level" languages, apps written for Windows Runtime can be compatible with both Intel and ARM variants of Windows,[105] otherwise they are not binary code compatible. Components may be compiled as Windows Runtime Components, permitting consumption by all compatible languages.[106] To ensure stability and security, apps run within a sandboxed environment, and require permissions to access certain functionality, such as accessing the Internet or a camera.[107]

Retail variants of Windows 8 are only able to install these apps through Windows Store — a namesake distribution platform that offers both apps, and listings for desktop programs certified for comparability with Windows 8.[105][107] A method to sideload apps from outside Windows Store is available to devices running Windows 8 Enterprise and joined to a domain; Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT devices that are not part of a domain can also sideload apps, but only after special product keys are obtained through volume licensing.[108]

The term "Immersive app" had been used internally by Microsoft developers to refer to the apps prior to the first official presentation of Windows 8, after which they were referred to as "Metro-style apps" in reference to the Metro design language. The term was phased out in August 2012; a Microsoft spokesperson denied rumors that the change was related to a potential trademark issue, and stated that "Metro" was only a codename that would be replaced prior to Windows 8's release.[23][109] Following these reports, the terms "Modern UI-style apps",[110] "Windows 8-style apps"[111] and "Windows Store apps" began to be used by various Microsoft documents and material to refer to the new apps. In an interview on September 12, 2012, Soma Somasegar (vice president of Microsoft's development software division) confirmed that "Windows Store apps" would be the official term for the apps.[112] An MSDN page explaining the Metro design language uses the term "Modern design" to refer to the language as a whole.[113]

Web browsers[edit]

Exceptions to the restrictions faced by Windows Store apps are given to web browsers. The user's default browser can distribute a Metro-style web browser in the same package as the desktop variant, which has access to functionality unavailable to other apps, such as being able to permanently run in the background, use multiple background processes, and use Windows API code instead of WinRT (allowing for code to be re-used with the desktop variant, while still taking advantage of features available to Windows Store apps, such as charms). Microsoft advertises this exception privilege "New experience enabled" (formerly "Metro-style enabled").

The developers of both Chrome and Firefox committed to developing Metro-style variants of their browsers; while Chrome's "Windows 8 mode" (discontinued on Chrome version 49) uses a full-screen version of the existing desktop interface, Firefox's variant (which was first made available on the "Aurora" release channel in September 2013) uses a touch-optimized interface inspired by the Android variant of Firefox. In October 2013, Chrome's app was changed to mimic the desktop environment used by Chrome OS.[114][115][116][117][118][119] Development of the Firefox app for Windows 8 has since been cancelled, citing a lack of user adoption for the beta versions.[120]

Interface and desktop[edit]

Windows 8 introduces significant changes to the operating system's user interface, many of which are aimed at improving its experience on tablet computers and other touchscreen devices. The new user interface is based on Microsoft's Metro design language and uses a Start screen similar to that of Windows Phone 7 as the primary means of launching applications. The Start screen displays a customizable array of tiles linking to various apps and desktop programs, some of which can display constantly updated information and content through "live tiles".[104] As a form of multi-tasking, apps can be snapped to the side of a screen.[104] Alongside the traditional Control Panel, a new simplified and touch-optimized settings app known as "PC Settings" is used for basic configuration and user settings. It does not include many of the advanced options still accessible from the normal Control Panel.[121]

A vertical toolbar known as the charms[122] (accessed by swiping from the right edge of a touchscreen, swiping from the right edge of a touchpad, or pointing the cursor at hotspots in the right corners of a screen) provides access to system and app-related functions, such as search, sharing, device management, settings, and a Start button.[122][123] The traditional desktop environment for running desktop applications is accessed via a tile on the Start screen. The Start button on the taskbar from previous versions of Windows has been converted into a hotspot (or "hot corner") in the lower-left corner of the screen, which displays a large tooltip displaying a thumbnail of the Start screen. However, Windows 8.1 added the start button back to the taskbar after many complaints, but removed the preview thumbnail.[124][125] Swiping from the left edge of a touchscreen or clicking in the top-left corner of the screen allows one to switch between apps and Desktop. Pointing the cursor in the top-left corner of the screen and moving down reveals a thumbnail list of active apps.[125] Aside from the removal of the Start button and the replacement of the Aero Glass theme with a flatter and solid-colored design, the desktop interface on Windows 8 is similar to that of Windows 7.[126]

Removed features[edit]

Main article: List of features removed in Windows 8

Several notable features were removed in Windows 8; support for playing DVD-Video was removed from Windows Media Player due to the cost of licensing the necessary decoders (especially for devices which do not include optical disc drives at all) and the prevalence of online streaming services. For the same reasons, Windows Media Center is not included by default on Windows 8, but Windows Media Center and DVD playback support could be purchased in the "Pro Pack" (which upgrades the system to Windows 8 Pro) or "Media Center Pack" add-on for Windows 8 Pro. As with prior versions, third-party DVD player software can still be used to enable DVD playback.[127]

Backup and Restore, the backup component of Windows, was deprecated. It still shipped with Windows 8 and continues to work on preset schedules, but it was pushed to the background and can only be accessed through a Control Panel applet called "Windows 7 File Recovery".[128]: 76 Shadow Copy, a component of Windows Explorer that once saved previous versions of changed files, no longer protects local files and folders. It can only access previous versions of shared files stored on a Windows Server computer.[128]: 74  The subsystem on which these components worked, however, is still available for other software to use.[128]: 74 

Hardware requirements[edit]

PCs[edit]

The minimum system requirements for Windows 8 are slightly higher than those of Windows 7. The CPU must support the Physical Address Extension (PAE), NX bit, and SSE2. Windows Store apps require a screen resolution of 1024×768 or higher to run; a resolution of 1366×768 or higher is required to use the snap functionality.[129] To receive certification, Microsoft requires candidate x86 systems to resume from standby in 2 seconds or less.[130]

Microsoft's Connected Standby specification, which hardware vendors may optionally comply with, sets new power consumption requirements that extend above the above minimum specifications.[134] Included in this standard are a number of security-specific requirements designed to improve physical security, notably against Cold Boot Attacks.

32-bit SKUs of Windows 8 only support a maximum of 4 GB of RAM. 64-bit SKUs, however support more: Windows 8 x64 supports 128 GB while Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise x64 support 512 GB.[135]

In January 2016, Microsoft announced that it would no longer support Windows 8.1 or 7 on devices using Intel's Skylake CPU family effective July 17, 2018, and that all future CPU microarchitectures, as well as Skylake systems after this date, would only be supported on Windows 10. After the deadline, only critical security updates were to be released for users on these platforms.[136][137][138][139] After this new policy faced criticism from users and enterprise customers, Microsoft partially retracted the change and stated that both operating systems would remain supported on Skylake hardware through the end of their Extended support lifecycle. Windows 8.1 remains officially unsupported on all newer CPU families, and neither AMD or Intel will provide official chipset drivers for Windows operating systems other than Windows 10.[140][141] However, on August 2016, Microsoft again extended the Skylake support policy until the end of support for Windows 7 and 8.1 (2020 and 2023, respectively).[142][141]

Tablets and convertibles[edit]

Microsoft released minimum hardware requirements for tablet and laplet devices to be "certified" for Windows 8 and defined a convertible form factor as a standalone device that combines the PC, display, and rechargeable power source with a mechanically attached keyboard and pointing device in a single chassis. A convertible can be transformed into a tablet where the attached input devices are hidden or removed leaving the display as the only input mechanism.[143][144] On March 12, 2013, Microsoft amended its certification requirements to only require that screens on tablets have a minimum resolution of 1024×768 (down from the previous 1366×768). The amended requirement is intended to allow "greater design flexibility" for future products.[145]

Graphics cardDirectX 10 graphics device with WDDM 1.2 or higher driver
Storage10 GB free space, after the out-of-box experience completes
Standard buttons , , , ,
ScreenTouch screen supporting a minimum of 5-point digitizers and resolution of at least 1024×768. The physical dimensions of the display panel must match the aspect ratio of the native resolution. The native resolution of the panel can be greater than 1024 (horizontally) and 768 (vertically). Minimum native color depth is 32-bits. If the display is under 1366×768, disclaimers must be included in documentation to notify users that the Snap function is not available.[145]
Camera Minimum 720p
Accelerometer3 axes with data rates at or above 50 Hz
USB 2.0At least one controller and exposed port.
Connect Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 4.0 + LE (low energy)
Other Speaker, microphone, magnetometer and gyroscope.

If a mobile broadband device is integrated into a tablet or convertible system, then an assisted GPS radio is required. Devices supporting near field communication need to have visual marks to help users locate and use the proximity technology. The new button combination for Ctrl + Alt + Del is Windows Key + Power.

Updated certification requirements were implemented to coincide with Windows 8.1. As of 2014, all certified devices with integrated displays must contain a 720p webcam and higher quality speakers and microphones, while all certified devices that support Wi-Fi must support Bluetooth as well. As of 2015, all certified devices must contain Trusted Platform Module 2.0 chips.[147][148]

Editions[edit]

Main article: Windows 8 editions

Windows 8 is available in three different editions, of which the lowest edition, branded simply as Windows 8, and Windows 8 Pro, were sold at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers. Each edition of Windows 8 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and add additional features oriented towards their market segments. For example, Pro added BitLocker, Hyper-V, the ability to join a domain, and the ability to install Windows Media Center as a paid add-on. Users of Windows 8 can purchase a "Pro Pack" license that upgrades their system to Windows 8 Pro through Add features to Windows. This license also includes Windows Media Center.[149][150][151]Windows 8 Enterprise contains additional features aimed towards business environments, and is only available through volume licensing.[151] A port of Windows 8 for ARM architecture, Windows RT, is marketed as an edition of Windows 8, but was only included as pre-loaded software on devices specifically developed for it.[151]

Windows 8 was distributed as a retail box product on DVD, and through a digital download that could be converted into DVD or USB install media. As part of a launch promotion, Microsoft offered Windows 8 Pro upgrades at a discounted price of US$39.99 online, or $69.99 for retail box from its launch until January 31, 2013; afterward the Windows 8 price has been $119.99 and the Pro price $199.99.[152][153] Those who purchased new PCs pre-loaded with Windows 7 Home Basic, Home Premium, Professional, or Ultimate between June 2, 2012 and January 31, 2013 could digitally purchase a Windows 8 Pro upgrade for US$14.99.[154] Several PC manufacturers offered rebates and refunds on Windows 8 upgrades obtained through the promotion on select models, such as Hewlett-Packard (in the U.S. and Canada on select models), and Acer (in Europe on selected Ultrabook models).[155][156] During these promotions, the Windows Media Center add-on for Windows 8 Pro was also offered for free.[149]

Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows 8 was distributed at retail in "Upgrade" licenses only, which require an existing version of Windows to install. The "full version software" SKU, which was more expensive but could be installed on computers without an eligible OS or none at all, was discontinued. In lieu of full version, a specialized "System Builder" SKU was introduced. The "System Builder" SKU replaced the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) SKU, which was only allowed to be used on PCs meant for resale but added a "Personal Use License" exemption that officially allowed its purchase and personal use by users on homebuilt computers.[157][158][159]

Retail distribution of Windows 8 has since been discontinued in favor of Windows 8.1. Unlike 8, 8.1 is available as "full version software" at both retail and online for download that does not require a previous version of Windows in order to be installed. Pricing for these new copies remain identical.[160] With the retail release returning to full version software for Windows 8.1, the "Personal Use License" exemption was removed from the OEM SKU, meaning that end users building their own PCs for personal use must use the full retail variant in order to satisfy the Windows 8.1 licensing requirements.[157]Windows 8.1 with Bing is a special OEM-specific SKU of Windows 8.1 subsidized by Microsoft's Bing search engine.[161]

Software compatibility[edit]

The three desktop editions of Windows 8 support 32-bit and 64-bit architectures; retail copies of Windows 8 include install DVDs for both architectures, while the online installer automatically installs the variant corresponding with the architecture of the system's existing Windows installation.[149][162] The 32-bit variant runs on CPUs compatible with x86 architecture 3rd generation (known as IA-32) or newer, and can run 32-bit and 16-bitapplications, although 16-bit support must be enabled first.[163][164] (16-bit applications are developed for CPUs compatible with x86 2nd generation, first conceived in 1978. Microsoft started moving away from this architecture after Windows 95.[163])

The 64-bit variant runs on CPUs compatible with x86 8th generation (known as x86-64, or x64) or newer, and can run 32-bit and 64-bit programs. 32-bit programs and operating system are restricted to supporting only 4 gigabytes of memory while 64-bit systems can theoretically support 2048 gigabytes of memory.[165] 64-bit operating systems require a different set of device drivers than those of 32-bit operating systems.[165]

Windows RT, the only edition of Windows 8 for systems with ARM processors, only supports applications included with the system (such as a special variant of Office 2013), supplied through Windows Update, or Windows Store apps, to ensure that the system only runs applications that are optimized for the architecture. Windows RT does not support running IA-32 or x64 applications.[166] Windows Store apps can either support both the x86 and ARM architectures, or compiled to support a specific architecture.[167]

Reception[edit]

Pre-release[edit]

Following the unveiling of Windows 8, Microsoft faced criticism (particularly from free software supporters) for mandating that devices receiving its optional certification for Windows 8 have secure boot enabled by default using a key provided by Microsoft. Concerns were raised that secure boot could prevent or hinder the use of alternate operating systems such as Linux. In a post discussing secure boot on the Building Windows 8 blog, Microsoft developer Tony Mangefeste indicated that vendors would provide means to customize secure boot, stating that "At the end of the day, the customer is in control of their PC. Microsoft's philosophy is to provide customers with the best experience first, and allow them to make decisions themselves."[94][168] Microsoft's certification guidelines for Windows 8 ultimately revealed that vendors would be required to provide means for users to re-configure or disable secure boot in their device's UEFI firmware. It also revealed that ARM devices (Windows RT) would be required to have secure boot permanently enabled, with no way for users to disable it. However, Tom Warren of The Verge noted that other vendors have implemented similar hardware restrictions on their own ARM-based tablet and smartphone products (including those running Microsoft's own Windows Phone platform), but still argued that Microsoft should "keep a consistent approach across ARM and x86, though, not least because of the number of users who'd love to run Android alongside Windows 8 on their future tablets."[95][96][169] No mandate is made regarding the installation of third-party certificates that would enable running alternative programs.[170][171][172]

Several notable video game developers criticized Microsoft for making its Windows Store a closed platform subject to its own regulations, as it conflicted with their view of the PC as an open platform. Markus "Notch" Persson (creator of the indie gameMinecraft),[173]Gabe Newell (co-founder of Valve and developer of software distribution platform Steam),[174] and Rob Pardo from Activision Blizzard voiced concern about the closed nature of the Windows Store.[175] However, Tom Warren of The Verge stated that Microsoft's addition of the Store was simply responding to the success of both Apple and Google in pursuing the "curated application store approach."[176]

Critical reception[edit]

Reviews of the various editions of Windows 8 were mixed to negative. Tom Warren of The Verge said that although Windows 8's emphasis on touch computing was significant and risked alienating desktop users, he felt that Windows 8 tablets "[make] an iPad feel immediately out of date" due to the capabilities of the operating system's hybrid model and increased focus on cloud services.[176] David Pierce of The Verge described Windows 8 as "the first desktop operating system that understands what a computer is supposed to do in 2012" and praised Microsoft's "no compromise" approach and the operating system's emphasis on Internet connectivity and cloud services. Pierce also considered the Start Screen to be a "brilliant innovation for desktop computers" when compared with "folder-littered desktops on every other OS" because it allows users to interact with dynamic information.[177] In contrast, an ExtremeTech article said it was Microsoft "flailing"[178] and a review in PC Magazine condemned the Metro-style user interface.[179] Some of the included apps in Windows 8 were considered to be basic and lacking in functionality, but the Xbox apps were praised for their promotion of a multi-platform entertainment experience. Other improvements and features (such as File History, Storage Spaces, and the updated Task Manager) were also regarded as positive changes.[176] Peter Bright of Ars Technica wrote that while its user interface changes may overshadow them, Windows 8's improved performance, updated file manager, new storage functionality, expanded security features, and updated Task Manager were still positive improvements for the operating system. Bright also said that Windows 8's duality towards tablets and traditional PCs was an "extremely ambitious" aspect of the platform as well, but criticized Microsoft for emulating Apple's model of a closed distribution platform when implementing the Windows Store.[180]

The interface of Windows 8 has been the subject of negative reaction. Bright wrote that its system of hot corners and edge swiping "wasn't very obvious" due to the lack of instructions provided by the operating system on the functions accessed through the user interface, even by the video tutorial added on the RTM release (which only instructed users to point at corners of the screen or swipe from its sides). Despite this "stumbling block", Bright said that Windows 8's interface worked well in some places, but began to feel incoherent when switching between the "Metro" and desktop environments, sometimes through inconsistent means.[180] Tom Warren of The Verge wrote that the new interface was "as stunning as it is surprising", contributing to an "incredibly personal" experience once it is customized by the user, but had a steep learning curve, and was awkward to use with a keyboard and mouse. He noted that while forcing all users to use the new touch-oriented interface was a risky move for Microsoft as a whole, it was necessary in order to push development of apps for the Windows Store.[176] Others, such as Adrian Kingsley-Hughes from ZDNet, considered the interface to be "clumsy and impractical" due to its inconsistent design (going as far as considering it "two operating systems unceremoniously bolted together"), and concluded that "Windows 8 wasn't born out of a need or demand; it was born out of a desire on Microsoft's part to exert its will on the PC industry and decide to shape it in a direction—touch and tablets – that allows it to compete against, and remain relevant in the face of Apple's iPad."[181]

In 2013, Frank X. Shaw, a Microsoft corporate vice president, said that while many of the negative reviews were extreme, it was a "good thing" that Microsoft was "listening to feedback and improving a product".[182]

The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) reported a decline in Microsoft's customer satisfaction, the lowest it has been since Windows Vista.[183]

Market share and sales[edit]

Microsoft says that 4 million users upgraded to Windows 8 over the weekend after its release,[184][185] which CNET says was well below Microsoft's internal projections and was described inside the company as disappointing.[186]

On November 27, 2012, Microsoft announced that it had sold 40 million licenses of Windows 8 in the first month, surpassing the pace of Windows 7.[187]

However, according to research firm NPD, sales of devices running Windows in the United States had declined 21 percent compared to the same time period in 2011.[188] As the holiday shopping season wrapped up, Windows 8 sales continued to lag, even as Apple reported brisk sales.[189] The market research firm IDC reported an overall drop in PC sales for the quarter, and said the drop may have been partly due to consumer reluctance to embrace the new features of the OS and poor support from OEM for these features.[190] This capped the first year of declining PC sales to the Asia Pacific region, as consumers bought more mobile devices than Windows PCs.[191]

Windows 8 surpassed Windows Vista in market share with a 5.1% usage rate according to numbers posted in July 2013 by Net Applications, with usage on a steady upward trajectory.[192] However, intake of Windows 8 still lagged behind that of Windows Vista and Windows 7 at the same point in their release cycles. Windows 8's tablet market share also grew steadily, with 7.4% of tablets running Windows in Q1 2013 according to Strategy Analytics, up from nothing just a year before. However, this was still well below Android and iOS, which posted 43.4% and 48.2% market share respectively, although both operating systems had been on the market much longer than Windows 8.[193] Strategy Analytics also noted "a shortage of top tier apps" for Windows tablets despite Microsoft strategy of paying developers to create apps for the operating system (in addition to for Windows Phone).[193]

In March 2013, Microsoft also amended its certification requirements to allow tablets to use the 1024×768 resolution as a minimum; this change is expected to allow the production of certified Windows 8 tablets in smaller form factors—a market which is currently dominated by Android-based tablets.[145] Despite the reaction of industry experts, Microsoft reported that they had sold 100 million licenses in the first six months. This matched sales of Windows 7 over a similar period.[194] This statistic includes shipments to channel warehouses which now need to be sold in order to make way for new shipments.[195]

In January 2014, Hewlett-Packard began a promotion for desktops running Windows 7, saying that it was "back by popular demand". Outside sources have suggested that this might be because HP or its customers thought the Windows 8 platform would be more appropriate for mobile computing than desktop computing, or that they were looking to attract customers forced to switch from XP who wanted a more familiar interface.[196][197]

In February 2014, Bloomberg reported that Microsoft would be lowering the price of Windows 8 licenses by 70% for devices that retail under US$250; alongside the announcement that an update to the operating system would allow OEMs to produce devices with as little as 1 GB of RAM and 16 GB of storage, critics felt that these changes would help Windows compete against Linux-based devices in the low-end market, particularly those running Chrome OS. Microsoft had similarly cut the price of Windows XP licenses to compete against the early waves of Linux-based netbooks.[198][199] Reports also indicated that Microsoft was planning to offer cheaper Windows 8 licenses to OEMs in exchange for setting Internet Explorer's default search engine to Bing. Some media outlets falsely reported that the SKU associated with this plan, "Windows 8.1 with Bing", was a variant which would be a free or low-cost variant of Windows 8 for consumers using older versions of Windows.[200] On April 2, 2014, Microsoft ultimately announced that it would be removing license fees entirely for devices with screens smaller than 9 inches,[201] and officially confirmed the rumored "Windows 8.1 with Bing" OEM SKU on May 23, 2014.[161]

On the information gathered by Net Applications, adoption rate in March 2015 for Windows 8.1 was at 10.55%, while the original Windows 8 was at 3.52%.[202]

Chinese government ban[edit]

In May 2014, the Government of China banned the internal purchase of Windows 8-based products under government contracts requiring "energy-efficient" devices. The Xinhua News Agency claimed that Windows 8 was being banned in protest of Microsoft's support lifecycle policy and the end of support for Windows XP (which, as of January 2014, had a market share of 49% in China), as the government "obviously cannot ignore the risks of running an OS without guaranteed technical support." However, Ni Guangnan of the Chinese Academy of Sciences had also previously warned that Windows 8 could allegedly expose users to surveillance by the United States government due to its heavy use of Internet-based services.[203][204][205][206]

In June 2014, state broadcasterChina Central Television (CCTV) broadcast a news story further characterizing Windows 8 as a threat to national security. The story featured an interview with Ni Guangnan, who stated that operating systems could aggregate "sensitive user information" that could be used to "understand the conditions and activities of our national economy and society", and alleged that per documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the U.S. government had worked with Microsoft to retrieve encrypted information. Yang Min, a computer scientist at Fudan University, also stated that "the security features of Windows 8 are basically to the benefit of Microsoft, allowing them control of the users' data, and that poses a big challenge to the national strategy for information security." Microsoft denied the claims in a number of posts on the Chinese social network Sina Weibo, which stated that the company had never "assisted any government in an attack of another government or clients" or provided client data to the U.S. government, never "provided any government the authority to directly visit" or placed any backdoors in its products and services, and that it had never concealed government requests for client data.[207][208][209]

Windows 8.1[edit]

Main article: Windows 8.1

A feature update to Windows 8 known as Windows 8.1 was officially announced by Microsoft on May 14, 2013.[210][211] Following a presentation devoted to it at Build 2013, a public beta version of the upgrade was released on June 26, 2013.[212][213] Windows 8.1 was released to OEM hardware partners on August 27, 2013, and released publicly as a free upgrade through Windows Store on October 17, 2013.[160][214][215] Volume license customers and subscribers to MSDN Plus and TechNet Plus were initially unable to obtain the RTM version upon its release; a spokesperson said the policy was changed to allow Microsoft to work with OEMs "to ensure a quality experience at general availability."[216][217] However, after criticism, Microsoft reversed its decision and released the RTM build on MSDN and TechNet on September 9, 2013.[218]

Windows 8.1 addressed a number of criticisms faced by Windows 8 upon its release, with additional customization options for the Start screen, the restoration of a visible Start button on the desktop, the ability to snap up to four apps on a single display, and the ability to boot to the desktop instead of the Start screen. Windows 8's stock apps were also updated, a new Bing-based unified search system was added, SkyDrive was given deeper integration with the operating system, and a number of new stock apps, along with a tutorial, were added.[11][219][220][221] Windows 8.1 also added support for 3D printing,[222][223]Miracast media streaming, NFC printing, and Wi-Fi Direct.[224]

Microsoft marketed Windows 8.1 as an "update" rather than as a "service pack", as it had done with such revisions on previous versions of Windows.[225] Nonetheless, Microsoft's support lifecycle policy treats Windows 8.1 similarly to previous Windows service packs: upgrading to 8.1 has been required to maintain access to mainstream support and updates after January 12, 2016.[4][226][227] Although Windows 8 RTM is unsupported, Microsoft released an emergency security patch in May 2017 for Windows 8 RTM, as well as other unsupported versions of Windows (including Windows XP and Windows Server 2003), to address a vulnerability that was being leveraged by the WannaCry ransomware attack.[228][229] Updates to apps published on Windows Store after July 1, 2019 will not be available to Windows 8 RTM users.[230]

Retail and OEM installations of Windows 8, Windows 8 Pro, and Windows RT can be upgraded through Windows Store free of charge. However, volume license customers, TechNet or MSDN subscribers and users of Windows 8 Enterprise must acquire a standalone installation media for 8.1 and install through the traditional Windows setup process, either as an in-place upgrade or clean install. This requires an 8.1 specific product key.[231][232][233][234]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

I'm running Windows XP Home Edition (SP1) on a DELL Inspiron laptop.  I thought I had the computer well-protected from malware but recently, I began noticing suspicious symptoms coinciding with changing my anti-virus software from AVG to McAfee Enterprise provided by my company and upgrading Ad-Aware SE Personal to AdAware 2007.

 

The symptoms include numerous ads popping up while using Internet Explorer, frequently causing IE to hang and become unresponsive to the End Task command; many strange .exe processes showing in Task Manager, sometimes multiple processes with the same name; sometimes I run AdAware scans, delete the problems, run the scan again, and the same problems are identified again; general slowness and frequently the Desktop Explorer itself becomes unresponsive.

 

I tried following the steps outlined by DELL (Journal ID: 07248GSKWM, Article ID: 277075).  In particular, I downloaded Spybot Search & Destroy and immunized.  I also tried searching for Windows and IE updates, especially SP2.  The updater found 63 updates!  I downloaded these successfully, but during the installation phase, IE froze on 8 of 63 (Windows Messenger update) and I had to force a restart.  After restarting, I tried again to update and a dialog box appeared saying I didn't have privileges to update and that I should contact my system administrator (ME!---albeit not a very good one apparently).  Moreover, I can't even find or access my Control Panels anymore!  (What happened?)  As a last resort, I tried reinstalling Windows from the disk that came with the computer.  Although this was successful, I still can't see the Control Panels in the Start menu and all of the aformentioned problems persist.

 

I'd be most appreciative if you could help me:

(i) diagnose and fix the problem and, just as important

(ii) help me with a strategy (software and software settings) that will provide me comprehensive protection (assuming I keep everything current going forward---virus defs., immunizations, Windows security patches, etc.)

 

Appended below is my Hijack this log.  Thanks in advance for your help.

 

Logfile of Trend Micro HijackThis v2.0.2
Scan saved at 9:26:25 AM, on 9/3/2007
Platform: Windows XP SP1 (WinNT 5.01.2600)
MSIE: Internet Explorer v6.00 SP1 (6.00.2800.1106)
Boot mode: Normal

Running processes:
C:\WINDOWS\System32\smss.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\csrss.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\winlogon.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\services.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\lsass.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\svchost.exe
C:\WINDOWS\System32\svchost.exe
C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\iexplore.exe
C:\WINDOWS\System32\svchost.exe
C:\WINDOWS\System32\svchost.exe
C:\Program Files\Lavasoft\Ad-Aware 2007\aawservice.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\spoolsv.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\cisvc.exe
C:\Program Files\McAfee\Common Framework\FrameworkService.exe
C:\Program Files\McAfee\VirusScan Enterprise\Mcshield.exe
C:\Program Files\McAfee\VirusScan Enterprise\VsTskMgr.exe
C:\Program Files\McAfee\Common Framework\naPrdMgr.exe
C:\WINDOWS\System32\svchost.exe
C:\WINDOWS\Explorer.exe
C:\Program Files\Common Files\Real\Update_OB\realsched.exe
C:\Program Files\McAfee\VirusScan Enterprise\SHSTAT.EXE
C:\Program Files\McAfee\Common Framework\UdaterUI.exe
C:\Program Files\iTunes\iTunesHelper.exe
C:\Program Files\Lavasoft\Ad-Aware 2007\AAWTray.exe
C:\Program Files\Synaptics\SynTP\SynTPLpr.exe
C:\Program Files\Synaptics\SynTP\SynTPEnh.exe
C:\WINDOWS\avp.exe
C:\WINDOWS\mgrs.exe
C:\Documents and Settings\Annie Fowler\My Documents\?racle\userinit.exe
C:\Program Files\McAfee\Common Framework\McTray.exe
C:\Program Files\iPod\bin\iPodService.exe
C:\WINDOWS\System32\alg.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\cidaemon.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\cidaemon.exe
C:\Program Files\Trend Micro\HijackThis\HijackThis.exe
C:\WINDOWS\System32\wbem\wmiprvse.exe

R0 - HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Main,Local Page = about:blank
R1 - HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings,ProxyOverride = localhost
R0 - HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Toolbar,LinksFolderName =
R3 - Default URLSearchHook is missing
F2 - REG:system.ini: Shell=Explorer.exe C:\WINDOWS\System32\printer.exe
O2 - BHO: (no name) - {53707962-6F74-2D53-2644-206D7942484F} - C:\PROGRA~1\Spybot\SDHelper.dll
O2 - BHO: IEHlprObj Class - {ABCDECF0-4B15-11D1-ABED-709549C10000} - C:\WINDOWS\System32\vtr.dll
O3 - Toolbar: &Google - {2318C2B1-4965-11d4-9B18-009027A5CD4F} - c:\program files\google\googletoolbar3.dll
O3 - Toolbar: &Radio - {8E718888-423F-11D2-876E-00A0C9082467} - C:\WINDOWS\System32\msdxm.ocx
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [Win32 NT Adv Services] taskmngr.exe
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [Camra Updates] serviceswu.exe
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [TkBellExe] "C:\Program Files\Common Files\Real\Update_OB\realsched.exe" -osboot
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [Adobe Reader Speed Launcher] "C:\Program Files\Adobe\Reader 8.0\Reader\Reader_sl.exe"
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [ShStatEXE] "C:\Program Files\McAfee\VirusScan Enterprise\SHSTAT.EXE" /STANDALONE
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [McAfeeUpdaterUI] "C:\Program Files\McAfee\Common Framework\UdaterUI.exe" /StartedFromRunKey
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [QuickTime Task] "C:\Program Files\QuickTime\qttask.exe" -atboottime
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [iTunesHelper] "C:\Program Files\iTunes\iTunesHelper.exe"
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [AAWTray] C:\Program Files\Lavasoft\Ad-Aware 2007\AAWTray.exe
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [spoolsvv] C:\WINDOWS\System32\spoolsvv.exe
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [WinAVX] C:\WINDOWS\System32\WinAvXX.exe
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [PCTVOICE] pctspk.exe
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [SynTPLpr] C:\Program Files\Synaptics\SynTP\SynTPLpr.exe
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [SynTPEnh] C:\Program Files\Synaptics\SynTP\SynTPEnh.exe
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [ATIModeChange] Ati2mdxx.exe
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [avp] C:\WINDOWS\avp.exe
O4 - HKLM\..\Run: [smgr] mgrs.exe
O4 - HKLM\..\RunServices: [Camra Updates] serviceswu.exe
O4 - HKLM\..\RunServices: [Win32 NT Adv Services] taskmngr.exe
O4 - HKCU\..\Run: [Camra Updates] serviceswu.exe
O4 - HKCU\..\Run: [MsnMsgr] "C:\Program Files\MSN Messenger\MsnMsgr.Exe" /background
O4 - HKCU\..\Run: [Sfl] "C:\Documents and Settings\Annie Fowler\My Documents\?racle\userinit.exe"
O4 - HKCU\..\Run: [autoload] C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\svchost.exe
O4 - HKCU\..\Run: [autorun] C:\Documents and Settings\Annie Fowler\svchost.exe
O4 - HKCU\..\Run: [Aida] "C:\PROGRA~1\CROSOF~1\ati2evxx.exe" -vt ndrv
O4 - HKCU\..\Run: [Brave-Sentry] C:\Program Files\BraveSentry\BraveSentry.exe
O4 - HKCU\..\Run: [WinAVX] C:\WINDOWS\System32\WinAvXX.exe
O4 - HKCU\..\Run: [Apeo] "C:\WINDOWS\SCURIT~1\winlogon.exe" -vt ndrv
O4 - HKUS\S-1-5-18\..\Run: [USB Driver4] UpdateXP2.exe (User 'SYSTEM')
O4 - HKUS\S-1-5-18\..\Run: [Camra Updates] serviceswu.exe (User 'SYSTEM')
O4 - HKUS\S-1-5-18\..\Run: [USBDrives] msfirewalI.exe (User 'SYSTEM')
O4 - HKUS\S-1-5-18\..\Run: [Microsoft Windows Update XP64] xefamgzs.exe (User 'SYSTEM')
O4 - HKUS\S-1-5-18\..\RunOnce: [LSASS32] ISASS32.EXE (User 'SYSTEM')
O4 - HKUS\S-1-5-18\..\RunServices: [Microsoft Windows Update XP64] xefamgzs.exe (User 'SYSTEM')
O4 - HKUS\.DEFAULT\..\Run: [USB Driver4] UpdateXP2.exe (User 'Default user')
O4 - HKUS\.DEFAULT\..\RunOnce: [LSASS32] ISASS32.EXE (User 'Default user')
O4 - HKUS\.DEFAULT\..\RunServices: [Microsoft Windows Update XP64] xefamgzs.exe (User 'Default user')
O6 - HKCU\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Control Panel present
O7 - HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System, DisableRegedit=1
O9 - Extra button: AIM - {AC9E2541-2814-11d5-BC6D-00B0D0A1DE45} - C:\Program Files\AIM\aim.exe
O9 - Extra button: Real.com - {CD67F990-D8E9-11d2-98FE-00C0F0318AFE} - C:\WINDOWS\System32\Shdocvw.dll
O9 - Extra button: MoneySide - {E023F504-0C5A-4750-A1E7-A9046DEA8A21} - C:\Program Files\Microsoft Money\System\mnyside.dll
O15 - Trusted Zone: http://*.turbotax.com
O16 - DPF: {17492023-C23A-453E-A040-C7C580BBF700} (Windows Genuine Advantage Validation Tool) - http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=39204
O16 - DPF: {6414512B-B978-451D-A0D8-FCFDF33E833C} (WUWebControl Class) - http://update.microsoft.com/microsoftupdate/v6/V5Controls/en/x86/client/wuweb_site.cab?1188195863193
O16 - DPF: {6E32070A-766D-4EE6-879C-DC1FA91D2FC3} (MUWebControl Class) - http://update.microsoft.com/microsoftupdate/v6/V5Controls/en/x86/client/muweb_site.cab?1188195832018
O16 - DPF: {B64F4A7C-97C9-11DA-8BDE-F66BAD1E3F3A} - http://www.winantispyware.com/download/2007/download.php?file=2&aid=rrdef1_11_asr&lid=1034&affid=3
O17 - HKLM\System\CCS\Services\Tcpip\..\{29BE81B5-D22F-410B-9B8D-8F8AEF6CC5FA}: NameServer = 85.255.116.146,85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CCS\Services\Tcpip\..\{3F50266D-7178-4E23-9E55-E4F2BBE8B86A}: NameServer = 85.255.116.146,85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CCS\Services\Tcpip\..\{B68AACF7-76E8-41B1-A977-7A28EAC38788}: NameServer = 85.255.116.146,85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CS1\Services\Tcpip\Parameters: NameServer = 85.255.116.146 85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CS1\Services\Tcpip\..\{29BE81B5-D22F-410B-9B8D-8F8AEF6CC5FA}: NameServer = 85.255.116.146,85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CS2\Services\Tcpip\Parameters: NameServer = 85.255.116.146 85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CS2\Services\Tcpip\..\{29BE81B5-D22F-410B-9B8D-8F8AEF6CC5FA}: NameServer = 85.255.116.146,85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CCS\Services\Tcpip\Parameters: NameServer = 85.255.116.146 85.255.112.196
O20 - AppInit_DLLs: c:\windows\system32\pmkjifc.dll
O20 - Winlogon Notify: 0 ¸ À - 0 ¸ À (file missing)
O20 - Winlogon Notify: botreg - C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\Settings\bot.dll
O20 - Winlogon Notify: DPCDFR - C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DPCDFR.dll
O20 - Winlogon Notify: instcat - C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\instcat.dll
O21 - SSODL: CDVfQUB - {E4DC5B2C-4E76-F186-6D41-2218BC043068} - C:\WINDOWS\System32\nzmal.dll (file missing)
O23 - Service: Ad-Aware 2007 Service (aawservice) - Lavasoft AB - C:\Program Files\Lavasoft\Ad-Aware 2007\aawservice.exe
O23 - Service: Ati HotKey Poller - Unknown owner - C:\WINDOWS\System32\Ati2evxx.exe (file missing)
O23 - Service: Google Updater Service (gusvc) - Google - C:\Program Files\Google\Common\Google Updater\GoogleUpdaterService.exe
O23 - Service: InstallDriver Table Manager (IDriverT) - Macrovision Corporation - C:\Program Files\Common Files\InstallShield\Driver\11\Intel 32\IDriverT.exe
O23 - Service: iPod Service - Apple Inc. - C:\Program Files\iPod\bin\iPodService.exe
O23 - Service: McAfee Framework Service (McAfeeFramework) - McAfee, Inc. - C:\Program Files\McAfee\Common Framework\FrameworkService.exe
O23 - Service: McAfee McShield (McShield) - McAfee, Inc. - C:\Program Files\McAfee\VirusScan Enterprise\Mcshield.exe
O23 - Service: McAfee Task Manager (McTaskManager) - McAfee, Inc. - C:\Program Files\McAfee\VirusScan Enterprise\VsTskMgr.exe
O23 - Service: ScsiAccess - Unknown owner - C:\WINDOWS\System32\ScsiAccess.EXE (file missing)
O23 - Service: Windows Management Service - Unknown owner - C:\WINDOWS\System32\.exe (file missing)
O23 - Service: WLTRYSVC - Unknown owner - C:\WINDOWS\System32\wltrysvc.exe (file missing)

--
End of file - 9050 bytes

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Windows 8

Personal computer operating system by Microsoft released in 2012

Windows 8 logo and wordmark.svg
Windows 8 Start Screen.png

Windows 8 Start screen, showing default live tile arrangement.

DeveloperMicrosoft
Source model
Released to
manufacturing
August 1, 2012; 9 years ago (2012-08-01)[2]
General
availability
October 26, 2012; 9 years ago (2012-10-26)[3]
Latest release6.2.9200 / December 13, 2016; 4 years ago (2016-12-13)
Update methodWindows Update, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, Windows Store, Windows Server Update Services
PlatformsIA-32, x86-64, ARM (Windows RT)
Kernel typeHybrid
UserlandWindows API, NTVDM
LicenseTrialware, Microsoft Software Assurance, MSDN subscription, DreamSpark
Preceded byWindows 7 (2009)
Succeeded byWindows 8.1 (2013)
Official websitewindows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows-8/meet (archived at Wayback Machine)
All editions except Windows Embedded 8 Standard:
  • Unsupported as of January 12, 2016
  • Users must install the Windows 8.1 update for their edition or Windows 10 in order to continue to receive updates and support.[4]

Windows Embedded 8 Standard:

Windows 8 is a major release of the Windows NToperating system developed by Microsoft. The product was released to manufacturing on August 1, 2012, and generally to retail on October 26, 2012.[6] Windows 8 was made available for download via MSDN and TechNet USB Redirector 6.12 With Crack Full Version [Latest 2021] available as an upgrade to all Windows 7 users via Windows Update.[citation needed]

Windows 8 introduced major changes to the operating system's platform and user interface intended to improve its user experience on tablets, where Windows was now competing with mobile operating systems, including Android and iOS.[7] In particular, these changes included a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft's "Metro"design language and the Start screen (which displays programs and dynamically updated content on a grid of tiles), a new platform for developing "apps" with an emphasis on touchscreen input, integration with online services (including the ability to synchronize apps and settings between devices), and Windows Store, an online distribution for downloading and purchasing new software, and a new keyboard shortcut for screenshots.[8] Many of these features were adoptions from Windows Phone. Windows 8 added support for USB 3.0, Advanced Format hard drives, near field communications, and cloud computing. Additional security features were introduced, such as built-in antivirus software, integration with Microsoft SmartScreenphishing filtering service and support for UEFI Secure Boot on supported devices with UEFI firmware, to prevent malware from infecting the boot process.

Windows 8 is the first version of Windows to support the ARM architecture, under the Windows RT branding.

Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, and improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was widely criticized for being potentially confusing and difficult Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks learn, especially when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen. Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses were sold through January 2013, a number that included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs.[9]

Microsoft released Windows 8.1 in October 2013, addressing some aspects of Windows 8 that were criticized by reviewers and early adopters and incorporated additional improvements to various aspects of the operating system.[10][11] Windows 8 was ultimately succeeded by Windows 10 in July 2015. Support for IE10 on Windows Server 2012[12][13] and Windows Embedded 8 Standard[14] ended on January 31, 2020. Market share had fallen to 1.06% by October 2020.[15]

In August 2019, computer experts reported that the BlueKeepsecurity vulnerability, CVE-2019-0708, that potentially affects older unpatched Microsoft Windows versions via the program's Remote Desktop Protocol, allowing for the possibility of remote code execution, may now include related flaws, collectively named DejaBlue, affecting newer Windows versions (i.e., Windows 7 and all recent versions).[16] In addition, experts reported a Microsoftsecurity vulnerability, CVE-2019-1162, based on legacy code involving Microsoft CTF and ctfmon (ctfmon.exe), that affects all Windows versions from the older Windows XP version to the most recent Windows 10 versions; a patch to correct the flaw is currently available.[17]

Development history[edit]

Early development[edit]

Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009.[18] At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARMsystem-on-chips Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks the existing x86 processors produced by vendors, especially AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise."[19][20][21][22] Details also began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML (similarly to Windows Phone and Silverlight) that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store.[23]

The earliest build of Windows 8 is build 7700, compiled in January 2010.[24] The build was identical to Windows 7 except for the wallpaper being different - the same one from the Beta and Release Candidate. In addition, there were references to Windows 8 in this build.

In late 2010, an optional 3D desktop user interface for high-end systems named "Wind" was Euro Truck Simulator 2 Crack Latest Version Archives milestone releases of Windows 8 and one of Windows Server 2012leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011.[26] It was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was also probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, and its wallpaper had the text shhh. let's not leak our hard work. However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010.[27] The leaked copy was Enterprise edition, with other editions leaking later. In 2020, it was discovered that Metro existed in this build, after enabling the 'Redpill'. The start screen was very primitive, being a white screen with gray tiles. The charms bar was also included, but was unusable. The OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011. Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks traditional Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) was replaced by a new black screen,[28] although it was later Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks to a different blue color. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. The "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". Both builds 7850 and 7955 leaked alongside Windows Server 2012 build 7959. On June 17, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked. It introduced a new boot screen featuring the same Betta fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, which was later replaced, and the circling dots as featured in the final (although the final version comes with smaller circling dots throbber). It also had the text Welcome below them, although this was scrapped.[29] The boot screen was not new to this build though - it came from build 7973, a slightly earlier build. It is worth mentioning that most of these leaks "hid" the main Metro UI features that were to come in tweak known as Redlock in order to prevent relevant leaks. A patch named Redpill Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks necessary to reveal the new Metro UI as well as the redesigned Start Screen, Lock Screen and apps.[citation needed] Several applications have tried to replicate this patch as closely as possible, although one called Redlock is the most accurate, supporting the enabling of builds' Metro UI from 7850-8056. It also worked on Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks Developer Preview.

This build also leaked in the x86 architecture as a debug build, with the setup having a slight change - the theme was now Windows Basic in setup, rather than Classic.

Build 8008 was the first build to remove the User Tile. A new wallpaper was introduced and Metro was updated to be more like the final version of Windows 8.

On June 1, 2011, Microsoft unveiled Windows 8's new user interface, as well as additional features at both Computex Taipei and the D9: All Things Digital conference in California.[30][31]

The "Building Windows 8" blog launched on August 15, 2011, featuring details surrounding Windows 8's features and its development process.[32]

Previews[edit]

A screenshot of Windows Developer Preview running on a multi-monitor system, showcasing some features

As Windows 8 transitioned away from being in the Milestone phase of development, the Developer Preview was beginning to take shape.

Build 8032 changed the branding to Windows Developer Preview and was the last build to use Windows 7 branding anywhere.

Build 8056 introduced several changes to the interface and small stability improvements. Metro was updated to be more like the Metro in Developer Preview (although it was still different) and a new wallpaper was introduced.

Microsoft unveiled more Windows 8 features and improvements on the first day of the Build conference on September 13, 2011.[33] Microsoft released the first public beta build of Windows 8, Windows Developer Preview (build 8102) at the event. A Samsung tablet running the build was also distributed to conference attendees.

The build was released for download later that day in standard 32-bit and 64-bit variants, plus a special 64-bit variant which included SDKs and developer tools (Visual Studio Express and Expression Blend) for developing Metro-style apps.[34] The Windows Store was announced during the presentation, but was not available in this build.[35][36] According to Microsoft, there were about 535,000 downloads of the developer preview within the first 12 hours of its release.[37] Originally set to expire on March 11, 2012, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, in February 2012 the Developer Preview's expiry date was changed to January 15, 2013.[38]

The new File Explorer interface with "Ribbon" in Windows 8

The next step was the Consumer Preview, sometimes called Windows 8 Beta in the builds before it.

Build 8118 is the earliest leaked post-Developer Preview build. This build disables Redpill, and Metro can be manually enabled through the editing of system files.

Build 8128 removed Redpill, and Metro was enabled by default with no way to disable it (although build 8102 is being distributed by Microsoft with Redpill already applied and can be disabled with a registry key[39]).[40]

Build 8176 featured new branding - Windows 8 Beta. The Consumer Preview wallpapers have now been added, and the setup color has been changed to be the same as the final Consumer Preview.

Build 8195 is largely the same as 8176, although it removes the Start Button from the taskbar. While the start button could be removed in early Milestone 2 (and this persisted through Windows 8 development) with a registry key, this build disabled it by default with no way to turn it back on. The branding is now identical to the Consumer Preview.

On February 17, 2012, Microsoft unveiled a new logo to be adopted for Windows 8. Designed by Pentagram partner Paula Scher, the Windows logo was changed to resemble a set of four window panes. Additionally, the entire logo is now rendered in a single solid color.[41]

On February 29, 2012, Microsoft released Windows 8 Consumer Preview, the beta version of Windows 8, build 8250. Alongside other changes, the build brought over the big change from build 8195: removing the Start button from the taskbar for the first time in a public build since its debut on Windows 95; according to Windows manager Chaitanya Sareen, the Start button was removed to reflect their view that on Windows 8, the desktop was an "app" itself, and not the primary interface of the operating system.[42][43] Windows president Steven Sinofsky said more than 100,000 changes had been made since the developer version went public.[43] The day after its release, Windows 8 Consumer Preview had been downloaded over one million times.[44] Like the Developer Preview, the Consumer Preview expired on January 15, 2013.

Development on the third and final preview of Windows 8, the Release Preview, began shortly after Consumer Preview (note: build 8277 was compiled on February 8, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, 2012, before 8250[45][46]). Build 8330 was a build in between the Consumer and Release Previews. This build includes a new default wallpaper and several changes, such as the new logo replacing the old one and appearing in the About Windows dialog box.

Many other builds may exist or were released until Japan's Developers Day conference when Steven Sinofsky announced that Windows 8 Release Preview (build 8400) would be released during the first week of June.[47] On May 28, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, 2012, Windows 8 Release Preview (Standard Simplified Chinese x64 edition, not China-specific variant, build 8400) was leaked online on various Chinese and BitTorrent websites.[48] On May 31, 2012, Windows 8 Release Preview was released to the public by Microsoft.[49] Major items in the Release Preview included the addition of Sports, Travel, and News apps, along with an integrated variant of Adobe Flash Player in Internet Explorer.[50] Like the Developer Preview and the Consumer Preview, the release preview expired on January 15, 2013.

Release[edit]

Windows 8 launch event at Pier 57in New York City

With the Release Preview of Windows 8 finished, Microsoft began work on the final release.

Build 8423 is the last leaked build to contain Aero. It was dropped in build 8432 and seen for two builds after 8423.

Build 8438 removed Desktop Gadgets. It was identical to 8432, which removed Aero. This build and the x86 variant of build 8330 were built in the interestingly named 'fbl_ie_longhorn' branch.

Build 8888 was leaked in December 2014, and was identical to the RTM with the exception of the timebomb and missing apps.

On August 1, 2012, Windows 8 (build 9200[51]) was released to manufacturing with the build number 6.2.9200.16384.[52] Microsoft planned to hold a launch event on October 25, 2012[53] and release Windows 8 for general availability on the next day.[54] However, only a day after its release to manufacturing, a copy of the final version of Windows 8 Enterprise N (a variant for European markets which lacks bundled media players to comply with an antitrust ruling) leaked online, followed by leaks of the final versions of Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise a few days later.[55][56] On August 15, 2012, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, Windows 8 was made available to download for MSDN and TechNet subscribers.[57] Windows 8 was made available to Software Assurance customers on August 16, 2012.[58] Windows 8 was made available for students with a DreamSpark Premium subscription on August 22, 2012, earlier than advertised.[59] Windows 8 became generally available for download to all MSDN and TechNet customers on August 15 and for retail purchase on October 26, 2012.

Relatively few changes were made from the Release Preview to the final version; these included updated versions of its pre-loaded apps, the renaming of Windows Explorer to File Explorer, the replacement of the Aero Glass theme from Windows Vista and 7 with a new flat and solid-color theme as seen in build 8432, and the addition of new background options for the Start screen, lock screen, and desktop.[60] Prior to its general availability on October 26, 2012, updates were released for some of Windows 8's bundled apps, and a "General Availability Cumulative Update" (which included fixes to improve performance, compatibility, and battery life) Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks released on Tuesday, October 9, 2012. Microsoft indicated that due to improvements to its testing infrastructure, general improvements of this nature are to be released more frequently through Windows Update instead of being relegated to OEMs and service packs only.[61][62]

Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012.[7] Microsoft's advertising budget of US$1.5–1.8 billion was significantly larger than the US$200 million campaign used to promote Windows 95.[63] As part of its campaign, Microsoft set up 34 pop-up stores inside malls to showcase the Surface product line, provided training for retail employees in partnership with Intel, and collaborated with the electronics store chain Best Buy to design expanded spaces to showcase devices. In an effort to make retail displays of Windows 8 devices more "personal", Microsoft also developed a character known in English-speaking markets as "Allison Brown", whose fictional profile (including personal photos, contacts, and emails) is also featured on demonstration units of Windows 8 devices.[64] All Windows 7 PCs plan to offer a new Windows 8 upgrade on December 31, 2012, and Microsoft upgraded it as a product of currently supported Windows 7 PCs in January 2013 via Windows Update.

Windows 8 Pro DVD case, containing a 32-bit and a 64-bit installation disc

In May 2013, Microsoft launched a new television campaign for Windows 8 illustrating the capabilities and pricing of Windows 8 tablets in comparison to the iPad, which featured the voice of Siri remarking on the iPad's limitations in a parody of Apple's "Get a Mac" advertisements.[65][66] On June 12, 2013 during game 1 of the 2013 Stanley Cup Finals, Microsoft premiered the first ad in its "Windows Everywhere" campaign, which promoted Windows 8, Windows Phone 8, and the company's suite of online services as an interconnected platform.[67][68]

New and changed features[edit]

Main article: Features new to Windows 8

New features and functionality in Windows 8 include a faster startup through UEFI integration and the new "Hybrid Boot" mode (which hibernates the Windows kernel on shutdown to speed up the subsequent boot),[69] a new lock screen with a clock and notifications,[70] and the ability for enterprise users to create live USB variants of Windows (known as Windows To CFosSpeed 10.27 license key Archives Windows 8 also adds native support for USB 3.0 devices, which allow for faster data transfers and improved power management with compatible devices,[73][74] and hard disk 4KB Advanced Format support,[75] as well as support for near field communication to facilitate sharing and communication between devices.[76]

Windows Explorer, which has been renamed File Explorer, now includes a ribbon in place of the command bar. File operation dialog boxes have been updated to provide more detailed statistics, the ability to pause file transfers, and improvements in the ability to manage conflicts when copying files.[77] A new "File History" function allows incremental revisions of files to be backed up to and restored from a secondary storage device,[78] while Storage Spaces allows users to combine different sized hard disks into virtual drives and specify mirroring, parity, or no redundancy on a folder-by-folder basis.[79] For easier management of files and folders, Windows 8 introduces the ability to move selected files or folders via drag and drop from a parent folder into a subfolder listed within the breadcrumb hierarchy of the address bar in File Explorer.[80]

Task Manager has been redesigned, including a new processes tab with the option to display fewer or more details of running applications and background processes, a heat map using different colors indicating the level of resource usage, network and disk counters, grouping by process type (e.g, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks. applications, background processes and Windows processes), friendly names for Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks and a new option which allows users to search the web to find information about obscure processes.[81] Additionally, the Blue Screen of Death has been updated with a simpler and modern design with less technical information displayed.[82][83]

Safety and security[edit]

New security features in Windows 8 include two new authentication methods tailored towards touchscreens (PINs and picture passwords),[84] the addition of antivirus capabilities to Windows Defender (bringing it in parity with Microsoft Security Essentials).[85]SmartScreen filtering integrated into Windows,[86]Family Safety offers Parental controls, which allows parents to monitor and manage their children's activities on a device with activity reports and safety controls.[87][88][89] Windows 8 also provides integrated system recovery through the new "Refresh" and "Reset" functions,[90] including system recovery from USB drive.[91] Windows 8's first security patches would be released on November 13, 2012; it would contain three fixes deemed "critical" by the company.[92]

Windows 8 supports a feature of the UEFI specification known as "Secure boot", which uses a public-key infrastructure to verify the integrity of the operating system and prevent unauthorized programs such as bootkits from infecting the device's boot process.[93] Some pre-built devices may be described as "certified" by Microsoft; these must have secure boot enabled by default, and provide ways for users to disable or re-configure the feature. ARM-based Windows RT devices must have secure boot permanently enabled.[94][95][96]

Online services and functionality[edit]

Windows 8 provides heavier integration with online services from Microsoft and others. A user can now log into Windows with a Microsoft account, which can be used to access services and synchronize applications and settings between devices. Windows 8 also ships with a client app for Microsoft's SkyDrivecloud storage service, which also allows apps to save files directly to SkyDrive. A Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks client for the desktop and File Explorer is not included in Windows 8, and must be downloaded separately.[97] Bundled multimedia apps are provided under the Xbox brand, including Xbox Music, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, Xbox Video, and the Renoise 2.8 Crack FREE Download SmartGlass companion for use with an Xbox 360 console, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks. Games can integrate into an Xbox Live hub app, which also allows users to view their profile and Gamerscore.[98] Other bundled apps provide the ability to link Flickr and Facebook.[99] Due to Facebook Connect service changes, Facebook support is disabled in all bundled apps effective June 8, 2015.[100]

Internet Explorer 10 is included as both a desktop program and a touch-optimized app, and includes increased support for HTML5, CSS3, and hardware acceleration. The Internet Explorer app does not support plugins or ActiveX components, but includes a variant of Adobe Flash Player that is optimized for touch and low power usage. Initially, Adobe Flash would only work on sites included on a "Compatibility View" whitelist; however, after feedback from users and additional compatibility tests, an update in March 2013 changed this behavior to use a smaller blacklist of sites with known compatibility issues instead, allowing Flash to be used on most sites by default.[101] The desktop variant does not contain these limitations.[102]

Windows 8 also incorporates improved support for mobile broadband; the operating system can now detect the insertion of a SIM card and automatically configure connection settings (including APNs and carrier branding), and reduce its Internet usage to conserve bandwidth on metered networks. Windows 8 also adds an integrated airplane mode setting to globally disable all wireless connectivity as well. Carriers can also offer account management systems through Windows Store apps, which can be automatically installed as a part of the connection process and offer usage statistics on their respective tile.[103]

Windows Store apps[edit]

Snap feature: Xbox Music, alongside Photos snapped into a sidebarto the right side of the screen
Snap feature: Desktop, along Wikipedia Appsnapped into a sidebar to the right side of the screen. In Windows 8, desktop and everything on it is treated as one Metro-style app.

Windows 8 introduces a new style of application, Windows Store apps. According to Microsoft developer Jensen Harris, these apps are to be optimized for touchscreen environments and are more specialized than current desktop applications. Apps can run either in a full-screen mode or be snapped to the side of a screen.[104] Apps can provide toast notifications on screen or animate their tiles on the Start screen with dynamic content. Apps can use "contracts"; a collection of hooks to provide common functionality that can integrate with other apps, including search and sharing.[104] Apps can also provide integration with other services; for example, the People app can connect to a variety of different social networks and services (such as Facebook, Skype, and People service), while the Photos app can aggregate photos from services such as Facebook and Flickr.[99]

Windows Store apps run within a new set of APIs known as Windows Runtime, which supports programming languages such as C, C++, Visual Basic .NET, C#, along with HTML5 and JavaScript.[104] If written in some "high-level" languages, apps written for Windows Runtime can be compatible with both Intel and ARM variants of Windows,[105] otherwise they are not binary code compatible. Components may be compiled as Windows Runtime Components, permitting consumption by all compatible languages.[106] To ensure stability and security, apps run within a sandboxed environment, and require permissions to access certain functionality, such as accessing the Internet or a camera.[107]

Retail variants of Windows 8 are only able to install these apps through Windows Store — a namesake distribution platform that offers both apps, and listings for desktop programs certified for comparability with Windows 8.[105][107] A method to sideload apps from outside Windows Store is available to devices running Windows 8 Enterprise and joined to a domain; Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT devices that are not part of a domain can also Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks apps, but only after special product keys are obtained through volume licensing.[108]

The term "Immersive app" had been used internally by Microsoft developers to refer to the apps prior to the first official presentation of Windows 8, after which they were referred to as "Metro-style apps" in reference to the Metro design language. The term was phased out in August 2012; a Microsoft spokesperson denied rumors that the change was related to a potential trademark issue, and stated that "Metro" was only a codename that would be replaced prior to Windows 8's release.[23][109] Following these reports, the terms "Modern UI-style apps",[110] "Windows 8-style apps"[111] and "Windows Store apps" began to be used by Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks Microsoft documents and material to refer to the new apps. In an interview on September 12, 2012, Soma Somasegar (vice president of Microsoft's development software division) confirmed that "Windows Store apps" would be the official term for the apps.[112] An MSDN page explaining the Metro design language uses the term "Modern design" to refer to the language as a whole.[113]

Web browsers[edit]

Exceptions to the restrictions faced by Windows Store apps are given to web browsers. The user's default browser can distribute a Metro-style web browser in the same package as the desktop variant, which has access to functionality unavailable to other apps, such as being able to permanently run in the background, use multiple background processes, and use Windows API code instead of WinRT (allowing for code to be re-used with the desktop variant, while still taking advantage of features available to Windows Store apps, such as charms). Microsoft advertises this exception privilege "New experience enabled" (formerly "Metro-style enabled").

The developers of both Chrome and Firefox committed to developing Metro-style variants of their browsers; while Chrome's "Windows 8 mode" (discontinued on Chrome version 49) uses a full-screen version of the existing desktop interface, Firefox's variant (which was first made available on the "Aurora" release channel in September 2013) uses a touch-optimized interface inspired by the Android variant of Firefox. In October 2013, Chrome's app was changed to mimic the desktop environment used by Chrome OS.[114][115][116][117][118][119] Development of the Firefox app for Windows 8 has since been cancelled, citing a lack of user adoption for the beta versions.[120]

Interface and desktop[edit]

Windows 8 introduces significant changes to the operating system's user interface, many of which are aimed at improving its experience on tablet computers and other touchscreen devices. The new user interface is based on Microsoft's Metro design language Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks uses a Start screen similar to that of Windows Phone 7 as the primary means of launching applications. The Start screen displays a customizable array of tiles linking to various apps and desktop programs, some of which can display constantly updated information and content through "live tiles".[104] As a form of multi-tasking, apps can be snapped to the side of a screen.[104] Alongside the traditional Control Panel, a new simplified and touch-optimized settings app known as "PC Settings" is used for basic configuration and user settings. It does not include many of the advanced options still accessible from the normal Control Panel.[121]

A Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks toolbar known as the charms[122] (accessed by swiping from the right edge of a touchscreen, swiping from the right edge of a touchpad, or pointing the cursor at hotspots in the right corners of a screen) provides access to system and app-related functions, such as search, sharing, device management, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, and a Start button.[122][123] The traditional desktop environment for running desktop applications is accessed via a tile on the Start screen. The Start button on the taskbar from previous versions of Windows has been converted into a hotspot (or "hot corner") in the lower-left corner of the screen, which displays a large tooltip displaying a thumbnail of the Start screen. However, Windows 8.1 added the start button back to the taskbar after many complaints, but removed the preview thumbnail.[124][125] Swiping from the left edge of a touchscreen or clicking in the top-left corner of the screen allows one to switch between apps and Desktop. Pointing the cursor in the top-left corner of the screen and moving down reveals a thumbnail list of active apps.[125] Aside from the removal of the Start button and the replacement of Ulead video studio 11 crack serial keygen Aero Glass theme with a flatter and solid-colored design, the desktop interface on Windows 8 is similar to that of Windows 7.[126]

Removed features[edit]

Main bandicut video cutter crack Archives List of features removed in Windows 8

Several notable features were removed in Windows 8; support for playing DVD-Video was removed from Windows Media Player due to the cost of licensing the necessary decoders (especially for devices which do not include optical disc drives at all) and the prevalence of online streaming services. For the same reasons, Windows Media Center is not included by default on Windows 8, but Windows Media Center and DVD playback support could be purchased in the "Pro Pack" (which upgrades the system to Windows 8 Pro) or "Media Center Pack" add-on for Windows 8 Pro. As with prior versions, third-party DVD player software can still be used to enable DVD playback.[127]

Backup and Restore, the backup component of Windows, was deprecated, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks. It still shipped with Windows 8 and continues to work on preset schedules, but it was pushed to the background and can only be accessed through a Control Panel applet called "Windows 7 File Recovery".[128]: 76 Shadow Copy, a component of Windows Explorer that once saved previous versions of changed files, no longer protects local files and folders. It can only access previous versions of shared files stored on a Windows Server computer.[128]: 74  The subsystem on which these components worked, however, is still available for other software to use.[128]: 74 

Hardware requirements[edit]

PCs[edit]

The minimum system requirements for Windows 8 are slightly higher than those of Windows 7. The CPU must support the Physical Address Extension (PAE), NX bit, and SSE2. Windows Store apps require a screen resolution of 1024×768 or higher to run; a resolution of 1366×768 or higher is required to use the snap functionality.[129] To receive certification, Microsoft requires candidate x86 systems to resume from standby in 2 seconds or less.[130]

Microsoft's Connected Standby specification, which hardware vendors may optionally comply with, sets new power consumption requirements that extend above the above minimum specifications.[134] Included in this standard are a number of security-specific requirements designed to improve physical security, notably against Cold Boot Attacks.

32-bit SKUs of Windows 8 only support a maximum of 4 GB of RAM. 64-bit SKUs, however support more: Windows 8 x64 supports 128 GB while Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise x64 support 512 GB.[135]

In January 2016, Microsoft announced that it would no longer support Windows 8.1 or 7 on devices using Intel's Skylake CPU family effective July 17, 2018, and that all future CPU microarchitectures, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, as well as Skylake systems after this date, would only be supported on Windows 10. After the deadline, only critical security updates were to be released for users on these platforms.[136][137][138][139] After this new policy faced criticism from Sketch 53 Crack Archives and enterprise customers, Microsoft partially retracted the change and stated that both operating systems would remain supported on Skylake hardware through the end of their Extended support lifecycle. Windows 8.1 remains officially unsupported on all newer CPU families, and neither AMD or Intel will provide official chipset drivers for Windows operating systems other than Windows 10.[140][141] However, on August 2016, Microsoft again extended the Skylake support policy until the end of support for Windows 7 and 8.1 (2020 and 2023, respectively).[142][141]

Tablets and convertibles[edit]

Microsoft released minimum hardware requirements for tablet and laplet devices to be "certified" for Windows 8 and defined a convertible form factor as a standalone device that combines the PC, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, display, and rechargeable power source with a mechanically attached keyboard and pointing device in a single chassis. A convertible can be transformed into a tablet where the attached input devices are hidden or removed leaving the display as the only input mechanism.[143][144] On March 12, 2013, Microsoft amended its certification requirements to only require that screens on tablets have a minimum resolution of 1024×768 (down from the previous 1366×768). The amended requirement is intended to allow "greater design flexibility" for future products.[145]

Graphics cardDirectX 10 graphics device with WDDM 1.2 or higher driver
Storage10 GB free space, after the out-of-box experience completes
Standard buttons ,
ScreenTouch screen supporting a minimum of 5-point digitizers and resolution of at least 1024×768, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks. The physical dimensions of the display panel must match the aspect ratio of the native resolution. The native resolution of the panel can be greater than 1024 (horizontally) and 768 (vertically). Minimum native color depth is 32-bits. If the display is under 1366×768, disclaimers must be included in documentation to notify users that the Snap function is not available.[145]
Camera Minimum 720p
Accelerometer3 axes with data rates at or above 50 Hz
USB 2.0At least one controller and exposed port.
Connect Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 4.0 + LE (low energy)
Other Speaker, microphone, magnetometer and gyroscope.

If a mobile broadband device is integrated into a tablet or convertible system, then an assisted GPS radio is required. Devices supporting near field communication need to have visual marks to help users locate and use the proximity technology. The new button combination for Ctrl + Alt + Del is Windows Key + Power.

Updated certification requirements were implemented to coincide with Windows 8.1. As of 2014, all certified devices with integrated displays must contain a 720p webcam and higher quality speakers and microphones, while all certified devices that support Wi-Fi must support Bluetooth as well. As of 2015, all certified devices must contain Trusted Platform Module 2.0 chips.[147][148]

Editions[edit]

Main article: Windows 8 editions

Windows 8 is available in three different editions, of which the lowest edition, branded simply as Windows 8, and Windows 8 Pro, were sold at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers. Each edition of Windows 8 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and add additional features oriented towards their market segments. For example, Pro added BitLocker, Hyper-V, the ability to join a domain, and the ability to install Windows Media Center as a paid add-on. Users of Windows 8 can purchase a "Pro Pack" license that upgrades their system to Windows 8 Pro through Add features to Windows. This license also includes Windows Media Center.[149][150][151]Windows 8 Enterprise contains additional features aimed towards business environments, and is only available through volume licensing.[151] A port of Windows 8 for ARM architecture, Windows RT, is marketed as an edition of Windows 8, but was only included as pre-loaded software on devices specifically developed for it.[151]

Windows 8 was distributed as a retail box product on DVD, and through a digital download that could be converted into DVD or USB install media. As part of a launch promotion, Microsoft offered Windows 8 Pro upgrades at a discounted price of US$39.99 online, or $69.99 for retail box from its launch until January 31, 2013; afterward the Windows 8 price has been $119.99 and the Pro price $199.99.[152][153] Those who purchased new PCs pre-loaded with Windows 7 Home Basic, Home Premium, Professional, or Ultimate between June 2, 2012 and January 31, 2013 could digitally purchase a Windows 8 Pro upgrade for US$14.99.[154] Several PC manufacturers offered rebates and refunds on Windows 8 upgrades obtained through the promotion on select models, such as Hewlett-Packard (in the U.S. and Canada on select models), and Acer (in Europe on selected Ultrabook models).[155][156] During these promotions, the Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks Media Center add-on for Windows 8 Pro was also offered for free.[149]

Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows 8 was distributed at retail in "Upgrade" licenses only, which require an existing version of Windows to install. The "full version software" SKU, which was more expensive but could be installed on computers without an eligible OS or none at all, was discontinued. In lieu of full version, a specialized "System Builder" SKU was introduced. The "System Builder" SKU replaced the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) SKU, which was only allowed to be used on PCs meant for resale but added a "Personal Use License" exemption that officially allowed its purchase and personal use by users on homebuilt computers.[157][158][159]

Retail distribution of Windows 8 has since been discontinued in favor of Windows 8.1. Unlike 8, 8.1 is available as "full version software" at both retail and online for download that does not require a previous version of Windows in order to be installed. Pricing for these new copies remain identical.[160] With the retail release returning to full version software for Windows 8.1, the "Personal Use License" exemption was removed from the OEM SKU, meaning that end users building their own PCs for personal use must use the full retail variant in order to satisfy the Windows 8.1 licensing requirements.[157]Windows 8.1 with Bing is a special OEM-specific SKU of Windows 8.1 subsidized by Microsoft's Bing search engine.[161]

Software compatibility[edit]

The three desktop editions of Windows 8 support 32-bit and 64-bit architectures; retail copies of Windows 8 include install DVDs for both architectures, while the online installer automatically installs the variant corresponding with the architecture of the system's existing Windows installation.[149][162] The 32-bit variant runs on CPUs compatible with x86 architecture 3rd generation (known as IA-32) or newer, and can run 32-bit Light Image Resizer 6.0.7.0 With Crack 16-bitapplications, although 16-bit support must be enabled first.[163][164] (16-bit applications are developed for CPUs compatible with x86 2nd generation, first conceived in 1978. Microsoft started moving away from this architecture after Windows 95.[163])

The 64-bit variant runs on CPUs compatible with x86 8th generation (known as x86-64, or x64) or newer, and can run 32-bit and 64-bit programs. 32-bit programs and operating system are restricted to supporting only 4 gigabytes of memory while 64-bit systems can theoretically support 2048 gigabytes of memory.[165] 64-bit operating systems require a different set of device drivers than those of 32-bit operating systems.[165]

Windows RT, the only edition of Windows 8 for systems with ARM processors, only supports applications included with the system (such as a special variant of Office 2013), supplied through Windows Update, or Windows Store apps, to ensure that the system only runs applications that are optimized for the architecture. Windows RT does not support running IA-32 or x64 applications.[166] Windows Store apps can either support both the x86 and ARM architectures, or compiled to Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks a specific architecture.[167]

Reception[edit]

Pre-release[edit]

Following the unveiling of Windows 8, Microsoft faced criticism (particularly from free software supporters) for mandating that devices receiving its optional certification for Windows 8 have secure boot enabled by default using a key provided by Microsoft. Concerns were raised that secure boot could prevent or hinder the use of alternate operating systems such as Linux. In a post discussing secure boot on the Building Windows 8 blog, Microsoft developer Tony Mangefeste indicated that vendors would provide means to customize secure boot, stating that "At the end of the day, the customer is in control of their PC. Microsoft's philosophy is to provide customers with the best experience first, and allow them to make decisions themselves."[94][168] Microsoft's certification guidelines for Windows 8 ultimately revealed that vendors would be required to provide means for users to re-configure or disable secure boot in their device's UEFI firmware. It also revealed that ARM devices (Windows RT) would be required to have secure boot permanently enabled, with no way for users to disable it. However, Tom Warren of The Verge noted that other vendors have implemented similar hardware restrictions on their own ARM-based tablet and smartphone products (including those running Microsoft's own Windows Phone platform), but still argued that Microsoft should "keep a consistent approach across ARM and x86, though, not least because of the number of users who'd love to run Android alongside Windows 8 on their future tablets."[95][96][169] No mandate is made regarding the installation of third-party certificates that would enable running alternative programs.[170][171][172]

Several notable video game developers criticized Microsoft for making its Windows Store a closed platform subject to its own regulations, as it conflicted with their view of the PC as an open platform. Markus "Notch" Persson (creator of the indie gameMinecraft),[173]Gabe Newell (co-founder of Valve and developer of software distribution platform Steam),[174] and Rob Pardo from Activision Blizzard voiced concern about the closed nature of the Windows Store.[175] However, Tom Warren of The Verge stated that Microsoft's addition of the Store was simply responding to the success of both Apple and Google in pursuing the "curated application store approach."[176]

Critical reception[edit]

Reviews of the various editions of Windows 8 were mixed to negative. Tom Warren of The Verge said that although Windows 8's emphasis on touch computing was significant and risked alienating desktop users, he felt that Windows 8 tablets "[make] an iPad feel immediately out of date" due to the capabilities of the operating system's hybrid model and increased focus on cloud services.[176] David Pierce of The Verge described Windows 8 as "the first desktop operating system that understands what a computer is supposed to do in 2012" and praised Microsoft's "no compromise" approach and the operating system's emphasis on Internet connectivity and cloud services. Pierce also considered the Start Screen to be a "brilliant innovation for desktop computers" when compared with "folder-littered desktops on every other OS" because it allows users to interact with dynamic information.[177] In contrast, an ExtremeTech article said it was Microsoft "flailing"[178] and a review in PC Magazine condemned the Metro-style user interface.[179] Some of the included apps in Windows 8 were considered to be basic and lacking in functionality, but the Xbox apps were praised for their promotion of a multi-platform entertainment experience. Other improvements and features (such as File History, Storage Spaces, and Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks updated Task Manager) were also regarded as positive changes.[176] Peter Bright of Ars Technica wrote that while its user interface changes may overshadow them, Windows 8's improved performance, updated file manager, new storage functionality, expanded security features, and updated Task Manager were still positive improvements for the operating system. Bright also said that Windows 8's duality towards tablets and traditional PCs was an "extremely ambitious" aspect of the platform as well, but criticized Microsoft for emulating Apple's model of a closed distribution platform when implementing the Windows Store.[180]

The interface of Windows 8 has been the subject of negative reaction. Bright wrote that its system of hot corners and edge swiping "wasn't very obvious" due to the lack of instructions provided by the operating system on the functions accessed through the user interface, even by the video tutorial added on the RTM release (which only instructed users to point at corners of the screen or swipe from its sides). Despite this "stumbling block", Bright said that Windows 8's interface worked well in some places, but began to feel incoherent when switching between the "Metro" and desktop environments, sometimes through inconsistent means.[180] Tom Warren of The Verge wrote that the new interface was "as stunning as it is surprising", contributing to an "incredibly personal" experience once it is customized by the user, but had a steep learning curve, and was awkward to use with a keyboard and mouse. He noted that while forcing all users to use the new touch-oriented interface was a risky move for Microsoft as a whole, it was necessary in order to push development of apps for the Windows Store.[176] Others, such as Adrian Kingsley-Hughes from ZDNet, considered the interface to be "clumsy and impractical" due to its inconsistent design (going as far as considering it "two operating systems unceremoniously bolted together"), and concluded that "Windows 8 wasn't born out of a need or demand; it was born out of a desire on Microsoft's part to exert its will on the PC industry and decide to shape it in a direction—touch and tablets – that allows it to compete against, and remain relevant in the face of Apple's iPad."[181]

In 2013, Frank X. Shaw, a Microsoft corporate vice president, said that while many of the negative reviews were extreme, it was a "good thing" that Microsoft was "listening to feedback and improving a product".[182]

The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) reported a decline in Microsoft's customer satisfaction, the lowest it has been since Windows Vista.[183]

Market share and sales[edit]

Microsoft says that 4 million users upgraded to Windows 8 over Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks weekend after its release,[184][185] which CNET says was well below Microsoft's internal projections and was described inside the company as disappointing.[186]

On November 27, 2012, Microsoft announced that it had sold 40 million licenses of Windows 8 in the first month, surpassing the pace of Windows 7.[187]

However, according to research firm NPD, sales of devices running Windows in the United States had declined 21 percent compared to the same time period in 2011.[188] As the holiday shopping season wrapped up, Windows 8 sales continued to lag, even as Apple reported brisk sales.[189] The market research firm IDC reported an overall drop in PC sales for the quarter, and said the drop may have been partly due to consumer reluctance to embrace the new features of the OS and poor support from OEM for these features.[190] This capped the first year of declining PC sales to the Asia Pacific region, as consumers bought more mobile devices than Windows PCs.[191]

Windows 8 surpassed Windows Vista in market share with a 5.1% usage rate according to numbers posted in July 2013 by Net Applications, with usage on a steady upward trajectory.[192] However, intake of Windows 8 still lagged behind that of Windows Vista and Windows 7 at the same point in their release cycles. Windows 8's tablet market share also grew steadily, with 7.4% of tablets running Windows in Q1 2013 according to Strategy Analytics, up from nothing just a year before. However, this was still well below Android and iOS, which posted 43.4% and 48.2% market share respectively, although both operating systems had been on the market much longer than Windows 8.[193] Strategy Analytics also noted "a shortage of top tier apps" for Windows tablets despite Microsoft strategy of paying developers to create apps for the operating system (in addition to for Windows Phone).[193]

In March 2013, Microsoft also amended its certification requirements to allow tablets to use the 1024×768 resolution as a minimum; this change is expected to allow the production of certified Windows 8 tablets in smaller form factors—a market which is currently dominated by Android-based tablets.[145] Despite the reaction of industry experts, Microsoft reported that they had sold 100 million licenses in the first six months. This matched sales of Windows 7 over a similar period.[194] This statistic includes shipments to channel warehouses which now need to be sold in order to make way for new shipments.[195]

In January 2014, Hewlett-Packard began a promotion for desktops running Windows 7, saying that it was "back by popular demand". Outside sources have suggested that this might be because HP or its customers thought the Windows 8 platform would be more appropriate for mobile computing than desktop computing, or that they were looking to attract customers forced to switch from XP who wanted a more familiar interface.[196][197]

In February 2014, Bloomberg reported that Microsoft would be lowering the price of Windows 8 licenses by 70% for devices that retail under US$250; alongside the announcement that an update to the operating system would allow OEMs to produce devices with as little as 1 GB of RAM and 16 GB of storage, critics felt that these changes would help Windows compete against Linux-based devices in the low-end market, particularly those running Chrome OS. Microsoft had similarly cut the price of Windows XP licenses to compete against the early waves of Linux-based netbooks.[198][199] Reports also indicated that Microsoft was planning to offer cheaper Windows 8 licenses to OEMs in exchange for setting Internet Explorer's default search engine to Bing. Some media outlets falsely reported that the SKU associated with this plan, "Windows 8.1 with Bing", was a variant which would be a free or low-cost variant of Windows 8 for consumers using older versions of Windows.[200] On April 2, 2014, Microsoft ultimately announced that it would be removing license fees entirely for devices with screens smaller than 9 inches,[201] and officially confirmed the rumored "Windows 8.1 with Bing" OEM SKU on May 23, 2014.[161]

On the information gathered by Net Applications, adoption rate in March 2015 for Windows 8.1 was at 10.55%, while the original Windows 8 was at 3.52%.[202]

Chinese government ban[edit]

In May 2014, the Government of China banned the internal purchase of Windows 8-based products under government contracts requiring "energy-efficient" devices. The Xinhua News Agency claimed that Windows 8 was Office Recovery Professional 2.0 crack serial keygen banned in protest of Microsoft's support lifecycle policy and the end of support for Windows XP (which, as of January 2014, had a market share of 49% in China), as the government "obviously cannot ignore the risks of running an OS without guaranteed technical support." However, Ni Guangnan of the Chinese Academy of Sciences had also previously warned that Windows 8 could allegedly expose users to surveillance by the United States government due to its heavy use of Internet-based services.[203][204][205][206]

In June 2014, state broadcasterChina Central Television (CCTV) broadcast a news story further characterizing Windows 8 as a threat to national security. The story featured an interview with Ni Guangnan, who stated that operating systems could aggregate "sensitive user information" that could be used to "understand the conditions and activities of our national economy and society", and alleged that per documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the U.S. government had worked with Microsoft to retrieve encrypted information. Yang Min, a computer scientist at Fudan University, also stated that "the security features of Windows 8 are basically to the benefit of Microsoft, allowing 4D Classic Runtime 3.5 crack serial keygen control of the users' data, and that poses a big challenge to the national strategy for information security." Microsoft denied the claims in a number of posts on the Chinese social network Sina Weibo, which stated that the company had never "assisted any government in an attack of another government or clients" or provided client data to the U.S. government, never "provided any government the authority to directly visit" or placed any backdoors in its products and services, and that it had never concealed government requests for client data.[207][208][209]

Windows 8.1[edit]

Main article: Windows 8.1

A feature update to Windows 8 known as Windows 8.1 was officially announced by Microsoft on May 14, 2013.[210][211] Following a presentation devoted to it at Build 2013, a public beta version of the upgrade was released AVG Internet Security 2021 Serial Key With Crack Download June 26, 2013.[212][213] Windows 8.1 was released to OEM hardware partners on August 27, 2013, and released publicly as a free upgrade through Windows Store on October 17, 2013.[160][214][215] Volume license customers and subscribers to MSDN Plus and TechNet Plus were initially unable to obtain the RTM version upon its release; a spokesperson said the policy was changed to allow Microsoft to work with OEMs "to ensure a quality experience at general availability."[216][217] However, after criticism, Microsoft reversed its decision and released the RTM build on MSDN and TechNet on September 9, 2013.[218]

Windows 8.1 addressed a number of criticisms faced by Windows 8 upon its release, with additional customization options for the Start screen, the restoration of a visible Start button on the desktop, the ability to snap up to four apps on a single display, and the ability to boot to the desktop instead of the Start screen. Windows 8's stock apps were also updated, a new Bing-based unified search system was added, SkyDrive was given deeper integration with the operating system, and a number of new stock apps, along with a tutorial, were added.[11][219][220][221] Windows 8.1 also added support for 3D printing,[222][223]Miracast media streaming, NFC printing, and Wi-Fi Direct.[224]

Microsoft marketed Windows 8.1 as an "update" rather than as a "service pack", as it had done with such revisions on previous versions of Windows.[225] Nonetheless, Microsoft's support lifecycle policy treats Windows 8.1 similarly to previous Windows service packs: upgrading to 8.1 has been required to maintain access to mainstream support and updates after January 12, 2016.[4][226][227] Although Windows 8 RTM is unsupported, Microsoft released an emergency security patch in May 2017 for Windows 8 RTM, as well as other unsupported versions of Windows (including Windows XP and Windows Server 2003), to address a vulnerability that was being leveraged by the Windows iso download tool windows 7 Archives - Download Pro Crack Software ransomware attack.[228][229] Updates to apps published on Windows Store after July 1, 2019 will not be available to Windows 8 RTM users.[230]

Retail and OEM installations of Windows 8, Windows 8 Pro, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, and Windows RT can be upgraded through Windows Store free of charge. However, volume license customers, TechNet or MSDN subscribers and users of Windows 8 Enterprise must acquire a standalone installation media for 8.1 and install through the traditional Windows setup process, either as an in-place upgrade or clean install. This requires an 8.1 specific product key.[231][232][233][234]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  27. ^Asad, Taimur (April 12, 2011). "Windows 8 Build 7850 M1 Has Been Leaked". Redmond Pie. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  28. ^Kingsley-Hughes, Adrian (April 27, 2012). "Windows 8 build 7955 sporting new 'Black' Screen of Death". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  29. ^Warren, Tom (April 27, 2012). "Windows 8 Milestone 3 build 7989 leaks". Winrumors. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
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Standard Disclaimer: There are links to non-Microsoft websites. The pages appear to be providing accurate, safe information. Watch out for ads on the sites that may advertise products frequently classified as a PUP (Potentially Unwanted Products). Thoroughly research any product advertised on the sites before you decide to download and install it.
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I'm running Windows XP Home Edition (SP1) on a DELL Inspiron laptop.  I thought I had the computer well-protected from malware but recently, I began noticing suspicious symptoms coinciding with changing my anti-virus software from AVG to McAfee Enterprise provided by my company and upgrading Ad-Aware SE Personal to AdAware 2007.

 

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Logfile of Trend Micro HijackThis v2.0.2
Scan saved at 9:26:25 AM, on 9/3/2007
Platform: Windows XP SP1 (WinNT 5.01.2600)
MSIE: Internet Explorer v6.00 SP1 (6.00.2800.1106)
Boot mode: Normal

Running processes:
C:\WINDOWS\System32\smss.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\csrss.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\winlogon.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\services.exe
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C:\Program Files\Lavasoft\Ad-Aware 2007\aawservice.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\spoolsv.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\cisvc.exe
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C:\Program Files\McAfee\VirusScan Enterprise\SHSTAT.EXE
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C:\Program Files\iTunes\iTunesHelper.exe
C:\Program Files\Lavasoft\Ad-Aware 2007\AAWTray.exe
C:\Program Files\Synaptics\SynTP\SynTPLpr.exe
C:\Program Files\Synaptics\SynTP\SynTPEnh.exe
C:\WINDOWS\avp.exe
C:\WINDOWS\mgrs.exe
C:\Documents and Settings\Annie Fowler\My Documents\?racle\userinit.exe
C:\Program Files\McAfee\Common Framework\McTray.exe
C:\Program Files\iPod\bin\iPodService.exe
C:\WINDOWS\System32\alg.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\cidaemon.exe
C:\WINDOWS\system32\cidaemon.exe
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O3 - Toolbar: &Radio - {8E718888-423F-11D2-876E-00A0C9082467} - C:\WINDOWS\System32\msdxm.ocx
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [Win32 NT Adv Services] taskmngr.exe
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [Camra Updates] serviceswu.exe
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [TkBellExe] "C:\Program Files\Common Files\Real\Update_OB\realsched.exe" -osboot
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [Adobe Reader Speed Launcher] "C:\Program Files\Adobe\Reader 8.0\Reader\Reader_sl.exe"
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [ShStatEXE] "C:\Program Files\McAfee\VirusScan Enterprise\SHSTAT.EXE" /STANDALONE
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [McAfeeUpdaterUI] "C:\Program Files\McAfee\Common Framework\UdaterUI.exe" /StartedFromRunKey
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [QuickTime Task] "C:\Program Files\QuickTime\qttask.exe" -atboottime
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [iTunesHelper] "C:\Program Files\iTunes\iTunesHelper.exe"
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [AAWTray] C:\Program Files\Lavasoft\Ad-Aware 2007\AAWTray.exe
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [spoolsvv] C:\WINDOWS\System32\spoolsvv.exe
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [WinAVX] C:\WINDOWS\System32\WinAvXX.exe
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [PCTVOICE] pctspk.exe
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [SynTPLpr] C:\Program Files\Synaptics\SynTP\SynTPLpr.exe
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [SynTPEnh] C:\Program Files\Synaptics\SynTP\SynTPEnh.exe
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [ATIModeChange] Ati2mdxx.exe
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [avp] C:\WINDOWS\avp.exe
O4 - HKLM\.\Run: [smgr] mgrs.exe
O4 - HKLM\.\RunServices: [Camra Updates] serviceswu.exe
O4 - HKLM\.\RunServices: [Win32 NT Adv Services] taskmngr.exe
O4 - HKCU\.\Run: [Camra Updates] serviceswu.exe
O4 - HKCU\.\Run: [MsnMsgr] "C:\Program Files\MSN Messenger\MsnMsgr.Exe" /background
O4 - HKCU\.\Run: [Sfl] "C:\Documents and Settings\Annie Fowler\My Documents\?racle\userinit.exe"
O4 - HKCU\.\Run: [autoload] C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\svchost.exe
O4 - HKCU\.\Run: [autorun] C:\Documents and Settings\Annie Fowler\svchost.exe
O4 - HKCU\.\Run: [Aida] "C:\PROGRA~1\CROSOF~1\ati2evxx.exe" -vt ndrv
O4 - HKCU\.\Run: [Brave-Sentry] C:\Program Files\BraveSentry\BraveSentry.exe
O4 - HKCU\.\Run: [WinAVX] C:\WINDOWS\System32\WinAvXX.exe
O4 - HKCU\.\Run: [Apeo] "C:\WINDOWS\SCURIT~1\winlogon.exe" -vt ndrv
O4 - HKUS\S-1-5-18\.\Run: [USB Driver4] UpdateXP2.exe (User 'SYSTEM')
O4 - HKUS\S-1-5-18\.\Run: [Camra Updates] serviceswu.exe (User 'SYSTEM')
O4 - HKUS\S-1-5-18\.\Run: [USBDrives] msfirewalI.exe (User 'SYSTEM')
O4 - HKUS\S-1-5-18\.\Run: [Microsoft Windows Update XP64] xefamgzs.exe (User 'SYSTEM')
O4 - HKUS\S-1-5-18\.\RunOnce: [LSASS32] ISASS32.EXE (User 'SYSTEM')
O4 - HKUS\S-1-5-18\.\RunServices: [Microsoft Windows Update XP64] xefamgzs.exe (User 'SYSTEM')
O4 - HKUS\.DEFAULT\.\Run: [USB Driver4] UpdateXP2.exe (User 'Default user')
O4 - HKUS\.DEFAULT\.\RunOnce: [LSASS32] ISASS32.EXE (User 'Default user')
O4 - HKUS\.DEFAULT\.\RunServices: [Microsoft Windows Update XP64] xefamgzs.exe (User 'Default user')
O6 - HKCU\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Control Panel present
O7 - HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System, DisableRegedit=1
O9 - Extra button: AIM - {AC9E2541-2814-11d5-BC6D-00B0D0A1DE45} - C:\Program Files\AIM\aim.exe
O9 - Extra button: Real.com - {CD67F990-D8E9-11d2-98FE-00C0F0318AFE} - C:\WINDOWS\System32\Shdocvw.dll
O9 - Extra button: MoneySide - {E023F504-0C5A-4750-A1E7-A9046DEA8A21} - C:\Program Files\Microsoft Money\System\mnyside.dll
O15 - Trusted Zone: http://*.turbotax.com
O16 - DPF: {17492023-C23A-453E-A040-C7C580BBF700} (Windows Genuine Advantage Validation Tool) - http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=39204
O16 - DPF: {6414512B-B978-451D-A0D8-FCFDF33E833C} (WUWebControl Class) - http://update.microsoft.com/microsoftupdate/v6/V5Controls/en/x86/client/wuweb_site.cab?1188195863193
O16 - DPF: {6E32070A-766D-4EE6-879C-DC1FA91D2FC3} (MUWebControl Class) - http://update.microsoft.com/microsoftupdate/v6/V5Controls/en/x86/client/muweb_site.cab?1188195832018
O16 - DPF: {B64F4A7C-97C9-11DA-8BDE-F66BAD1E3F3A} - http://www.winantispyware.com/download/2007/download.php?file=2&aid=rrdef1_11_asr&lid=1034&affid=3
O17 - HKLM\System\CCS\Services\Tcpip\.\{29BE81B5-D22F-410B-9B8D-8F8AEF6CC5FA}: NameServer = 85.255.116.146,85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CCS\Services\Tcpip\.\{3F50266D-7178-4E23-9E55-E4F2BBE8B86A}: NameServer = 85.255.116.146,85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CCS\Services\Tcpip\.\{B68AACF7-76E8-41B1-A977-7A28EAC38788}: NameServer = 85.255.116.146,85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CS1\Services\Tcpip\Parameters: NameServer = 85.255.116.146 85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CS1\Services\Tcpip\.\{29BE81B5-D22F-410B-9B8D-8F8AEF6CC5FA}: NameServer = 85.255.116.146,85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CS2\Services\Tcpip\Parameters: NameServer = 85.255.116.146 85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CS2\Services\Tcpip\.\{29BE81B5-D22F-410B-9B8D-8F8AEF6CC5FA}: NameServer = 85.255.116.146,85.255.112.196
O17 - HKLM\System\CCS\Services\Tcpip\Parameters: NameServer = 85.255.116.146 85.255.112.196
O20 - AppInit_DLLs: c:\windows\system32\pmkjifc.dll
O20 - Winlogon Notify: 0 ¸ À - 0 ¸ À (file missing)
O20 - Winlogon Notify: botreg - C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\Settings\bot.dll
O20 - Winlogon Notify: DPCDFR - C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DPCDFR.dll
O20 - Winlogon Notify: instcat - C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\instcat.dll
O21 - SSODL: CDVfQUB - {E4DC5B2C-4E76-F186-6D41-2218BC043068} - C:\WINDOWS\System32\nzmal.dll (file missing)
O23 - Service: Ad-Aware 2007 Service (aawservice) - Lavasoft AB - C:\Program Files\Lavasoft\Ad-Aware 2007\aawservice.exe
O23 - Service: Ati HotKey Poller - Unknown owner - C:\WINDOWS\System32\Ati2evxx.exe (file missing)
O23 - Service: Google Updater Service (gusvc) - Google - C:\Program Files\Google\Common\Google Updater\GoogleUpdaterService.exe
O23 - Service: InstallDriver Table Manager (IDriverT) - Macrovision Corporation - C:\Program Files\Common Files\InstallShield\Driver\11\Intel Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks - Service: iPod Service - Apple Inc. - C:\Program Files\iPod\bin\iPodService.exe
O23 - Service: McAfee Framework Service (McAfeeFramework) - McAfee, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, Inc. - C:\Program Files\McAfee\Common Framework\FrameworkService.exe
O23 - Service: McAfee McShield (McShield) - McAfee, Inc. - C:\Program Files\McAfee\VirusScan Enterprise\Mcshield.exe
O23 - Service: McAfee Task Manager (McTaskManager) - McAfee, Inc. - C:\Program Files\McAfee\VirusScan Enterprise\VsTskMgr.exe
O23 - Service: ScsiAccess - Unknown owner - C:\WINDOWS\System32\ScsiAccess.EXE (file missing)
O23 - Service: Windows Management Service - Unknown owner - C:\WINDOWS\System32\.exe (file missing)
O23 - Service: WLTRYSVC - Unknown owner - C:\WINDOWS\System32\wltrysvc.exe (file missing)

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Internet Archive

For other uses, see Internet archive (disambiguation).

For help citing the Wayback Machine (an Internet Archive service) in the English Wikipedia, see Help:Using the Wayback Machine.

"archive.org" redirects here. It is not to be confused with arXiv.org.

American non-profit organization providing archives of digital media since 1996

Coordinates: 37°46′56″N122°28′18″W / 37.782321°N 122.47161137°W / 37.782321; -122.47161137

The Internet Archive is an American digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge".[notes 2][notes 3] It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating a free and open Internet. As of November 2021, the Internet Archive holds over 33 million books and texts, 7.3 million movies, videos and TV shows, 785,000 software programs, 13,901,000 audio files, 4 million images, and 627 billion web pages in the Wayback Machine.

The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains hundreds of billions of web captures.[notes 4][3] The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

History[edit]

Headquarters in Building 116 of the Presidio of San Francisco in 2008

Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in May 1996 around the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet.[notes 5] In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities,[notes 6] though it saved the earliest pages in May 1996.[4][5] The archived content first became available to the general public in 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine.

In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archives. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Soon after that, the Archive began working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled; publicly accessible books were made available in a protected Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) format.[notes 7]

According to its website:[notes 8]

Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.

In August 2012, the Archive announced[6] that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for more than 1.3 million existing files, and all newly uploaded files.[7][8] This method is the fastest means of downloading media from the Archive, as files are served from two Archive data centers, in addition to other torrent clients which have downloaded and continue to serve the files.[7][notes 9] On November 6, 2013, the Internet Archive's headquarters in San Francisco's Richmond District caught fire,[9] destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.[10] According to the Archive, it lost a side-building housing one of 30 of its scanning centers; cameras, lights, and scanning equipment worth hundreds of thousands of dollars; and "maybe 20 boxes of books and film, some irreplaceable, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, most already digitized, and some replaceable".[11] The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage.[12]

An overhaul of the site was launched as beta in November 2014, and the legacy layout was removed in March 2016.[13][14]

In November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the Archive to be based somewhere in Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build a backup archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump.[15][16][17] Kahle was quoted as saying:

On November 9th in America, we woke up to a new administration promising radical change. It was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and perpetually accessible. It means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions. It means serving patrons in a world in which government surveillance is not going away; indeed it looks like it will increase. Throughout history, libraries have fought against terrible violations of privacy—where people have been rounded up simply for what they read. At the Internet Archive, we are fighting to protect our readers' privacy in the digital world.[15]

Beginning in 2017, OCLC and the Internet Archive have collaborated to make the Archive's records of digitized books available in WorldCat.[18]

Since 2018, the Internet Archive visual arts residency, which is organized by Amir Saber Esfahani and Andrew McClintock, helps connect artists with the Archive's over 48 petabytes[notes 10] of digitized materials. Over the course of the yearlong residency, visual artists create a body of work which culminates in an exhibition. The hope is to connect digital history with the arts and create something for future generations to appreciate online or off.[19] Previous artists in residence include Taravat Talepasand, Whitney Lynn, and Jenny Odell.[20]

In 2019, its headquarters in San Francisco received a bomb threat which forced a temporary evacuation of the building.[21]

The Internet Archive acquires most materials from donations,[notes 11] such as hundreds of thousands of 78 rpm discs from Boston Public Library in 2017,[22] a donation of 250,000 books from Trent University in 2018,[23] and the entire collection of Marygrove College's library in 2020 after it closed.[24] All material is then digitized and retained in digital storage, while a digital copy is returned to the original holder and the Internet Archive's copy, if not in the public domain, is lent to patrons worldwide one at a time under the controlled digital lending (CDL) theory of the first-sale doctrine.[25]

Operations[edit]

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(May 2020)

The Archive is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[26] The Internet Archive also manages periodic funding campaigns. For instance, a December 2019 campaign had a goal of reaching $6 million in donations.[citation needed]

The Archive is headquartered in San Francisco, California. From 1996 to 2009, its headquarters were in the Presidio of San Francisco, a former U.S. military base. Since 2009, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, its headquarters have been at 300 Funston Avenue in San Francisco, a former Christian Science Church. At one time, most Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks its staff worked in its book-scanning centers; as of 2019, scanning is performed by 100 paid operators worldwide.[27] The Archive also has data centers in three Californian cities: San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To reduce the risk of data loss, the Archive creates copies of parts of its collection at more distant locations, including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina[notes 12] in Egypt and IObit Uninstaller Pro 14.5.0 Crack With License Key 2021 Free facility in Amsterdam.[28]

The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium[29] and was officially designated as a library by the state of California in 2007.[notes 13][30]

Web archiving[edit]

Main article: Web archiving

Wayback Machine[edit]

Main article: Wayback Machine

Wayback Machine logo, used since 2001

The Internet Archive capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon (specifically, Peabody's Improbable History), and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows 98lite Pro v2.0 crack serial keygen of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.[31] This service allows users to view some of the archived web pages. The Wayback Machine was created as a joint effort between Alexa Internet (owned by Amazon.com) and the Internet Archive when a three-dimensional index was built to allow for the browsing of archived web content.[notes 14] Millions of web sites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of web sites used to look like, to grab original source code from web sites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit web sites that no longer even exist. Not all web sites are available because many web site owners choose to exclude their sites. As with all sites based on data from web crawlers, the Internet Archive misses large areas of the web for a variety of other reasons. A 2004 paper found international biases in the coverage, but deemed them "not intentional".[32]

A purchase of additional storage at the Internet Archive
Serversat the Internet Archive headquarters in San Chris-PC RAM Booster 5.14.14 Crack + Serial Number Latest 2021 Free Download "Save Page Now" archiving feature was made available in October 2013,[33] accessible on the lower right of the Wayback Machine's main page.[notes 15] Once a target URL is entered and saved, the web page will become part of the Wayback Machine.[33] Through the Internet address web.archive.org,[34] users can upload to the Wayback Machine a large variety of contents, including PDF and data compression file formats. The Wayback Machine creates a permanent local URL of the upload content, that is accessible in the web, AirParrot 3.1.3 Crack With Torrent 2021 Download [Mac/Win] if not listed while searching in the http://archive.org official website.

May 12, 1996, is the date of the oldest archived pages on the archive.org WayBack Machine, such as infoseek.com.[35]

In October 2016, it was announced that the way web pages are counted would be changed, resulting in the decrease of the archived pages counts shown.[36]

In September 2020, the Internet Archive announced a partnership with Cloudflare to automatically index websites served via its "Always Online" services.[38]

Archive-It[edit]

Brewster Kahleof the Internet Archive talks about archiving operations

Created in early 2006, Archive-It[39] is a web archiving subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives. Archive-It allows the user to customize their capture or exclusion of web content they want to preserve for cultural heritage reasons. Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, browse, search, and view their archived collections.[40]

In terms of accessibility, the archived web sites are full text searchable within seven days of capture.[41] Content collected through Archive-It is captured and stored as EaseUS Todo Backup 13.5: WARC file. A primary and back-up copy is stored at the Internet Archive data centers. A copy of the WARC file can be given to subscribing partner institutions for geo-redundant preservation and storage purposes to their best practice standards.[42] Periodically, the data captured through Archive-It is indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive.

As of March 2014[update], Archive-It had more than 275 partner institutions in 46 U.S. states and 16 countries that have captured more than 7.4 billion URLs for more than 2,444 public collections. Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, state archives, federal institutions, museums, law libraries, and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, North Carolina State Archives and Library, Stanford University, Columbia University, American University in Cairo, Georgetown Law Library, and many others.

Internet Archive Scholar[edit]

In September 2020 Internet Archive announced a new initiative to archive and preserve open access academic journals, called the "Internet Archive Scholar".[43][44] Its fulltext search index includes over 25 million research articles and other scholarly documents preserved in the Internet Archive. The collection spans from digitized copies of eighteenth century journals through the latest Open Access conference proceedings and pre-prints crawled from the World Wide Web.

General Index[edit]

In 2021, the Internet Archive announced the initial version of the General Index, a publicly available index to a collection of 107 million Classroom Spy Professional 4.7.13 Full Version journal articles.[45][46]

Book collections[edit]

Text collection[edit]

The Internet Archive operates 33 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1,000 books a day for a total of more than 2 million books,[47] financially supported by libraries and foundations.[notes 29] As of July 2013[update], the collection included 4.4 million books with more than 15 million downloads per month.[47] As of November 2008[update], when there were approximately 1 million texts, the entire collection was greater than 0.5 petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.[48] Between about 2006 and 2008, Microsoft had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning more than 300,000 books that were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, 2008, Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.[49] Microsoft made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.[49]

An Internet Archive in-house scan ongoing

Around October 2007, Archive users began uploading public domain books from Google Book Search.[notes 30] As of November 2013[update], there were more than 900,000 Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection;[notes 31] the books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download.[50] Brewster Kahle revealed in 2013 that this archival effort was coordinated by Aaron Swartz, who with a "bunch of friends" downloaded the public domain books from Google slow enough and from enough computers to stay within Google's restrictions. They did this to ensure public access to the public domain. Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks Archive ensured the items were attributed and linked back to Google, which never complained, while libraries "grumbled". According to Kahle, this is an example of Swartz's "genius" to work Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks what could give the most to the public good for millions of people.[51]Besides books, the Archive offers free and anonymous public access to more than four million court opinions, legal briefs, or exhibits uploaded from the United States Federal Courts' PACER electronic document system via the RECAP web browser plugin. These documents had been kept behind a federal court paywall. On the Archive, they had been accessed by more than six million people by 2013.[51]

The Archive's BookReader web app,[52] built into its website, has features such as single-page, two-page, and thumbnail modes; fullscreen mode; page zooming of high-resolution images; and flip page animation.[52][53]

Number of texts for each language[edit]

Number of all texts
(December 9, 2019)
22,197,912[54]
Language Number of texts
(November 27, 2015)
English6,553,945[notes 32]
French358,721[notes 33]
German344,810[notes 34]
Spanish134,170[notes 35]
Chinese84,147[notes 36]
Arabic66,786[notes 37]
Dutch30,237[notes 38]
Portuguese25,938[notes 39]
Russian22,731[notes 40]
Urdu14,978[notes 41]
Japanese14,795[notes 42]

Number of texts for each decade[edit]

Decade Number of texts
(July 5, 2021)
1800s 82,587[notes 43]
1810s 100,048[notes 44]
1820s 151,669[notes 45]
1830s 203,287[notes 46]
1840s 239,343[notes 47]
1850s 307,302[notes 48]
1860s 322,843[notes 49]
1870s 336,637[notes 50]
1880s 445,046[notes 51]
1890s 570,017[notes 52]
Decade Number of texts
(July 5, 2021) Adobe photoshop cs5.1 extended 12.0 keygen,serial,crack
767,201[notes 53]
1910s 744,445[notes 54]
1920s 473,331[notes 55]
1930s 342,779[notes 56]
1940s 400,490[notes 57]
1950s 560,730[notes 58]
1960s 711,449[notes 59]
1970s 2,540,807[notes 60]
1980s 1,124,927[notes 61]
1990s 1,379,398[notes 62]

Open Library[edit]

Main article: Open Library

The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The wiki seeks to include a web page for every book ever published: it holds 25 million catalog records of editions. It also seeks to be a web-accessible public library: it contains the full texts of approximately 1,600,000 public domain books (out of the more than five million from the main texts collection), as well as in-print and in-copyright books,[55] many of which are fully readable, downloadable[56][57] and full-text searchable;[58] it offers a two-week loan of e-books in its controlled digital lending program for over 647,784 books not in the public domain, in partnership with over 1,000 library partners from 6 countries[47][59] after a free registration on the web site. Open Library is a free and open-source software project, with its source code freely available on GitHub.

The Open Library faces objections from some authors and the Society of Authors, who hold that the project VSDC Video Editor Pro 6.8.1 Full Version distributing books without authorization and is thus in violation of copyright laws,[60] and four major publishers initiated a copyright infringement lawsuit against the Internet Archive in June 2020 to stop the Open Library project.[61]

[edit]

Many large institutional sponsors have helped the Internet Archive provide millions of scanned publications (text items).[62] Some sponsors that have digitized large quantities of texts include the University of Toronto's Robarts Library, the University of Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks Libraries, the University of Ottawa, the Library of Congress, Boston Library Consortium member libraries, the Boston Public Library, the Princeton Theological Seminary Library, and many others.[63]

In 2017, the MIT Press authorized the Internet Archive to digitize and lend books from the press's backlist,[64] with financial support from the Arcadia Fund.[65][66] A year later, the Internet Archive received further funding from the Arcadia Fund to invite some other university presses to partner with the Internet Archive to digitize books, a project called "Unlocking University Press Books".[67][68]

The Library of Congress has created numerous handle system identifiers that point to free digitized books in the Internet Archive.[69] The Internet Archive and Open Library are listed on the Library of Congress website as a source of e-books.[70]

Media collections[edit]

Microfilms at the Internet Archive

In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. Media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes a "Community" sub-collection (formerly named "Open Source") where general contributions by the public are stored.

Audio[edit]

Audio Archive[edit]

The Audio Archive is an audio archive that includes music, audiobooks, news broadcasts, old time radio shows, and a wide variety of other audio files. There are more than 200,000 free digital recordings in the collection. The subcollections include audio books and poetry, podcasts, non-English audio, and many others.[notes 66] The sound collections are curated by B. George, director of the ARChive of Contemporary Music.[71]

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Live Music Archive[edit]

Main article: Live Music Archive

The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes more than 170,000 concert recordings from independent musicians, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts, such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Also, Jordan Zevon has allowed the Internet Archive to host a definitive collection of his father Warren Zevon's concert recordings. The Zevon collection ranges from 1976 to 2001 and contains 126 concerts including 1,137 songs.[72]

The Great 78 Project[edit]

Main article: The Great 78 Project

The Great 78 Project aims to digitize 250,000 78 rpm singles (500,000 songs) from the period between 1880 and 1960, donated by various collectors and institutions. It has been developed in collaboration with the Archive of Contemporary Music and George Blood Audio, responsible for the audio digitization.[71]

Netlabels[edit]

Not to be confused with Netlabel.

The Archive has a collection of freely distributable music that is Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks and available for download via its Netlabels service. The music in this collection generally has Creative Commons-license catalogs of virtual record labels.[notes 67][73]

Images collection[edit]

This collection contains more than 3.5 million items.[74]Cover Art Archive, Metropolitan Museum of Art - Gallery Images, NASA Images, Occupy Wall StreetFlickr Archive, and USGS Maps and are some sub-collections of Image collection.

Cover Art Archive[edit]

Logo of Cover Art Archive

The Cover Art Archive is a joint project between the Internet Archive and MusicBrainz, whose goal is to make cover art images on the Internet. As of April 2021,[update] this collection contains more than 1,400,000 items.[notes 68]

Metropolitan Museum of Art images[edit]

The images of this collection are from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This collection contains more than 140,000 items.[notes 69]

NASA Images[edit]

The NASA Images archive was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive and NASA to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The IA NASA Images team worked closely with all of the NASA centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection.[75] The nasaimages.org site launched in July 2008 and had more than 100,000 items online at the end of its hosting in 2012.

Occupy Wall Street Flickr archive[edit]

This collection contains creative commons licensed photographs from Flickr related to the Occupy Wall Street movement. This collection contains more than 15,000 items.[notes 70]

USGS Maps[edit]

This collection contains Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks than 59,000 items from Libre Map Project.[notes 71]

Mathematical images[edit]

This collection contains mathematical images created by mathematical artist Hamid Naderi Yeganeh.[notes 72]

Machinima Archive[edit]

One of the sub-collections of the Internet Archive's Video Archive is the Machinima Archive. This small section hosts many Machinima videos. Machinima is a digital artform in which computer games, game engines, or software engines are used in a sandbox-like mode to create Renoise 2.8 Crack FREE Download pictures, recreate plays, or even publish presentations or keynotes. The archive collects a range of Machinima films from internet publishers such as Rooster Teeth and Machinima.com as well as independent producers. The sub-collection is a collaborative effort among the Internet Archive, the How They Got Game research project at Stanford University, the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences, and Machinima.com.[notes 73]

Microfilm collection[edit]

This collection contains approximately 160,000 microfilmed items from a variety of libraries including the University of Chicago Libraries, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Alberta, Allen County Public Library, and the National Technical Information Service.[notes 74][notes 75]

Moving image collection[edit]

See also: Wikipedia list of films freely available on the Internet Archive

The Internet Archive holds a collection of approximately 3,863 feature films.[notes 76] Additionally, the Internet Archive's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels, classic cartoons, pro- and anti-war propaganda, The Video Cellar Collection, Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection, early television, and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational, and industrial films, as well as amateur and home movie collections.

Subcategories of this collection include:

  • IA's Brick Films collection, which contains stop-motion animation filmed with Lego bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films.
  • IA's Election 2004 collection, a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the 2004 United States presidential election.
  • IA's FedFlix collection, Joint Venture NTIS-1832 between the National Technical Information Service and Public.Resource.Org that features "the best movies of the United States Government, from training films to history, from our national parks to the U.S. Fire Academy and the Postal Inspectors"[notes 77]
  • IA's Independent News collection, which includes WinThruster 1.80 MAC Archives such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition from 2001, in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters". Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.
  • IA's September 11 Television Archive, which contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, as they unfolded on live television.[notes 78]

Open Educational Resources[edit]

Open Educational Resources is a digital collection at archive.org. This collection contains hundreds of free courses, video lectures, and supplemental materials from universities in the United States and China. The contributors of this collection are ArsDigita University, Hewlett Foundation, MIT, Monterey Institute, and Naropa University.[notes 79]

TV News Search & Borrow[edit]

TV tuners at the Internet Archive

In September 2012, the Internet Archive launched the TV News Search & Borrow service for searching U.S. national news programs.[notes 80] The service is built on closed captioning transcripts and allows users to search and stream 30-second video clips. Upon launch, the service contained "350,000 news programs collected over 3 years from national U.S. networks and stations in San Francisco and Washington D.C."[76] According to Kahle, the service was inspired by the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a similar library of televised network news programs.[77] In contrast to Vanderbilt, which limits access to streaming video to individuals associated with subscribing colleges and universities, the TV News Search & Borrow allows open access Windows 7 Crack Loader Activator by DAZ Free Download its streaming video clips. In 2013, the Archive received an additional donation of "approximately 40,000 well-organized tapes" from the estate of a Philadelphia woman, Marion Stokes. Stokes "had recorded more than 35 years of TV news in Philadelphia and Boston with her VHS and Betamax machines."[78]

Miscellaneous collections[edit]

Brooklyn Museum[edit]

This collection contains approximately 3,000 items from Brooklyn Museum.[notes 81]

Michelson library[edit]

In December 2020, the film research library of Lillian Michelson was donated to the archive.[79]

Other services and endeavors[edit]

Physical media[edit]

A vintage wall intercom, an example of another "archived" item

Voicing a strong reaction to the idea of books simply being thrown away, and inspired by the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Kahle now envisions collecting one copy of every book ever published. "We're not going to get there, but that's our goal", he said. Alongside the books, Kahle plans to store the Internet Archive's old servers, which were replaced in 2010.[80]

Software[edit]

The Internet Archive has "the largest collection of historical software online in the world", spanning 50 years of computer history in terabytes of computer magazines and journals, books, shareware discs, FTP sites, video games, etc. The Internet Archive has created an archive of what it describes as "vintage software", as a way to preserve them.[notes 82] The project advocated for an exemption from the United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act to permit them to bypass copy protection, which was approved in 2003 for a period of three years.[notes 83] The Archive does not offer the software for download, as the exemption is solely "for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive."[81] The exemption was renewed in 2006, and in 2009 was indefinitely extended pending further rulemakings.[82] The Library reiterated the exemption as a "Final Rule" with no expiration date in 2010.[83] In 2013, the Internet Archive began to provide abandonware video games browser-playable via MESS, for instance the Atari 2600 game E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[84] Since December 23, 2014, the Internet Archive presents, via a browser-based DOSBox emulation, thousands of DOS/PC games[85][86][notes 84][87] for "scholarship and research purposes only".[notes 85][88][89] In November 2020, the Archive introduced a new emulator for Adobe Flash called Ruffle, and began archiving Flash animations and games ahead of the December 31, 2020 end-of-life for the Flash plugin across all computer systems.[90]

Table Top Scribe System[edit]

A combined hardware software system has been developed that performs a safe method of digitizing content.[notes 86][91]

Credit Union[edit]

From 2012 to November 2015, the Internet Archive operated the Internet Archive Federal Credit Union, a federal credit union based in New Brunswick, New Jersey, with the goal of Windows 7 Beta 32 Bit - Edition crack serial keygen access to low- and middle-income people. Throughout its short existence, the IAFCU experienced significant conflicts with the National Credit Union Administration, which severely limited the IAFCU's loan portfolio and concerns over serving Bitcoin firms. At the time of its dissolution, it consisted of 395 members and was worth $2.5 million.[92][93]

Controversies and legal disputes[edit]

See also: Wayback Machine § In legal evidence

The main hall of the current headquarters

Grateful Dead[edit]

In November 2005, free downloads of Grateful Dead concerts Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks removed from the site. John Perry Barlow identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann as the instigators of the change, according to an article in The New York Times.[94]Phil Lesh commented on the change in a November 30, 2005, posting to his personal web site:

It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead shows were taken down from Archive.org right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to be pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those who want it.[95]

A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only. Concerts have since been re-added.[notes 87]

National security letters[edit]

On May 8, 2008, it was revealed that the Internet Archive had successfully challenged an FBInational security letter asking for logs on an undisclosed user.[96][97]

On November 28, 2016, it was revealed that a second FBI national security letter had been successfully challenged that had been asking for logs on another undisclosed user.[98]

Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills[edit]

The Internet Archive blacked out its web site for 12 hours on January 18, 2012, in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act and the PROTECT IP Actbills, two pieces of legislation in the United States Congress that they claimed would "negatively affect the Utilities Archives - Malik Softs of web publishing that led to the emergence of the Internet Archive". This occurred in conjunction with the English Wikipedia blackout, as well as numerous other protests across the Internet.[99]

Opposition to Google Books settlement[edit]

The Internet Archive is a member of the Open Book Alliance, which has been among the most outspoken critics of the Google Book Settlement. The Archive advocates an alternative digital library project.[100]

Nintendo Power magazine[edit]

In February 2016, Internet Archive users had begun archiving digital copies of Nintendo Power, Nintendo's official magazine for their games and products, which ran from 1988 to 2012. The first 140 issues had been collected, before Nintendo had the archive removed on August 8, 2016. In response to the take-down, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks told gaming website Polygon, "[Nintendo] must protect our own characters, trademarks and other content. The unapproved use of Nintendo's intellectual property can weaken our ability to protect and preserve it, or to possibly use it for new projects".[101]

Government of India[edit]

In August 2017, the Department of Telecommunications of the Government of India blocked the Internet Archive along with other file-sharing websites, in accordance with two court orders issued by the Madras High Court,[102] citing piracy concerns after copies of two Bollywood films were allegedly shared via the service.[103] The HTTP version of the Archive was blocked but it remained accessible using the HTTPS protocol.[102]

Turkey[edit]

See also: Censorship in Turkey

On October 9, 2016, the Internet Archive was temporarily blocked in Turkey after it was used (amongst other file hosting services) by hackers to host 17 GB of leaked government emails.[104][105]

National Emergency Library[edit]

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic which closed many schools, universities, and libraries, the Archive announced on March 24, 2020 that it was creating the National Emergency Library by removing the lending restrictions it had in place for 1.4 million digitized books in its Open Library but otherwise limiting users to SRS Audio SandBox 1.10.2.0 Full Version Download number of books they could check out and enforcing their return; normally, the site would only allow one digital lending for each physical copy of the book they had, by use of an encrypted file that would become unusable Your Uninstaller! Professional 6.1 crack serial keygen the lending period was completed. This Library would remain as such until at least June 30, 2020 or until the US national emergency was over, whichever came later.[106] At launch, the Internet Archive allowed authors and rightholders to submit opt-out requests for their works to be omitted from the National Emergency Library.[107][108][109]

The Internet Archive said the National Emergency Library addressed an "unprecedented global and immediate need for access to reading and research material" due to the closures of physical libraries worldwide.[110] They justified the move in a number of ways. Legally, they said they were promoting access to those inaccessible resources, which they claimed was an exercise in Fair Use principles. The Archive continued implementing their controlled digital lending policy that predated the National Emergency Library, meaning they still encrypted the lent copies and it was no easier for users to create new copies of the books than before. An ultimate determination of whether or not the National Emergency Library constituted Fair Use could only be made by a court. Morally, they also pointed out that the Internet Archive was a registered library like any other, that they either paid for the books themselves or received them as donations, and that lending through libraries predated copyright restrictions.[107][111]

However, the Archive had already been criticized by authors and publishers for its prior lending approach, and upon announcement of the National Emergency Library, authors (like Neil Gaiman and Chuck Wendig), publishers, and groups representing both took further issue, equating the move to copyright infringement and digital piracy, and using the COVID-19 pandemic as a reason to push the boundaries of copyright (see also: Open Library § Copyright violation accusations).[112][113][114][115] After the works of some of these authors were ridiculed in responses, the Internet Archive's Jason Scott requested that supporters of the National Emergency Library not denigrate anyone's books: "I realize there's strong debate and disagreement here, but books are life-giving and life-changing and these writers made them."[116]

Publishers' lawsuit[edit]

The operation of the National Emergency Library was part of a lawsuit filed against the Internet Archive by four major book publishers in June 2020, challenging the copyright validity of the controlled digital lending program.[61][117] In response, the Internet Archive closed the National Emergency Library on June 16, 2020, rather than the planned June 30, 2020, due to the lawsuit.[118][119] The plaintiffs, supported by the Copyright Alliance,[120] claimed in their lawsuit that the Internet Archive's actions constituted a "willful mass Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks infringement". Additionally, Senator Thom Tillis (R-North Carolina), chairman of the intellectual property subcommittee on the Senate Judiciary Committee, said in a letter to the Internet Archive that he was "concerned that the Internet Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks thinks that it – not Congress – gets to determine the scope of copyright law".[121] In August 2020 the lawsuit trial was tentatively scheduled to begin in November 2021.[122]

As part of its response to the publishers' lawsuit, in late 2020 the Archive launched a campaign called Empowering Libraries (hashtag #EmpoweringLibraries) that portrayed the lawsuit as a threat to all libraries.[123]

In December 2020, Publishers Weekly included the lawsuit among its "Top 10 Library Stories of 2020".[124]

In a 2021 preprint article, Argyri Panezi argued that the case "presents two important, but separate questions related to the electronic access to library works; first, it raises questions around the legal Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks of digital lending, and second, it asks whether emergency use of copyrighted material might be fair use" and argued that libraries have a public service role to enable "future generations to keep having equal access—or opportunities to access—a plurality of original sources".[125]

Wayforward Machine[edit]

Screenshot of viewing English Wikipedia on the Wayforward Machine

In September 30, 2021. as a part of 25th anniversary, the Internet Archive launched the "Wayforward Machine", a pseudo-satirical or fictional website covered with pop-ups asking for personal information, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks. The site was intended to depict a potential timeline of events leading to such a future, such as the repeal of Section 230 of the United States Code.[126][127] Wayforward Machine will be removed after Internet Archive's 25th anniversary.

Ceramic archivists collection[edit]

Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks height="147">
Ceramicfigures of Internet Archive employees

The Great Room of the Internet Archive features a collection of more than 100 ceramic figures representing employees of the Internet Archive. This collection, inspired by the statues of the Xian warriors in China, was commissioned by Brewster Kahle, Windows Archives - Page 3 of 81 - Patch Cracks, sculpted by Nuala Creed, and is ongoing.[128]

[edit]

The Internet Archive visual arts residency,[129] organized by Amir Saber Esfahani, is designed to connect emerging and mid-career artists with the Archive's millions of collections and to show what is possible when open access to information intersects with the arts. During this one-year residency, selected artists develop a body of work that responds to and utilizes the Archive's collections in their own practice.[130]

2019 Residency Artists: Caleb Duarte, Whitney Lynn, and Jeffrey Alan Scudder.

2018 Residency Artists: Mieke Marple, Chris Sollars, and Taravat Talepasand.

2017 Residency Artists: Laura Kim, Jeremiah Jenkins, and Jenny Odell

See also[edit]

Similar projects[edit]

Other[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^"Internet Archive: About the Archive". Wayback Machine. April 8, 2000. Archived from the original on April 8, 2000. Retrieved March 13, 2016.
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  51. ^
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