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Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

RP 040046

Presentation to: TSG RAN Meeting # 23


Document for presentation: TR25.896, Version 2.0.0
Presented for: Approval

Abstract of document:
This document is a technical report titled 'Feasibility Study for Enhanced Uplink for UTRA FDD'
for the Release 6 study item “Uplink Enhancements for Dedicated Transport Channels"

Changes since last presentation to TSG RAN:


TR25.896 version 1.0.0 was presented for information for TSG RAN meeting #21. Since then the
TR has grown from 63 pages to 180 pages long. Among very many other things the conclusions
and recommendations chapter has been completed. More detailed descripton in [1].

Outstanding Issues:
No Outstanding Issues.

Contentious Issues:
No Contentious Issues.

References:
[1] RP-040021, Status Report for SI on Uplink Enhancements for Dedicated Transport Channels
3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)
Technical Report

3rd Generation Partnership Project;


Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network;
Feasibility Study for Enhanced Uplink for UTRA FDD;
(Release 6)

The present document has been developed within the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP TM) and may be further elaborated for the purposes of 3GPP.

The present document has not been subject to any approval process by the 3GPP Organizational Partners and shall not be implemented.
This Specification is provided for future development work within 3GPP only. The Organizational Partners accept no liability for any use of this Specification.
Specifications and reports for implementation of the 3GPP TM system should be obtained via the 3GPP Organizational Partners' Publications Offices.
Release 6 2 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

Keywords
UMTS, radio, packet mode, layer 1

3GPP

Postal address

3GPP support office address


650 Route des Lucioles - Sophia Antipolis
Valbonne - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16

Internet
http://www.3gpp.org

Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced except as authorized by written permission.


The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.

© 2003, 3GPP Organizational Partners (ARIB, CCSA, ETSI, T1, TTA, TTC).
All rights reserved.

3GPP
Release 6 3 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

Contents
Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ 8
1 Scope ....................................................................................................................................................... 9
2 References ............................................................................................................................................... 9
3 Definitions, symbols and abbreviations................................................................................................. 10
4 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 10
5 Requirements ......................................................................................................................................... 10
6 Reference Techniques in Earlier 3GPP Releases .................................................................................. 11
6.1 DCH Setup Mechanisms ....................................................................................................................................... 11
6.1.1 Uplink/Downlink Synchronization .................................................................................................................. 12
6.2 Uplink TFCS Management with RRC Signalling ................................................................................................. 13
6.3 Transport Format Combination Selection in the UE ............................................................................................. 13
6.3.1 Description of TFC selection method.............................................................................................................. 13
6.3.2 TFC selection method as a reference case for Enhanced Uplink DCH ........................................................... 16
6.4 RNC controlled scheduling: DRAC and TFCS Restriction .................................................................................. 17
7 Overview of Techniques considered to support Enhanced Uplink........................................................ 17
7.1 Scheduling <NodeB controlled scheduling, AMC>.............................................................................................. 17
7.1.1 Node B Controlled Rate Scheduling by Fast TFCS Restriction Control ......................................................... 19
7.1.1.1 Purpose and General Assumptions .................................................................................................................. 19
7.1.1.2 General Principle ............................................................................................................................................. 19
7.1.1.3 Restricting the Allowed Uplink TFCs in a TFCS by L1 Signalling ................................................................ 20
7.1.1.4 Issues Requiring Further Studying .................................................................................................................. 20
7.1.1.5 Signalling to Support Fast TFCS Restriction Control ..................................................................................... 21
7.1.1.5.1 L1 signaling ............................................................................................................................................... 21
7.1.1.5.2 RRC signalling........................................................................................................................................... 21
7.1.1.5.3 Iub/Iur signalling........................................................................................................................................ 21
7.1.2 Method for Node B Controlled Time and Rate Scheduling............................................................................. 21
7.1.2.1 Purpose and General Assumptions ................................................................................................................. 21
7.1.2.2 General Principle ............................................................................................................................................ 21
7.1.2.3 Controlling UE TFCS and transmission time ................................................................................................. 22
7.1.2.4 Issues Requiring Further Study ...................................................................................................................... 23
7.1.2.5 Signalling to Support Fast Node-B Time and Rate Control ........................................................................... 23
7.1.2.5.1 L1 Signalling.............................................................................................................................................. 23
7.1.2.5.1.1 Uplink Signalling of Scheduling Information Update ............................................................................... 24
7.1.2.5.1.1.1 Explicit scheduling information update signaling ................................................................................ 24
7.1.2.5.1.1.2 Other ways of conveying scheduling information update to Node B................................................... 25
7.1.2.5.2 RRC Signalling (TBD).............................................................................................................................. 25
7.1.2.5.3 Iub/Iur Signalling (TBD) .......................................................................................................................... 25
7.1.3 Scheduling in Soft Handover........................................................................................................................... 25
7.1.4 Node B Controlled Rate Scheduling by Persistence Control........................................................................... 25
7.1.4.1 Issues Requiring Further Studying .................................................................................................................. 26
7.1.4.2 Signalling to Support Fast Rate Scheduling by Persistence Control ............................................................... 26
7.1.4.2.1 L1 signaling ............................................................................................................................................... 26
7.1.5 Brief Overview of Different Scheduling Strategies......................................................................................... 26
7.1.5.1 Node B Controlled Rate Scheduling by Fast TFCS Restriction Control ......................................................... 26
7.1.5.2 Node B Controlled Time and Rate Scheduling ............................................................................................... 26
7.2 Hybrid ARQ .......................................................................................................................................................... 26
7.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................ 26
7.2.2 Transport Channel Processing ......................................................................................................................... 27
7.2.3 Associated Signaling ....................................................................................................................................... 28
7.2.4 Operation in Soft Handover............................................................................................................................. 28
7.3 Fast DCH Setup Mechanisms................................................................................................................................ 29
7.3.1 Background...................................................................................................................................................... 29
7.3.2 Reducing Uplink/Downlink Synchronization Time ........................................................................................ 29

3GPP
Release 6 4 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

7.4 Shorter Frame Size for Improved QoS.................................................................................................................. 31


7.5 Signalling to support the enhancements ................................................................................................................ 32
7.5.1 Downlink signalling ........................................................................................................................................ 32
7.5.1.1 Basic considerations ........................................................................................................................................ 32
7.5.1.2 Downlink signalling multiplexed on existing channel..................................................................................... 32
7.5.1.3 Downlink signalling on a new code channel ................................................................................................... 33
7.5.2 Uplink signalling ............................................................................................................................................. 33
7.5.2.1 Basic considerations ........................................................................................................................................ 33
7.5.2.2 Coding, multiplexing and mapping options..................................................................................................... 33
7.5.2.2.1 Mapping on (E-)DPDCH ........................................................................................................................... 34
7.5.2.2.1.1 Mapping on DPDCH using a TrCH ........................................................................................................... 34
7.5.2.2.2 Mapping on DPCCH.................................................................................................................................. 34
7.5.2.2.3 Mapping on a new code channel................................................................................................................ 35
7.6 Miscellaneous enhancements ................................................................................................................................ 35
7.6.1 Support for enhanced channel estimation ........................................................................................................ 35
8 Physical Layer Structure Alternatives for Enhanced Uplink DCH ....................................................... 36
8.1 Relationship to existing transport channels ........................................................................................................... 36
8.1.1 Transport Channel Structure............................................................................................................................ 36
8.1.1.1 Number of E-DCHs ......................................................................................................................................... 37
8.1.1.2 TTI .............................................................................................................................................................. 37
8.2 TTI length vs. HARQ physical channel structure ................................................................................................. 38
8.3 Multiplexing alternatives in general...................................................................................................................... 39
8.3.1 Reuse of current physical layer structure......................................................................................................... 40
8.3.2 Allocating a separate code channel for Enhanced uplink DCH....................................................................... 40
8.4 Multiplexing alternatives in detail......................................................................................................................... 40
8.4.1 Physical layer structures in time domain (TS25.212 ) ..................................................................................... 41
8.4.1.1 General structures describing only how to multiplex DCH and E-DCH ......................................................... 41
8.4.1.1.1 Physical Layer Structure Supporting minimum TTI of 10ms .................................................................... 41
8.4.1.1.1.1 Code multiplexing between DCH and E-DCH .......................................................................................... 41
8.4.1.1.1.2 Time multiplexing between DCH and E-DCH .......................................................................................... 42
8.4.1.1.2 Physical Layer Structure Supporting minimum TTI of 2ms ...................................................................... 43
8.4.1.1.2.1 Code multiplexing between DCH and E-DCH .......................................................................................... 43
8.4.1.1.2.2 Time multiplexing between DCH and E-DCH .......................................................................................... 44
8.4.1.2 More detailed structures defining how to multiplex L1 signaling (HSDPCCH, DPCCH, EDPCCH) with
DCH and E-DCH............................................................................................................................................. 46
8.4.2 Physical layer structures in code domain......................................................................................................... 46
8.4.2.1 Case 1: Structure when using code multiplexing for all channels ................................................................... 47
8.4.2.2 Case 2: Structure when E-DCH, DCH and EDPCCH are time Multiplexed................................................... 48
8.4.2.3 Case 3: Structure when E-DCH , DCH and EDPCCH and HS-DPCCH are time multiplexed ....................... 49
8.4.2.4 Case 4: Structure when E-DCH, EDPCCH and HSDPCCH are time multiplexed ......................................... 50
8.4.2.5 Case 5: Structure similar to case 2, but with 8PSK included........................................................................... 51
8.4.2.6 Case 6: Structure similar to case 3, but with 8PSK included........................................................................... 51
8.4.2.7 Case 7: Structure similar to case 4, but with 8PSK included........................................................................... 51
8.4.2.8 Case 8: Structure when using code multiplexing for all channels ................................................................... 52
8.5 E-DCH timing ...................................................................................................................................................... 53
9 Evaluation of Techniques for Enhanced Uplink.................................................................................... 54
9.1 Scheduling <NodeB controlled scheduling, AMC>.............................................................................................. 54
9.1.1 Performance Evaluation .................................................................................................................................. 54
9.1.1.1 Comparison of Centralized and Decentralized Scheduler ............................................................................... 54
9.1.1.1.1 Results with Full Buffer ............................................................................................................................. 54
9.1.1.1.2 Results with Mixed Traffic Model............................................................................................................. 56
9.1.1.1.3 Discussion .................................................................................................................................................. 57
9.1.2 Complexity Evaluation <UE and RNS impacts> ............................................................................................ 58
9.1.3 Downlink Signalling........................................................................................................................................ 58
9.1.4 Uplink Signalling............................................................................................................................................. 58
9.1.5 8PSK link performance ................................................................................................................................... 58
9.2 Hybrid ARQ .......................................................................................................................................................... 59
9.2.1 Performance Evaluation .................................................................................................................................. 59
9.2.1.1 Hybrid ARQ performance with and without soft combining .......................................................................... 59
9.2.1.2 Hybrid ARQ performance in soft handover .................................................................................................... 63

3GPP
Release 6 5 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

9.2.1.3 HARQ Efficiency ............................................................................................................................................ 65


9.2.2 Complexity Evaluation <UE and RNS impacts> ............................................................................................ 66
9.2.2.1 Buffering complexity....................................................................................................................................... 66
9.2.2.1.1 Soft buffer at Node B ................................................................................................................................. 66
9.2.2.1.2 Reordering buffer in radio network............................................................................................................ 67
9.2.2.1.3 Retransmission buffer in UE...................................................................................................................... 67
9.2.2.2 Encoding/decoding and rate matching complexity.......................................................................................... 68
9.2.2.3 UE and RNS processing time considerations .................................................................................................. 68
9.2.2.4 HARQ BLER operation point and complexity................................................................................................ 68
9.2.3 Downlink Signalling........................................................................................................................................ 68
9.2.4 Uplink Signalling............................................................................................................................................. 68
9.2.4.1 E-TFC signalling ............................................................................................................................................. 68
9.2.4.1.1 Summary of results .................................................................................................................................... 69
9.2.4.1.1.1 Case 1 results ............................................................................................................................................. 69
9.2.4.1.1.2 Case 2 results ............................................................................................................................................. 70
9.2.4.1.1.3 Case 3 results ............................................................................................................................................. 71
9.2.4.1.2 Simulation assumptions ............................................................................................................................. 72
9.3 Fast DCH Setup Mechanisms.............................................................................................................................. 72
9.3.1 Performance Evaluation .................................................................................................................................. 72
9.3.2 Complexity Evaluation <UE and RNS impacts> ............................................................................................ 72
9.3.3 Downlink Signalling........................................................................................................................................ 72
9.3.4 Uplink Signalling............................................................................................................................................. 72
9.4 Shorter Frame Size for Improved QoS.................................................................................................................. 72
9.4.1 Performance Evaluation .................................................................................................................................. 72
9.4.1.1 Data only, Full buffer ...................................................................................................................................... 72
9.4.1.2 Data only, Traffic models ................................................................................................................................ 75
9.4.1.3 Voice & Data, Full buffer................................................................................................................................ 82
9.4.2 Complexity Evaluation <UE and RNS impacts> ............................................................................................ 85
9.4.3 Downlink Signalling........................................................................................................................................ 85
9.4.4 Uplink Signalling............................................................................................................................................. 86
9.5 Physical layer structures........................................................................................................................................ 86
9.5.1 Complexity evaluation..................................................................................................................................... 86
9.5.1.1 PAR analysis ................................................................................................................................................... 86
9.5.1.1.1 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated one BPSK
code channel with SF=4............................................................................................................................. 88
9.5.1.1.2 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated in two BPSK
code channels with SF=4 ........................................................................................................................... 89
9.5.1.1.3 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated in three BPSK
code channels with SF=4 ........................................................................................................................... 91
9.5.1.1.4 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated in four BPSK
code channels with SF=4 ........................................................................................................................... 92
9.5.1.1.5 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated in five BPSK
code channels with SF=4 ........................................................................................................................... 93
9.5.1.1.6 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated in six BPSK
code channels with SF=4 ........................................................................................................................... 94
9.5.1.1.7 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated in three 8PSK
streams with SF=4...................................................................................................................................... 95
9.5.1.2 Considerations on PAR analysis...................................................................................................................... 95
9.5.1.2.1 Example based on case 2/5 and parameter set 1 ........................................................................................ 95
9.5.1.2.2 Example based on case 1,2 (BPSK vs 8-PSK)........................................................................................... 96
9.5.1.2.3 Example for multi-code ............................................................................................................................. 97
9.5.1.2.4 Discussion .................................................................................................................................................. 98
9.6 Results including multiple techniques................................................................................................................... 98
9.6.1 Results with HARQ, shorter TTI, time & rate scheduling............................................................................... 98
9.6.1.1 Full Buffer results............................................................................................................................................ 98
9.6.1.2 Mixed traffic model results............................................................................................................................ 105
9.6.2 Results with HARQ, 10ms TTI, rate scheduling with persistence ................................................................ 113
9.6.2.1 Full Buffer results.......................................................................................................................................... 113
9.6.2.2 Mixed traffic model results............................................................................................................................ 114
9.7 Compatibility of the enhancements with existing releases.................................................................................. 120
9.7.1 Compatibility at the edge of coverage ........................................................................................................... 120
9.7.1.1 Non transparent functionality ........................................................................................................................ 120

3GPP
Release 6 6 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

9.7.1.2 Transparent functionality............................................................................................................................... 120


9.7.2 Legacy UE ..................................................................................................................................................... 121
9.7.3 Link budget.................................................................................................................................................... 121
9.7.4 DL capacity ................................................................................................................................................... 121
9.7.5 Design re-use ................................................................................................................................................. 122
9.7.6 Conclusion..................................................................................................................................................... 122
10 Impacts to the Radio Interface Protocol Architecture ......................................................................... 122
10.1 Protocol Model .............................................................................................................................................. 122
10.1 Introduction of new MAC functionality ........................................................................................................ 122
10.1.1 Introduction of an enhanced uplink dedicated transport channel (E-DCH)................................................... 123
10.1.2 HARQ functionality ...................................................................................................................................... 123
10.1.3 Reordering entity ........................................................................................................................................... 123
10.1.4 TFC selection................................................................................................................................................. 123
10.2 RLC .............................................................................................................................................................. 123
10.3 RRC .............................................................................................................................................................. 123
11 Impacts to Iub/Iur Protocols ................................................................................................................ 124
11.1 Impacts on Iub/Iur Application Protocols...................................................................................................... 124
11.2 Impacts on Frame Protocol over Iub/Iur........................................................................................................ 124
12 Conclusions and Recommendations .................................................................................................... 124
12.1 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................... 124
12.2 Recommendations ......................................................................................................................................... 125

Annex A: Simulation Assumptions and Results........................................................................................ 126


A.1 Link Simulation Assumptions ............................................................................................................. 126
A.1.1 Interface between link level and system level ............................................................................................... 126
A.1.2 Link level parameters .................................................................................................................................... 127
A.1.3 Channel models ............................................................................................................................................. 127
A.1.4 Description of Short Term FER and ECM Metod ......................................................................................... 128
A.1.4.1 Short-term FER method: ............................................................................................................................... 128
A.1.4.2 ECM method: ................................................................................................................................................ 129
A.1.4.3 Comparison between short term and ECM method ....................................................................................... 130
A.2 Link Simulation Results ...................................................................................................................... 132
A.2.1 HARQ Performance Evaluation .................................................................................................................... 132
A.2.1.1 HARQ Efficiency and Number of Retransmissions ...................................................................................... 132
A.2.2 Link Performance of E-DCH for System Simulations.................................................................................. 135
A.2.2.1 Short-term Link Performance with 2 ms TTI ................................................................................................ 135
A.2.2.2 Short-term Link Performance with 10 ms TTI .............................................................................................. 144
A.2.3 Link Performance with Different Pilot Overhead.......................................................................................... 149
A.2.3.1 Assumptions .................................................................................................................................................. 149
A.2.3.2 Results ........................................................................................................................................................... 150
A.2.4 Link Performance of Release-99 for System Simulations ............................................................................. 153
A.3 System Simulation Assumptions ......................................................................................................... 153
A.3.1 System Level Simulation Modelling and Parameters .................................................................................... 153
A.3.1.1 Antenna Pattern ............................................................................................................................................. 153
A.3.1.2 System Level Parameters............................................................................................................................... 154
A.3.1.3 Signaling Errors............................................................................................................................................. 157
A.3.1.4 Downlink Modeling in Uplink System Simulation ....................................................................................... 157
A.3.2 Uplink measurement accuracy....................................................................................................................... 157
A.3.2.1 Uplink power control..................................................................................................................................... 157
A.3.3 System Simulation Outputs and Performance Metrics .................................................................................. 158
A.3.3.1 Output metrics for data services .................................................................................................................... 158
A.3.3.2 Mixed Voice and Data Services .................................................................................................................... 159
A.3.3.3 Voice Services and Related Output Metrics .................................................................................................. 159
A.3.3.3.1 Voice Model............................................................................................................................................. 159
A.3.3.4 Packet Scheduler ........................................................................................................................................... 159
A.4 System Simulation Results .................................................................................................................. 160
A.4.1 Release-99 Performance ................................................................................................................................ 160

3GPP
Release 6 7 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

A.4.1.1 Release-99 Performance With Full Buffer .................................................................................................... 160


A.4.1.1.1 System Setup............................................................................................................................................ 160
A.4.1.1.2 Performance Without TFC Control in AWGN ........................................................................................ 160
A.4.1.1.3 Performance With TFC Control in AWGN ............................................................................................. 161
A.4.1.2 Release-99 Performance With Mixed Traffic Model .................................................................................... 163
A.4.1.2.1 System Setup............................................................................................................................................ 163
A.4.1.2.2 Performance Without TFC Control in AWGN ........................................................................................ 164
A.4.1.3 Release-99 Voice Capacity............................................................................................................................ 166
A.4.1.3.1 System Setup............................................................................................................................................ 166
A.4.1.3.2 Voice Capacity......................................................................................................................................... 167
A.5 Traffic Models ..................................................................................................................................... 167
Annex B: Lognormal description ............................................................................................................... 175
Annex C: Uplink Rise Outage Filter .......................................................................................................... 176
Annex D: Speech Source (Markov) Model ................................................................................................ 176
Annex E: Modeling of the effect of channel estimation errors on Link performance........................... 177
Annex F: Change history ............................................................................................................................ 178

3GPP
Release 6 8 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

Foreword
This Technical Report has been produced by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

The contents of the present document are subject to continuing work within the TSG and may change following formal
TSG approval. Should the TSG modify the contents of the present document, it will be re-released by the TSG with an
identifying change of release date and an increase in version number as follows:

Version x.y.z

where:

x the first digit:

1 presented to TSG for information;

2 presented to TSG for approval;

3 or greater indicates TSG approved document under change control.

y the second digit is incremented for all changes of substance, i.e. technical enhancements, corrections,
updates, etc.

z the third digit is incremented when editorial only changes have been incorporated in the document.

3GPP
Release 6 9 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

1 Scope
This present document is the technical report for the Release 6 study item “Uplink Enhancements for Dedicated
Transport Channels”(see [1]).

The purpose of this TR is to help TSG RAN WG1 to define and describe the potential enhancements under
consideration and compare the benefits of each enhancement with earlier releases for improving the performance of the
dedicated transport channels in UTRA FDD uplink, along with the complexity evaluation of each technique. The scope
is to either enhance uplink performance in general or to enhance the uplink performance for background, interactive and
streaming based traffic.

This activity involves the Radio Access work area of the 3GPP studies and has impacts both on the Mobile Equipment
and Access Network of the 3GPP systems.

This document is intended to gather all information in order to compare the solutions and gains vs. complexity, and
draw a conclusion on way forward.

This document is a ‘living’ document, i.e. it is permanently updated and presented to TSG-RAN meetings.

2 References
The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present
document.

• References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or
non-specific.

• For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.

• For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including
a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same
Release as the present document.

[1] 3GPP TD RP-020658: "Study Item Description for Uplink Enhancements for Dedicated Transport
Channels ".

[2] 3GPP RAN WG1 TDOC R1-00-0909, “Evaluation Methods for High Speed Downlink Packet
Access (HSDPA)”, July 4 2000

[3] Hämäläinen S., P. Slanina, M. Hartman, A. Lappeteläinen, H. Holma, O. Salonaho, ”A Novel


Interface between Link and System Level Simulations”, Proceedings of ACTS summit 1997,
Aalborg, Denmark, Oct. 1997, pp. 509-604.

[4] 3GPP RAN WG1#29 TDOC R1-02-1326, “Link Prediction methodology for System Level
Simulations”, Shanghai China, November 5 2002.

[5] Ratasuk, Ghosh, Classon, “Quasi-Static Method for Predicting Link-Level Performance” IEEE
VTC 2002.

[6] 3GPP TR 25.942 V3.3.0 (2002-06), RF System Scenarios, June 2002.

[7] 3GPP TR 25.853 V4.0.0 (2001-03), “Delay Budget within the Access Stratum”, March 2001.

[8] 3GPP TS 25.133 V3.11.0 (2002-09), “Requirements for support of radio resource management
(FDD) (Release 99)”, September 2002.

[9] Hytönen, T.; “Optimal Wrap-around Network Simulation”, Helsinki University of Technology
Institute of Mathematics Research Reports, 2001, www.math.hut.fi/reports/, Report number A432

3GPP
Release 6 10 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

[10] “Source Models of Network Game Traffic", M. S. Borella, Proceedings, Networld+Interop '99
Engineer's Conference, May 1999.

[11] 3GPP RAN WG1#30 TDOC R1-03-0083, “Link Prediction Methodology for System Level
Simlations,” Lucent Technologies, San Diego, USA, January 7-10, 2003.

[12] 3GPP2, 1xEV-DV Evaluation Methodology.

[13] ETSI TR 101 12, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Selection procedures
for the choice of radio transmission technologies of the UMTS (UMTS 30.03 v3.2.0)

[14] TS 25.214, v5.3.0, “Physical layer procedures (FDD)”, December 2002

[15] TS 25.331, v5.4.0, "Radio Resource Control (RRC); Protocol Specification", March 2003

[16] TS 25.321 v.5.5.0: ”Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocol Specification", June 2003

3 Definitions, symbols and abbreviations


E-DCH Enhanced DCH, a new dedicated transport channel type or enhancements to an
existing dedicated transport channel type (if required by a particular proposal)

E-DPCCH Enhanced DPCCH, a physical control channel associated with the E-DPDCH (if
required by a particular proposal)

E-DPDCH Enhanced DPDCH, a new physical data channel or enhancements to the current
DPDCH (if required by a particular proposal)

4 Introduction
At the 3GPP TSG RAN #17 meeting, SI description on “Uplink Enhancements for Dedicated Transport Channels” was
approved [1].

The justification of the study item was, that since the use of IP based services becomes more important there is an
increasing demand to improve the coverage and throughput as well as reduce the delay of the uplink. Applications that
could benefit from an enhanced uplink may include services like video-clips, multimedia, e-mail, telematics, gaming,
video-streaming etc. This study item investigates enhancements that can be applied to UTRA in order to improve the
performance on uplink dedicated transport channels.

The study includes, but is not restricted to, the following topics related to enhanced uplink for UTRA FDD to enhance
uplink performance in general or to enhance the uplink performance for background, interactive and streaming based
traffic:

- Adaptive modulation and coding schemes

- Hybrid ARQ protocols

- Node B controlled scheduling

- Physical layer or higher layer signalling mechanisms to support the enhancements

- Fast DCH setup

- Shorter frame size and improved QoS

5 Requirements
- The overall goal is to improve the coverage and throughput as well as to reduce the delay of the uplink
dedicated transport channels.

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- The focus shall be on urban, sub-urban and rural deployment scenarios. Full mobility shall be supported, i.e.,
mobility should be supported for high-speed cases also, but optimisation should be for low-speed to medium-
speed scenarios.

- The study shall investigate the possibilities to enhance the uplink performance on the dedicated transport
channels in general, with priority to streaming, interactive and background services.

- Features or group of features should demonstrate significant incremental gain, with reasonable complexity.
The value added per feature should be considered in the evaluation.

- The UE and network complexity shall be minimised for a given level of system performance.

- The impact on current releases in terms of both protocol and hardware perspectives shall be taken into account.

- It shall be possible to introduce the new features in the network which has terminals from Release’99, Release
4 or Release 5.

6 Reference Techniques in Earlier 3GPP Releases

6.1 DCH Setup Mechanisms


A fundamental concept in WCDMA is the connection state model, illustrated in Figure 6.1.1. The connection state
model enables optimization of radio and hardware resources depending on the activity level of each UE.

- Users with high transmission activity (in either uplink, downlink or both) should be in CELL_DCH state,
where power-controlled dedicated channels are established to/from the UE. In CELL_DCH state, the UE is
assigned dedicated radio and hardware resources, which minimizes processing delay and allows for high
capacity.

- Users with low transmission activity should be in CELL_FACH state, where only common channels are used.
The major advantages with CELL_FACH state are the possibility for low UE power consumption and that no
dedicated hardware resources in the Node B are needed.

- Users with no transmission activity are in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH states, which enable very low UE power
consumption but do not allow any data transmission. These states are not discussed further in this section.

Switching between CELL_DCH and CELL_FACH are controlled by the RRC based on requests from either the
network or the UE. Entering CELL_DCH implies the establishment of a DCH, which involves a physical layer random
access procedure, NBAP and RRC signaling, and uplink and downlink physical channel synchronization.

Clearly, it is desirable to switch a UE to CELL_FACH state when there is little transmission activity in order to save
network resources and to reduce the UE power consumption. Switching between CELL_DCH and CELL_FACH is
especially useful in scenarios with a large number of bursty packet data users, where there is a risk that the system
becomes code limited if users temporarily not receiving/transmitting any packets are not switched to CELL_FACH.
When the activity increases, the UE should rapidly be switched back to CELL_DCH and a dedicated channel be
established.

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Release 6 12 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

CELL_FACH CELL_DCH
CELL_PCH, URA_PCH
Low transmission activity. No High transmission activity.
No transmission activity.
dedicated channels established. Dedicated channels established.

TrCh/PhyCh
reconfiguration

Figure 6.1.1: Connection states.

6.1.1 Uplink/Downlink Synchronization


The DCH setup procedure in Rel99/4/5 is illustrated in Figure 6.1.2. At time t1, downlink data arrives to the RNC and a
decision to establish a DCH is taken at time t2. The decision is sent to the UE via the S-CCPCH, which starts to
establish synchronization to the downlink DPCCH at time t4, using the standardized procedure described in [14].

The downlink synchronization procedure is divided into two phases: The first phase starts when higher layers in the UE
initiate physical dedicated channel establishment and lasts until 160 ms after the downlink dedicated channel is
considered established by higher layers. During this time, out-of-sync shall not be reported and in-sync shall be reported
using the CPHY-Sync-IND primitive if the downlink DPCCH quality exceeds a threshold for at least 40 ms. The second
phase starts 160 ms after the downlink dedicated channel is considered established by higher layers. During this phase,
both out-of-sync and in-sync are reported, depending on the situation in the UE. As the UE is not allowed to report in-
sync until at least 40 ms after the start of the first synchronization phase, the interval T4 equals at least 40 ms.

Once the UE has detected the in-sync condition for the downlink DPCCH, the UE starts transmitting the uplink power
control preamble at time t5. The length of the power control preamble, T5, is set by higher layer signaling. During this
period, the Node B establishes synchronization with the UE on the uplink. Once the power control preamble is finished,
at t6, the UE uplink/downlink DPCH is established and data transmission may begin.

switching
Power decision (RRC/SRNC)

DPCCH

downlink DPCH

switching DPCH
command
SCCPCH

confirm

uplink DPCH

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
Cell_FACH Cell_DCH

t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7

Figure 6.1.2: Rel99/4/5 procedure for DCH establishment. Note that T6 is optional and data transmission may
start already at t6.

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Release 6 13 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

6.2 Uplink TFCS Management with RRC Signalling


There are following TFCS reconfiguration messages available in current specifications [15]:

- Complete reconfiguration, in which case UE shall remove a previously stored TFCS set, if it exists

- Addition, in which case UE shall insert the new additional TFC(s) into the first available position(s) in
ascending order in the TFCS.

- Removal, in which case UE shall remove the TFC indicated by “IE” TFCI from the current TFCS, and regard
this position (TFCI) as vacant.

- Replace, in which case UE shall replace the TFCs indicated by “IE” TFCI and replace them with the defined
new TFCs.

In addition to those, there is also Transport format combination control message defined in [15], with which the
network can define certain restrictions in the earlier defined TFCS set, as described below.

- Transport Format Combination Subset in the TFC control message can be defined in the format of TFCS
restriction; for downgrading the original TFCS set. There are several different formats possible. The message
can define the minimum allowed TFC index in the original TFCS set. Or it can define that a certain TFC subset
from the original TFCS set is either allowed or not. One possible way to define the message is to list what
Transport channels have restrictions, and then list the allowed TFIs for the restricted Transport channels.

- Transport Format Combination Subset in the TFC control message message can be defined in the format of
canceling the earlier TFCS restriction; i.e. defining that the original TFCS set is valid again.

Transport format combination control message includes activation time. The activation time defines the frame number
/time at which the changes caused by the related message shall take effect. The activation time can be defined as a
function of CFN, ranging between 0…255, the default being “now”.

Transport format combination control message can also include an optional parameter of TFC control duration, which
defines the period in multiples of 10 ms frames for which the defined restriction, i.e. TFC subset , is to be applied. The
possible values for this are (1,2,4,8,16,24,32,48,64,128,192,256,512).

In [15], in chapter 13.5, it is defined separately for each RRC procedure, what kind of delay requirements there are for
UE. For TFCS control messages there are following delay requirements:

- TRANSPORT FORMAT COMBINATION CONTROL : N1 = 5 . This defines the upper limit on the time
required to execute modifications in UE after the reception of the RRC message has been completed. This
means that after receiving the TFCS control message, the UE shall adopt the changes in the beginning of the
next TTI starting after N1*10ms .

- TRANSPORT FORMAT COMBINATION CONTROL FAILURE: N2=8. This defines the number of 10 ms
radio frames from end of reception of UTRAN -> UE message on UE physical layer before the transmission of
the UE -> UTRAN response message must be ready to start on a transport channel with no access delay other
than the TTI alignment. The UE response message transmission from the physical layer shall begin at the latest
(N2*10)+TTI ms after completion of the reception of the last TTI carrying the triggering UTRAN -> UE
message. When Target State is CELL_DCH, the UE response message transmission from the physical layer
may be additionally delayed by the value of IE "SRB delay".

6.3 Transport Format Combination Selection in the UE


6.3.1 Description of TFC selection method
The TFC selection is a MAC function that the UE uses to select a TFC from its current TFCS whenever it has
something to transmit. The TFC is selected based on the need for data rate (i.e. UE buffer contents), the currently
available transmission power, the available TFCS and the UE’s capabilities. The details of the TFC selection function
are covered in [8] and [16].

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Release 6 14 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

The most important parameters governing the behavior of the TFC selection function are called X,Y and Z, and their
values have been agreed to be static in the current specifications. Table 6.3.1 below shows the values of these
parameters.

Table 6.3.1: X, Y, Z parameters for TFC selection

X Y Z
15 30 30

Based on these parameters, the UE shall continuously evaluate based on the Elimination, Recovery and Blocking
criteria defined below, how TFCs on an uplink DPDCH can be used for the purpose of TFC selection. The following
diagram illustrates the state transitions for the state of a given TFC.

Elimination criterion is met Blocking criterion is met

2.
Supported Excess-power Blocked
state state state

Recovery criterion is met

Recovery criterion is met

Figure 6.3.1: State transitions for the state of a given TFC

The evaluation shall be performed for every TFC in the TFCS using the estimated UE transmit power. The UE transmit
power estimation for a given TFC shall be made using the UE transmitted power measured over the measurement
period, defined in section 9.1.6.1 of [8] as one slot, and the gain factors of the corresponding TFC. Table 6.3.2 below,
extracted from [8], shows the specified accuracy requirements for measuring UE transmit power over the one slot
measurement period, as a function of the current transmit power level relative to maximum output power.

Table 6.3.2: UE transmitted power absolute accuracy

Accuracy [dB]

Parameter Unit
PUEMAX PUEMAX
24dBm 21dBm

UE transmitted power=PUEMAX dBm +1/-3 ±2

UE transmitted power=PUEMAX-1 dBm +1.5/-3.5 ±2.5

UE transmitted power=PUEMAX-2 dBm +2/-4 ±3

UE transmitted power=PUEMAX-3 dBm +2.5/-4.5 ±3.5

PUEMAX-10≤UE transmitted power<PUEMAX-3 dBm +3/-5 ±4

NOTE 1: User equipment maximum output power, PUEMAX, is the maximum output power level without tolerance
defined for the power class of the UE in TS 25.101, section 6.2.1.

The UE shall consider the Elimination criterion for a given TFC to be detected if the estimated UE transmit power
needed for this TFC is greater than the Maximum UE transmitter power for at least X out of the last Y successive

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measurement periods immediately preceding evaluation. The MAC in the UE shall consider that the TFC is in Excess-
Power state for the purpose of TFC selection.

MAC in the UE shall indicate the available bitrate for each logical channel to upper layers within Tnotify from the
moment the Elimination criterion was detected.

The UE shall consider the Recovery criterion for a given TFC to be detected if the estimated UE transmit power needed
for this TFC has not been greater than the Maximum UE transmitter power for the last Z successive measurement
periods immediately preceding evaluation. The MAC in the UE shall consider that the TFC is in Supported state for the
purpose of TFC selection.

MAC in the UE shall indicate the available bitrate for each logical channel to upper layers within Tnotify from the
moment the Recovery criterion was detected.

The evaluation of the Elimination criterion and the Recovery criterion shall be performed at least once per radio frame.

The UE shall consider the Blocking criterion for a given TFC to be fulfilled at the latest at the start of the longest uplink
TTI after the moment at which the TFC will have been in Excess-Power state for a duration of:

(Tnotify + Tmodify+ TL1_proc)

where:

Tnotify equals 15 ms

Tmodify equals MAX(Tadapt_max,TTTI)

TL1 proc equals 15 ms

Tadapt_max equals MAX(Tadapt_1, Tadapt_2, ..., Tadapt_N)

N equals the number of logical channels that need to change rate

Tadapt_n equals the time it takes for higher layers to provide data to MAC in a new supported bitrate,

for logical channel n. Table 6.3.3 defines Tadapt times for different services. For services where no codec
is used Tadapt shall be considered to be equal to 0 ms.

Table 6.3.3: Tadapt


Service Tadapt [ms]
UMTS AMR 60
UMTS AMR2 60

TTTI equals the longest uplink TTI of the selected TFC (ms).

Before selecting a TFC, i.e. at every boundary of the shortest TTI, the set of valid TFCs shall be established. All TFCs
in the set of valid TFCs shall:

1. belong to the TFCS.

2. not be in the Blocked state.

3. be compatible with the RLC configuration.

4. not require RLC to produce padding PDUs

5. not carry more bits than can be transmitted in a TTI (e.g. when compressed mode by higher layer
scheduling is used and the presence of compressed frames reduces the number of bits that can be
transmitted in a TTI using the Minimum SF configured).

The UE may remove from the set of valid TFCs, TFCs in Excess-power state in order to maintain the quality of service
for sensitive applications (e.g. speech). Additionally, if compressed frames are present within the longest configured
TTI to which the next transmission belongs, the UE may remove TFCs from the set of valid TFCs in order to account
for the higher power requirements.

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The chosen TFC shall be selected from within the set of valid TFCs and shall satisfy the following criteria in the order
in which they are listed below:

1. No other TFC shall allow the transmission of more highest priority data than the chosen TFC.

2. No other TFC shall allow the transmission of more data from the next lower priority logical channels.
Apply this criterion recursively for the remaining priority levels.

3. No other TFC shall have a lower bit rate than the chosen TFC.

The above rules for TFC selection in the UE shall apply to DCH, and the same rules shall apply for TF selection on
RACH and CPCH.

UE shall consider that the Blocking criterion is never met for TFCs included in the minimum set of TFCs (see [15]).

6.3.2 TFC selection method as a reference case for Enhanced Uplink


DCH
The important parameters to be included to the simulation assumptions for TFC selection method in the reference case
are:

a) Accuracy of the UE transmit power estimate. See table 6.3.2 in the previous section as a reference. This will have
an effect how fast UE moves a certain TFC to excess power state. Since the accuracy depends on the currently used
transmit power level, it is noted for the purpose of general understanding, that the accuracy is thus in average worse
with a bursty traffic model, in which quite often only DPCCH is transmitted, than with more real-time type of
application in which transmission of DPDCH is more continuous. Also the location in the cell will effect to the
accuracy due to the same reason. It is however seen that for the sake of simplicity, it would be appropriate to define
only one value for this parameter used in all simulations.

It is thus proposed that the accuracy defined for the maximum Ptx power level, ±2 dB, is used in all cases, for the
sake of simplicity of the simulations. This is to be modelled so that the error is lognormally distributed with zero
mean and std=1.2159 dB, which has the effect of causing 90% of the errors to occur within ±2 dB of the zero mean.
It is noted that the accuracy requirements in [8] are also defined for 90% probability.

b) Delay between the moment when elimination criterion is met in L1 and when the TFC is moved into blocked state.
See the previous section as a reference, together with the Annex A.6.4.2.1 from [8], defining the maximum delay to
be Tnotify + Tmodify+ TL1_proc + Talign_TTI. In addition to this , if criterion is met with a maximum misalignment between
the frame boundary, an extra 14 slots (9.33 ms) will need to be added to this delay. It is proposed that in the
simulation assumptions the assumption is that there is no codec (e.g. AMR) involved, the rate of which should be
adjusted and that the longest TTI in the selected TFC is TTTI =10 ms= Tmodify. This will result in a maximum delay
of (9.33 ms + Tnotify + Tmodify+ TL1_proc + Talign_TTI ) = (9.33 + 15 + 10 + 15 + 10) ms= 59.33 ms.

c) Delay between the moment recovery criterion is met and when TFC is moved back to supported state. See the
previous section as a reference, together with the Annex A.6.4.2.1 from [8], defining the maximum delay to be
Tnotify + Tmodify+ TL1_proc + Talign_TTI. In addition to this , if criterion is met with a maximum misalignment between
the frame boundary, an extra 14 slots (9.33 ms) will need to be added to this delay. It is proposed that in the
simulation assumptions the assumption is that there is no codec (e.g. AMR) involved, the rate of which should be
adjusted and that the longest TTI in the selected TFC is TTTI =10 ms= Tmodify. This will result in a maximum delay
of (9.33 ms + Tnotify + Tmodify+ TL1_proc + Talign_TTI ) = (9.33 + 15 + 10 + 15 + 10) ms= 59.33 ms.

d) TFCS ; i.e. the set of allowed user bit rates allocated to the UE. These are the bit rates that UE can use in the TFC
selection algorithm. There should be enough steps in the TFCS to allow the UE to decrease the used data rate in a
flexible fashion at the cell edge. It is proposed that there are two TFCS sets used in the reference case: [8, 16, 32,
64, 128, 256, 384] kbit/s and [8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 384, 768, 1000] kbit/s . The idea why to have 2 sets is to
allow to study different peak data rate in the proposed schemes with a sensible TFCS set in the reference case to be
compared with.

The parameters and parameter values explained above are inserted to the Annex A.3, System simulation assumptions,
Table A - 8 - System Level Simulation parameters used in the reference rel99/rel4/rel5 case.

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It is noted that TFC selection method should be modelled also in the new schemes proposed for Enhanced Uplink DCH,
if there is no clear reason why it can not/should not be included into the proposed scheme. The parameters used should
be the same, or at least similar (e.g. TFCS set), as defined in the reference case.

6.4 RNC controlled scheduling: DRAC and TFCS Restriction


In R99/R4/R5, the uplink scheduling and rate control resides in the RNC. UE transmission can be controlled using
DRAC and TFCS Restriction.

The DRAC (Dynamic Resource Allocation Control) procedure is used by the network to dynamically control the
allocation of resources on an uplink DCH. The method is based on statistical scheduling. In each TTI, the UE
determines whether it can transmit or not based on the DRAC static parameters which have been determined by the
RNC ("Transmission Time Validity" and "Time duration before retry").

DRAC parameters are broadcasted in SIB 10. The UE determines the most stringent DRAC parameters from the last
received values from each cell of its active set. It also determines the allowed subset of TFCS according to the selected
maximum bit rate value.

Rules have been defined so that the UE always know which DRAC static parameters to use: in case several SIB10
messages from different cells are scheduled at the same time, the UE shall only listen to the SIB10 broadcast in the cell
of its Active Set having the best CPICH measurements.

7 Overview of Techniques considered to support


Enhanced Uplink

7.1 Scheduling <NodeB controlled scheduling, AMC>


The term “Node B scheduling” denotes the possibility for the Node B to control, within the limits set by the RNC, the
set of TFCs from which the UE may choose a suitable TFC. In Rel5, the uplink scheduling and rate control resides in
the RNC. By providing the Node B with similar tools, tighter control of the uplink interference is possible which in
turn, may result in increased capacity and improved coverage. Two fundamental approaches to scheduling exist:

- Rate scheduling, where all uplink transmission occur in parallel but at a low enough rate such that the desired
noise rise at the Node B is not exceeded.

- Time scheduling, where theoretically only a subset of the UEs that have traffic to send are allowed to transmit
at a given time, again such that the desired total noise rise at the Node B is not exceeded.

The usage of either rate or time scheduling is of course restricted by available power as the E-DCH will have to co-exist
with a mix of other transmissions by that UE and other UEs in the uplink. A hybrid of these two approaches is also
possible, where different proposals will tend to favor one or other of the fundamental approaches.

The scheduling schemes can all be viewed as management of the TFC selection in the UE and mainly differs in how the
Node B can influence this process and the associated signaling requirements. Hence, this section aims at describing the
commonalities among the scheduling schemes. Whether one or multiple methods for the Node B to influence the UE
TFC selection process is to be supported is FFS.

The set of TFCs from which the UE may choose a suitable TFC is denoted “Node B controlled TFC subset” in the
following. The UE selects a suitable TFC from the “Node B controlled TFC subset” employing the Rel5 TFC selection
algorithm (or modifications thereof if applicable). Any TFC in the Node B controlled TFC subset might be selected by
the UE, provided there is (1) sufficient power margin, (2) sufficient data available, (3) TFC is not in the blocked state.
The Node B controlled TFC subset relates to the TFCS and minimum set defined in Rel5 as

- “TFCS”. This is identical to the TFCS in Rel5 and is the set of all possible TFCs as configured by the RNC.

- “Node B controlled TFC subset”. The TFC selection algorithm in the UE selects a TFC from the “Node B
controlled TFC subset”. Note that the “Node B controlled TFC subset” is equal to or a subset of the TFCS and,
at the same time, equal to or a superset of the minimum set, i.e.. “Minimum set” ⊆ “Node B controlled TFC
subset” ⊆ “TFCS”.

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- “Minimum set”. This is identical to the minimum set in Rel5 as specified in [15]. The UE can always select a
TFC from the minimum set as TFCs in the minimum set never can be in blocked state.

In Figure 7.1, the different (sub)sets are illustrated. Setting the “Node B controlled TFC subset” equal to the TFCS
would result in behavior identical to Rel5. Furthermore, note that the smallest possible “Node B controlled TFC subset”
may be larger than the minimum set, i.e., “Node B controlled TFC subset” ⊃ “minimum set”.

TFC
TFC
TFC TFCS configured
TFC
by RNC
TFC
TFC
Node B controlled
TFC
TFC TFC subset

TFC Minimum Set


TFC

Figure 7.1 : Illustration of different sets of TFCs.


The ideas behind the ”Node B controlled TFC subset” are similar to the use of transport format combination control
specified in [15]. This signaling is typically used to allow the RNC to control the allowed uplink transport formats by
specifying a "TFC subset" along with an optional duration under which the “TFC subset” is valid. Node B scheduling
can be viewed as providing the Node B with similar tools, but allowing for faster adaptation to interference variations.
The interaction between RNC TFC control and Node B TFC control is FFS, although a preferable solution is to require
the UE not to choose a TFC outside any of these restrictions.

The main difference between scheduling strategies is how updates to the “Node B controlled TFC subset” are
controlled. In principle, an update needs to specify

- The new “Node B controlled TFC subset”

- The start time and the duration for which the update is valid

- The “Node B controlled TFC subset” to use when the scheduling period has expired.

This information can either be signaled, deduced from rules mandated in the specifications, or combinations thereof.
The main difference between different scheduling approaches therefore lies in the signaling and the rules associated
with the signaling. For example, simplistic implementations of rate scheduling and time scheduling could be as follows:

- Rate scheduling results if the “Node B controlled TFC subset” of different UEs are updated such that data
transmission from different UEs may overlap in time, regardless of the data rates used. The new “Node B
controlled TFC subset” is valid until the next time it is updated.

- Time scheduling results if the “Node B controlled TFC subset” of different UEs are updated such that only a
small set of the UEs have the possibility to transmit using TFCs outside the minimum set. The updated “Node
B controlled TFC subset” have a relatively short validity, typically in the order of milliseconds, where after the
“Node B controlled TFC subset” reverts to the situation prior to the scheduling interval or to the minimum set.

Depending on the scheduling scheme, the signaling may take different forms. Typically, both downlink and uplink
signaling is required.

Downlink signaling is required to command the UE to update the “Node B controlled TFC subset”. The start time and
the duration for which the update is valid may either be signaled explicitly or deduced from rules mandated in the
specifications. The signaling can either be dedicated for a certain UE, or common for several UEs. Furthermore, the
signaling can either be absolute, i.e., directly specify the “Node B controlled TFC subset”, or relative, i.e., specify the

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Release 6 19 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

new “Node B controlled TFC subset” as an update of the previous subset. The former typically allows for more rapid
changes to the “Node B controlled TFC subset”, while the latter may imply less signaling overhead in the downlink
direction.

In the uplink, signaling is typically required to indicate to the Node B that the UE has data to transmit. Additional
information may be provided to the Node B, e.g., the amount of data, an indication of the power availability in the UE,
channel quality etc.

If E-DCH utilizes the HARQ, the possible operations for scheduling considering retransmission are as follows.

- Autonomous retransmission by UE: UE sends the retransmission at subsequent retransmission timing without
allowance of Node-B if UE receives no ACK. In this case, UE does not need to monitor the scheduling related
channel for retransmission. But UE could cause unexpected interference in the cell if Node B does not reserve
the noise rise of this UE for retransmission.

- Scheduled by Node B for retransmission: UE sends the retransmission if UE receives no ACK and Node B
allows retransmission at retransmission timing. In this option, one possibility is that UE may be allowed to
retransmit only if the TFC of initial transmission is within the allowed TFC subset assigned by Node B. In this
case, retransmission could be delayed if Node B assigns the lower TFC subset than TFC of initial
transmission. Another possibility is that even if the assigned TFC subset doesn’t include the TFC of initial
transmission, UE is allowed to retransmit with the same TFC of initial transmission at a transmit power
derived appropriately from the assigned TFC subset.

Considering above relationship, the design of scheduling scheme needs to take into account HARQ operation.

7.1.1 Node B Controlled Rate Scheduling by Fast TFCS Restriction


Control

7.1.1.1 Purpose and General Assumptions


The purpose of the studied technique is to enable more efficient use of the uplink power resource of the cell in order to
provide a higher cell throughput in the uplink and a larger coverage area for higher uplink data rates for streaming,
interactive and background class services. These goals are to be reached by fast Node B controlled uplink scheduling
which provides a better control to uplink noise rise and enables better control to noise rise variance.

In the existing Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5 system the uplink scheduling and data rate control resides in the RNC, which is not
able to respond to the changes in the uplink load as fast as a control residing in Node B could. Thus the Node B control
is seen to be requiring less UL noise rise headroom for combatting overload conditions. Node B control is also seen
capable of smoothing the noise rise variance by allocating higher data rates quickly when the uplink load decreases and
respectively by restricting the uplink data rates when the uplink load increases.

This enhancement technique is a method which itself does not require changes to the uplink DCH structure but rather
introduces new L1 signalling to facilitate fast UL scheduling by means of transport format combination control. Hence
the method does not require a new transport channel to be defined, but does not forbid it either. The method can be
applied with or without other enhancements such as for example HARQ and Fast DCH Setup.

7.1.1.2 General Principle


The basic principle of the technique is to allow Node B set and control a new restriction to the TFC selection
mechanism of the UE by fast L1 signalling. From the UE point of view the scheduling principle is the same than in
existing Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5 system with the modification that there would be additional L1 control over a new restriction
to its TFC selection mechanism. In the UTRAN side, a new scheduling by the means of fast TFCS restriction control is
introduced in Node B.

All the same functions considered for the enhancement technique can be achieved with already existing RRC
procedures for TFCS configuration and transport format combination control. However, by allowing the Node B to
have control over TFCS restrictions (i.e. provide a mechanims for transport format combination contorol in L1)
enhances the speed of which the UTRA can adapt to the changes in the UL load. In Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5, restricting the set
of alowed TFCs in a TFCS is done using an RRC signalling procedure called transport format combination control.

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7.1.1.3 Restricting the Allowed Uplink TFCs in a TFCS by L1 Signalling


In the subsequent chapters, a new mechanism and related L1 signalling are introduced. The purpose is to enable the
Node B to have a fast control over the TFC subset allowed to be used by the TFC selection algorithm of the UE. This is
to be achieved by defining two TFC subsets of the TFCS (A "Node B allowed TFC subset" and a "UE allowed TFC
subset"), and control signalling for adjusting these subsets.

Node B provides UE with an allowed TFC subset" from which the UE's TFC selection algorithm selects a TFC to be
used by employing the TFC selection method defined in Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5 specifications. This TFC subset provided by
the Node B is is named the “UE allowed TFC subset”.

In order to give RNC efficient control over the "UE allowed TFC subset" primarily controlled by the Node B, the RNC
provides the Node B with a second TFC subset named “Node B allowed TFC subset”. Node B defines and freely
reconfigures the "UE allowed TFC subset" as a subset of the "Node B allowed TFC subset". It is expected that with the
“Node B allowed TFC subset” RNC is able to do similar TFC restrictions as done in Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5 by using
Transport Format Combination Control procedure defined in RRC signalling. Both subsets are defined individually for
each UE.

The “UE allowed TFC subset” and the “Node B allowed TFC subset” may be signalled in the form of TFC pointers
pointing to the TFCS of the UE, if the TFCs can be arranged in an order that corresponds to the TFC restriction rule (or
scheduling strategy) that the Node B would be willing to apply. The ordering rule may be explicit or implicit.

In a example illustrated in the Figure7.1.1 below the Node B may want to restrict the TFCs is the order of Tx power for
the CCTrCH. In Figure 7.1.1, the TFCs in a TFCS are shown ordered in descending order (with respect to the power
required) starting from zero. Both TFC pointers are initialised to both the Node B and to the UE by the RNC in the
beginning of the connection. After initialisation the Node B can command the UE pointer up/down with the restriction
that UE pointer may not exceed Node B pointer. The TFC selection algorithm in the UE may select any TFC up to the
TFC indicated by the UE pointer. The purpose here is to control the UE's power usage by restricting it's TFC (i.e. data
rate) selection.

TFCS
TFC0
Node B pointer TFC1
TFC2
(assigned to Node B by RNC)
TFC3
TFC4 Required Power of
TFC5 CCTrCH
UE pointer TFC6
(commanded up/down TFC7
TFC8
to UE by Node B)
TFC9
TFC10

Figure 7.1.1: Depiction of the TFC pointers


The UE and Node B allowed TFC subsets should not restrict the use of the TFCs in the minimum TFC set guaranteed to
be available for UE's TFC selection at all times unless the minimum TFC set definition in the already existing
specifications is changed. (Minimum TFC set is defined in Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5 specifications)

7.1.1.4 Issues Requiring Further Studying


It is FFS, how a DCH controlled with this method could be multiplexed with DCHs controlled with Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5
methods, especially keeping in mind that simultaneous conversational traffic should be possible. Methods for using
separate code channel and TFCS, as well as multiplexing the Node B controlled DCH with e.g. a DCH carrying voice in
the same CCTrCH are to be studied. Naturally, if a DCH carrying e.g. conversational traffic is multiplexed with a DCH
carrying streaming, interactive or background traffic, the first DCH carrying conversational traffic still represents the
non-controllable load and only the second DCH could be controlled by the proposed method.

It is FFS how the method should work in different reconfiguration cases, such as physical channel and transport channel
reconfigurations, TFCS reconfiguration for the UE, Node B allowed TFC subset reconfiguration for the Node B. E.g. in
TFCS reconfiguration it should be defined whether UE continues the transmission with the new “UE allowed TFC
subset”, or continues with the old one. To allow flexible update of “Node B allowed TFC subset" to the Node B, and

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simultaneously minimise the amount of RRC signaling, one possibility is that “Node B allowed TFC subset" is not
informed to the UE at all.

It is also FFS how the method should work in soft handover. One possibility in the event the use of two pointers is
applicable is to use the same kind of method as defined for TPC commands. I.e. each cell in the active set receives L1
signalling from the UE and transmits L1 signalling to the UE independently from the other cells. Only if all the cells in
the active set command the UE pointer increment, the UE increases the UE pointer with one step. Respectively, if at
least one Node B in the active set commands the UE pointer decrement, the UE decreases the UE pointer (and therefore
the maximum power that can be transmitted) with one step. Also other possibilities exist and should be investigated.

The impacts of L1 signalling errors (including possible error accumulation) is FFS. This includes possible mitigation
techniques. Both the non-SHO and the SHO cases need to be considered.

7.1.1.5 Signalling to Support Fast TFCS Restriction Control

7.1.1.5.1 L1 signaling
Two new L1 messages are introduced in order to enable the transport format combination control by L1 signalling
between the Node B and the UE.

- Rate Request (RR), sent in the uplink by the UE to the Node B. With the RR the UE can ask the Node B to
change the set of the allowed uplink transport format combinations within the transport format combination
set.

- Rate Grant (RG), sent in the downlink by the Node B to the UE. With RG, the Node B can change the allowed
uplink transport format combinations within the transport format combination set.

7.1.1.5.2 RRC signalling

7.1.1.5.3 Iub/Iur signalling

7.1.2 Method for Node B Controlled Time and Rate Scheduling

7.1.2.1 Purpose and General Assumptions


Current UMTS R99/R4/R5 DCH specifications support autonomous UE transmission and UE TFCS control using
Radio Resource Control (RRC) messaging to establish and manage a per UE Transport Format Combination Set
(TFCS). TFCS reconfiguration latency and update rate is restricted by the communication delay between the RNC and
Node-B since the TFCS reconfiguration function is centralized in the RNC. Besides using more frequent and lower
latency TFCS updates to better manage uplink interference, additional advantages are possible by controlling the time at
which UEs transmit compared to allowing autonomous UE transmissions. If TFCS control is to be shared between the
RNC and Node B to enable fast TFCS control and higher UE uplink data rates are to be supported, then controlling time
of UE transmissions may also be necessary to most efficiently and correctly control uplink intereference levels for
maximizing throughput.

7.1.2.2 General Principle


The basic principle of the technique is to allow Node B control of UE TFCS and UE transmission time by fast L1
signalling. The difference to existing R99/R4/R5 systems is that the UE would receive additional L1 control over its
TFC selection and L1 control of its transmission time. From the UTRAN’s perspective, scheduling by means of TFCS
indicator and transmission time control is introduced at the Node B. A UE is sent a scheduling assignment by a
scheduling Node B. The UE transmits during the time interval specified by the downlink scheduling assignment using a
restricted TFCS, which is determined from a TFCS indicator in the scheduling assignment. It is possible to make use of
existing RRC procedures for TFCS configuration and transport format combination control and utilize them at the Node
B for determining a TFC. RNC and Node B control of UE TFCS and transmission time allows the UTRAN to control
the changes in the UL load.

In order to achieve a better QoS and fairer scheduling decisions, Node B may also create relative Comparative Metric
(CM) for UE using, for example, a combination of the following:

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- It employs buffer status information received from UEs to create another comparative metric. This metric explains
how much congestion is faced by each UE at uplink. Each UE is aware of buffer filling status of other UEs.

- It may also employ information for each UE such as the achieved QoS or latency to the destination and use such
information to create a comparative metric for each UE. This comparative metric reveals how well each UE is
doing the term of QoS provisioning comparing to other UEs.

Node B sends CM along side the TFCS to each UE for determining the UL scheduling events. In addition, it is also
useful to utilise historical information and trend for each UE to determine the CM and control scheduling events for a
better QoS and UL load balance.

7.1.2.3 Controlling UE TFCS and transmission time


In the subsequent chapters, a new mechanism for scheduling and related L1 signalling is introduced. The purpose is to
enable the Node-B to explicitly determine when and which UE’s should transmit data on the uplink and to control the
TFCS at each scheduled UE to control the uplink interference level and variation.

Instead of a Node-B continously controlling each UE’s TFCS by sending up/down adjustments to a pointer, the Node-B
sends a TFCS indicator (which could be a pointer e.g.) in the signaled scheduling assignment. The scheduling
assignment also indicates the scheduling time interval over which the UE must transmit given it has non-zero buffer
occupancy. The TFCS indicator specifies the TFC(s) corresponding to the highest rate/power level the UE is allowed to
transmit at during the specified time interval. After the scheduled time interval has elapsed, the TFCS reverts back to
the set that existed prior to the scheduled time interval. A scheduled UE is allowed to choose among the TFCs in the
restricted TFCS in terms of rate and power as determined by the TFCS indicator and based upon its own status e.g.
actual available power and latest buffer status. In addition, UE may also choose rate, power and transport format based
on CM. CM gives UEs information about their standing among other UEs in terms of relative congestion of buffer data
and relative QoS or latency to the destination. The rates used by the UE could be signaled on the associated uplink
signalling channel e.g. E-DPCCH at the time of transmission. Uplink power control information received by each UE
may be used to effectively adjust the TFCS indicator over the scheduling interval.

The Node B may decide which UE(s) are allowed to transmit and the corresponding TFCS indicators on a per TTI basis
based on, for example, some knowledge of the following:

- Buffer status of each UE

- Power status of each UE1

- Local Node B measured channel quality estimate for each UE2 or maximum UE power capability at Node B.

- Available interference Rise Over Thermal (RoT) margin (or threshold level) at the Node B

- Comparative Metric (CM) for each UE

The RoT margin may be computed by taking into account the thermal noise, other cell interference (Ioc), the Eb/No
requirements for power controlled (e.g. voice) channels (see Figure 7.1.2) and information provided by the RNC.

Node B Controlled Time and Rate scheduling may have several advantages. Reduced latencies in rate control,
exploitation of fast channel quality variations, more precise RoT control (i.e., better interference management), and
consequently, better efficiency for a given RoT constraint are enabled through such Node B controlled scheduling.
Downlink signaling overhead is only required for a small number of scheduled UEs, rather than for all UEs in the case
of a continuously updated TFCS. Furthermore, the scheduled mode can more precisely control how many UEs transmit
data on their respective enhanced uplink channel in a given time interval. In the uplink of CDMA systems, simultaneous
transmissions always interfere with each other and therefore, the scheduled mode can even ensure that always, for
example, only one UE transmits data on its enhanced uplink channel at a time. Under certain conditions, this is likely to
enhance throughput.

1 Note that power status is also effectively updated at the serving Node B(s) by each uplink data transmission from the accompanying TFCI or TFRI
information. It also may be advantageous to include buffer occupancy updates at the time of each uplink transmission in addition to periodic or
triggered updates.
2 Note that UE maximum power capability along with knowledge of the UE DPCCH power can be used for determining the TFCS indicator.
Equivalently, Ec/Nt for the DPCCH measured at the Node B along with UE power margin to DPCCH power ratio can be used for determining
the TFCS indicator.

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RoT threshold
Allowable Noise rise from E- PUL_data
DCH (i.e., amount of
headroom or margin)

Power requirements of …
active power controlled
channels (e.g. voice)

Ioc (Other cell


Interference)
N0W (thermal noise)

Figure 7.1.2: Noise Rise Bin for Node B controlled scheduling.

7.1.2.4 Issues Requiring Further Study


It is FFS how the method should work in soft handover. One problem is that scheduling UEs in soft handoff without
any coordination between Node Bs in the active set could lead to RoT violations that significantly impact power
controlled channels. However, one possibility is to simply send TFCS indicators that restrict UEs power level in soft
handoff to control their interference impact on adjacent non-scheduling cells. The Node B would need to be made aware
of a UEs soft handoff state in this case. Alternatively or additionally, TFC determination by the UE can include using
soft handoff state information. Another limitation of scheduling a UE in soft handoff is that if the UE simply follows the
scheduling command of either Node B, then the active set Node B(s) for the UE that do not schedule the user, may not
attempt to decode its data. Therefore, the UE transmission will not derive any macro-diversity benefit. Yet another
possiblility FFS is to use only TFCS control for UEs during soft handoff and allow autonomous transmissions. This
alternative may avoid the complexity that could result in the operation of the Time and Rate scheduling in SHO.
Finally, it is possible that each active set serving cell uses its knowledge of link imbalance (e.g. based on uplink
DPCCH SNR consistently below the RNC defined outer loop power control threshold) to help limit scheduling
activities for a given UE in soft handoff.

It is also FFS to minimize the number of scheduling information status update messages that are sent or alternatively
how often scheduling information requests are made. Similarly, it needs to be determined whether UEs should
autonomously report scheduling information (periodically and/or triggered on events) or whether they should only be
requested by the Node B.

Finally, it is also for FFS on how to support both TFCS controlled autonomous transmissions and TFCS controlled and
transmission time controlled scheduling for both the enhanced uplink DCH and along with the Rel’99/Rel’4/Rel’5
DCHs. The co-existence of the different modes may provide flexibility in serving the different traffic types. For
example, traffic with small amount of data and/or higher priority such as TCP ACK may be sent using only a rate
control mode with autonomous transmissions compared to using time and rate control scheduling as the former would
involve lower latency and lower signaling overhead. It also may be desirable to confine autonomous transmissions to
specific time intervals different than when scheduled transmissions occur.

7.1.2.5 Signalling to Support Fast Node-B Time and Rate Control

7.1.2.5.1 L1 Signalling
Two new L1 messages are introduced in order to enable fast time and rate control between the Node B and the UE.

- Scheduling Information Update (SI), sent in the uplink by the UE to the Node B. With the SI the UE can
provide the Node B buffer occupancy and rate or power information so its scheduler(s) can maintain fairness
and determine the UEs TFCS indicator and appropriate transmission time interval.

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- Scheduling Assignment or Grant (SA), sent in the downlink by the Node B to the UE. With SA, the Node B
can set the TFCS indicator and subsequent transmission start time(s) and time interval(s) to be used by the UE.

7.1.2.5.1.1 Uplink Signalling of Scheduling Information Update

7.1.2.5.1.1.1 Explicit scheduling information update signaling

With the explicit scheduling information update, the UE can provide the Node B with either the amount of data in its
buffer or the supportable data rate as well as the transmit power status.

Since Node B cannot predict data occurrence in the UE buffer, a possible method to save uplink RoT resource would be
that the UE autonomously starts transmitting the scheduling information update when the amount of data in the UE
buffer exceeds a predefined threshold. The threshold can be defined by taking into account the amount of data, which
can be autonomously transmitted within the delay requirement without acquiring the scheduling grant. Attaching CRC
to the scheduling information update could help the Node B to detect it.

If signalling of the supportable data rate is employed, the UE could get the scheduling grant only after sending the
supportable data rate to the Node B, since the Node B cannot estimate the data rate that can be accommodated by the
UE.

If the data amount reporting is employed, the Node B can estimate the amount of data remaining in the UE buffer from
its knowledge of amount of data received after the previous report. This provides a possibility to reduce the signalling
overhead. However, it should be noted that the Node B cannot take into account new data, which has occurred after the
previous report.

Possible options for data amount reporting are listed as follows:

- Periodic reporting: Amount of data in the UE buffer is reported periodically after the initial reporting. It would
be worthwhile noting that the data amount reporting may be useless if no new data has occurred after the
previous report. It is also noted that each UE could have different timing offset for the data amount reporting to
spread out the uplink interference as done in CQI reporting in HSDPA.

- Event-triggered reporting: After the initial reporting, amount of data in the UE buffer can be reported at any
time if new data occurs at the UE buffer after the previous report. How frequently it will be reported would
depend on realistic traffic situation.

- Event-triggered reporting at periodic timings: After the initial reporting, amount of data in the UE buffer can
be reported at the predefined periodic timings only if there is new data occurred after the previous report. The
maximum reporting frequency is limited by the predefined reporting period.

Exact definition of the data amount report is FFS.

Regarding the report timing of the transmit power status, a possible option could be to send the transmit power status at
the same time as the supportable data rate or the data amount report. However, another possible option could be to
allow different report timing due to the following reasons:

- For efficient scheduling operation between multiple UEs, the Node B may need periodic reporting of the
transmit power status from each UE.

- The data amount report timing may depend on the traffic situation as discussed above.

Exact definition of the transmit power status report is FFS. It could be a short-term measurement if instantaneous
information about the transmit power status is needed. On the other hand, considering that the short-term variation in
uplink channel condition can be overcome by the power control to a certain extent, it could be a long-term
measurement. It is noted that it may be possible for the Node B to calculate the long-term measurement by taking
average of the short-term measurements.

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7.1.2.5.1.1.2 Other ways of conveying scheduling information update to Node B

7.1.2.5.2 RRC Signalling (TBD)

7.1.2.5.3 Iub/Iur Signalling (TBD)

7.1.3 Scheduling in Soft Handover


When more than one Node B control the cells present in the UE active set, there are several alternatives as to the
location of the scheduling entity which controls the UE. Possible solutions are:

- The Node B controlling the best downlink cell (as defined by RRC for DSCH/HS-DSCH operation) is
identified as the sole scheduling entity.

- The Node B controlling the best uplink cell (the meaning of best uplink cell would have to be defined
precisely) is identified as the sole scheduling entity for the UE.

- All Node Bs controlling one or more cells in the UE active set are identified as valid scheduling entities. This
approach requires an additional decision procedure in the UE when the UE receives the scheduling
assignments from multiple Node Bs.

It is noted that the E-DCH transmission of the UEs in soft handover may have an effect on the RoT variation of the
multiple cells in the active set. If one Node B is identified as a sole scheduling entity, scheduling of a UE in SHO
without consideration of non-scheduling cells in the active set could lead to an unexpected variation of the RoT in those
cells. To control the RoT variation, it is possible that a Node B uses information from the network, for example, a
scheduling weight for each UE in soft handover.

If multiple Node Bs are identified as valid scheduling entities, a UE in a SHO region may receive different scheduling
assignments from multiple Node Bs and hence UE operation upon receiving the scheduling assignments should be
defined. Possible UE operations are as follows:

- UE chooses the scheduling assignment from the ones indicated by the controlling Node Bs. For example,
either the best scheduling assignment or the worst one can be chosen.

- UE combines the scheduling assignments from the controlling Node Bs based on a certain algorithm. For
example, UE generates a single scheduling assignment by applying weighting factor (determined by the
network) to each scheduling assignment.

Various options have to be considered in terms of system performance in particular in presence of link imbalance and in
terms of overall system complexity. Reliability of downlink signalling in soft handover, e.g., the scheduling
assignment(s) from the controlling Node B(s), should be taken into account in further evaluation.

If the Node B controlled scheduling in soft handover is not seen as feasible, then one possibility would be to turn off the
Node B controlled E-DCH scheduling in soft handover.

7.1.4 Node B Controlled Rate Scheduling by Persistence Control


The basic principle of the technique is to allow fast control of the number of UEs that can transmit while fast control of
their TFCS restriction is still taking place. Fast control of the number of UEs is enabled by use of a persistence
parameter which works in a similar way to that used for RACH or DRAC in R99/4/5. In each TTI the UEs may transmit
data with a probability given by the persistence parameter. The persistence (p) is controlled and periodically updated by
the Node B within constraints determined by the RNC (unlike the case of DRAC where only the RNC determined the
persistence parameter).

The method is beneficial in rate control mode because one can control the interference in a system by using a single
persistence value since the UE's are transmiting asynchronously. The persistence represents the available interference
the system can tolerate and thus prevent's UE's in rate control mode to introduce additional interference. This in turn
improves uplink capacity.

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7.1.4.1 Issues Requiring Further Studying


It is FFS to determine how rate scheduling with persistence control would work in soft handoff. One possibility is to
send persistence information from all Active Set cells. Another possibility to avoid uplink interference management
problems from soft handoff is for a UE in soft handoff to further restrict its TFCS based on its soft handoff state.
Alternatively, the persistence parameter could be modified by UEs when in soft handoff. The persistence information
would apply to the rate controllable load [composed of non signaling and non-conversational data] of a CCTrCH. It is
for further study on how persistence would be used in the case of multiple CCTrCHs.

7.1.4.2 Signalling to Support Fast Rate Scheduling by Persistence Control

7.1.4.2.1 L1 signaling
The persistence parameter p needs to be signaled on the DL to the UE from the Node-B. The persistence parameter can
be different for different users.

7.1.5 Brief Overview of Different Scheduling Strategies


The purpose of this subsection is to provide a brief overview of the different scheduling strategies currently listed in the
TR to simplify the understanding and highlight similarities between different proposals.

7.1.5.1 Node B Controlled Rate Scheduling by Fast TFCS Restriction Control


The basic mechanism used in this approach allows the Node B to expand/reduce the “Node B controlled TFC subset”
e.g. one step at a time by differential up/down commands sent on the downlink from the Node B. The update is valid
until the next update received from the Node B. Transmissions from different UEs may overlap in time.

7.1.5.2 Node B Controlled Time and Rate Scheduling


The basic mechanism used in this approach allows the Node B to update the “Node B controlled TFC subset” to any
allowed value through explicit signaling specifying the new “Node B controlled TFC subset”, the start time and the
validity period. The validity period is short, in the order of milliseconds, where after the “Node B controlled TFC
subset” reverts to the value prior to the scheduling period. Updates of the “Node B controlled TFC subsets” for different
UEs are coordinated by the Node B in order to avoid transmissions from multiple UEs overlapping in time to the extent
possible.

For UEs with low delay tolerance services, a deterministic cooperative approach for time and rate scheduling may be
possible for example utilising congestion-based Comparative Metric (CM) described in Section 7.1.2 to decide which
UE should transmit ,when and at what data rate.

7.2 Hybrid ARQ


7.2.1 General
Node B controlled hybrid ARQ allows for rapid retransmissions of erroneously received data units, thus reducing the
number of RLC retransmissions and the associated delays. This can improve the quality of service experienced by the
end user. As a Node B controlled retransmission is less costly from a delay perspective, the physical channel can be
operated with somewhat higher error probability than in Rel 5, which may result in improved system capacity. The
retransmission probability for the initial transmission is preferably in the order of 10-20% when evaluating hybrid ARQ
as closed loop power control is used for the uplink, maintaining a given quality level. Significantly higher
retransmission probabilities may lead to considerably reduced end user throughput, while at very small retransmission
probabilities the Node B controlled hybrid ARQ will not provide any additional gains compared to R99/4/5. Soft
combining can further improve the performance of a Node B controlled hybrid ARQ mechanism.

Not all services may allow for retransmissions, e.g., conversational services with strict delay requirements. Hybrid ARQ
is thus mainly applicable to interactive and background services and, to some extent, to streaming services.

Thus, the major targets from a performance point of view with hybrid ARQ to consider in the evaluation of uplink
hybrid ARQ are

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- reduced delay

- increased user and system throughput

The design of an uplink hybrid ARQ scheme should take the following aspects into account:

- Memory requirements, both in the UE and the Node B. Rapid retransmissions reduce the amount of buffer
memory required in the Node B for buffering of soft bits when a retransmission has been requested.

- Low overhead. The overhead in terms of power and number of bits required for the operation of the hybrid
ARQ protocol should be low, both in uplink and downlink. Note that, unlike the HS-DSCH, the number of
simultaneous users employing hybrid ARQ for transmitting data in the uplink may be significant, stressing the
fact that the overhead for each user needs to be kept at a minimum.

- In-sequence delivery. The RLC requires in sequence delivery of MAC-d PDUs. Note that the in sequence
delivery mechanism can be located either in the Node B or the RNC, depending on the scheme considered.

- Operation in soft handover. In soft handover, data is received by multiple Node Bs and alignment of a user’s
protocol state among different Node Bs needs to be considered. This problem is not present for the HS-DSCH,
were reception occurs at a single node, the UE. Therefore, the feasibility of different modes of hybrid ARQ in
conjunction with soft handover needs to be studied and, if found feasible, the cost of the required signaling
investigated.

- Multiplexing of multiple transport channels. Hybrid ARQ cannot be used by all transport channels and
multiplexing of transport channels using hybrid ARQ and those not using hybrid ARQ needs to be considered.
In the downlink, there is a separate CCTrCh carrying the HS-DSCH, while the assumption of a separate
CCTrCh is not necessarily true in the uplink scenario. In R99/4/5, only a single uplink CCTrCh is allowed.

- UE power limitations. The operation of the UE controlled TFC selection for R99/4/5 channels need to be taken
into account in the design. In particular, UE power limitations in conjunction with activity on other transport
channels with higher priority should be considered.

- Complexity. The hybrid ARQ schemes studied should minimize as much as possible the additional
implementation complexity at all involved entities.

7.2.2 Transport Channel Processing


A protocol structure with multiple stop-and-wait hybrid ARQ processes can be used, similar to the scheme employed
for the downlink HS-DSCH, but with appropriate modifications motivated by the differences between uplink and
downlink. The use of hybrid ARQ affects multiple layers: the coding and soft combining/decoding is handled by the
physical layer, while the retransmission protocol is handled by a new MAC entity located in the Node B and a
corresponding entity located in the UE.

ACK/NAK signaling and retransmissions are done per uplink TTI basis. Whether multiple transport channels using
hybrid ARQ are supported and whether there may be multiple transport blocks per TTI or not are to be studied further.
The decision involves e.g. further discussion whether the current definition of handling logical channel priorities by the
UE in the TFC selection algorithm remains as in R99/4/5 or if it is altered. It also involves a discussion on whether
different priorities are allowed in the same TTI or not. The R99/4/5 specifications require a UE to maximize the
transmission of highest priority logical channel in each TTI. If this rule is maintained, the delay for different logical
channel priorities could be different, depending on whether the TFCS contains one or several transport channels.

Channel coding can be done in a similar way as in the R99/4/5 uplink. Transport blocks are coded and rate matching is
used to match the number of coded bits to the number of channel bits. If multiple transport channels are multiplexed,
rate matching will also be used to balance the quality requirements between the different transport channels. Note that
multiplexing of several transport channels implies that the number of bits may vary between retransmissions depending
on the activity, i.e., the retransmission may not necessarily consist of the same set of coded bits as the original
transmission.

Unlike the downlink, the uplink is not code limited and initial transmissions typically use a lower code rate than is the
case for HS-DSCH. Incremental redundancy with multiple redundancy versions is mainly beneficial at a relatively high
initial code rate. Thus, the need for support of multiple redundancy versions may be smaller in the uplink than for the
HS-DSCH. Explicit support for multiple redundancy versions, if desired, can be incorporated in the rate matching
process as was done for HS-DSCH.

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Release 6 28 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

7.2.3 Associated Signaling


Associated control signaling required for the operation a particular scheme consists of downlink and uplink signaling.
Different proposals may have different requirements on the necessary signaling. Furthermore, the signaling structure
may depend on other uplink enhancements considered.

The overhead required should be kept small in order not to waste power and code resources in the downlink and not to
create unnecessary interference in the uplink.

Downlink signaling consists of a single ACK/NAK per (uplink) TTI from the Node B. Similar to the HS-DSCH, a well-
defined processing time from the reception of a transport block at the Node B to the transmission of the ACK/NAK in
the downlink can be used in order to avoid explicit signaling of the hybrid ARQ process number along with the
ACK/NAK. The details on how to transmit the ACK/NAK are to be studied further.

The necessary information needed by the Node B to operate the hybrid ARQ mechanism can be grouped into two
different categories: information required prior to soft combining/decoding (outband signaling), and information
required after successful decoding (inband signaling). Depending on the scheme considered, parts of the information
might either be explicitly signaled or implicitly deduced, e.g., from CFN or SFN.

The information required prior to soft combining consists of:

- Hybrid ARQ process number.

- New data indicator. The new data indicator is used to control when the soft combining buffer should be cleared
in the same way as for the HS-DSCH.

- Redundancy version. If multiple redundancy versions are supported, the redundancy version needs to be
known to the Node B. The potential gains with explicit support of multiple redundancy versions should be
carefully weighted against the increase in overhead due to the required signaling. Note that, unlike the HS-
DSCH, the number of users simultaneously transmitting data in the uplink using hybrid ARQ may be
significant.

- Rate matching parameters (number of physical channel bits, transport block size). This information is required
for successful decoding. In R99/4/5, there is a one-to-one mapping between the number of physical channel
bits and the transport block size, given by the TFCI and attributes set by higher layer signaling. This
assumption does not hold for hybrid ARQ schemes if the number of available channel bits varies between
(re)transmissions, e.g., due to multiplexing with other transport channels. Hence, individual knowledge of
these two quantities is required in the Node B.

The information required after successful decoding can be sent as a MAC header. The content is similar to the MAC-hs
header, e.g., information for reordering, de-multiplexing of MAC-d PDUs, etc.

The information needed by UE necessary to operate the hybrid ARQ mechanism is either explicitly signaled by Node B,
or decided by the UE itself, depending on the scheme. It is noted that whether the UE will decide the parameter values
or the Node B will signal them, could affect the round trip time for HARQ retransmissions.

7.2.4 Operation in Soft Handover


The support of hybrid ARQ in different forms in soft handover requires careful consideration. In one possible scheme,
all Node Bs serving the UE process the received data and transmit ACK or NAK to signal the result. If the UE does not
receive an ACK from any of the involved Node Bs, it will schedule a retransmission. Otherwise, the transport block(s)
will be considered as successfully transmitted and the UE will increment the new data indicator to signal to all involved
Node Bs that the new data should not be soft combined with previous transmissions. To ensure that all involved Node
Bs have the possibility to decode the transmission, regardless of the result from earlier transmissions, self-decodable
transmissions are preferable.

A major problem with Node B controlled hybrid ARQ in soft handover is the link imbalance. Since the associated up-
and downlink signaling does not benefit from the soft handover gain, it might be error-prone and/or require significant
power offsets. Therefore, the feasibility of hybrid ARQ in soft handover situations should be investigated, taking the
power required for control signaling into account. Protocol robustness in presence of signaling errors needs to be
considered and additional protection of the control signaling may be required.

3GPP
Release 6 29 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

In the downlink direction, the UE may not be able to receive the ACK/NAK signals from all involved Node Bs. The
consequences of downlink ACK/NAK errors are similar to the uplink ACK/NAK errors studied for HS-DSCH and it
should be studied whether solutions similar to those used for HS-DSCH are applicable.

In the uplink direction, not all involved Node Bs may be able to receive the associated control signaling from the UE,
which may lead to unsynchronised soft buffers between different Node Bs. This could result in erroneous combining of
new packets with previously stored packets that have not been flushed. One possibility to reduce the occurrence of
erroneous combining could be to increase the reliability of the uplink HARQ control signaling. This could be for
example done by power offsets or by increasing the number of bits for the New Data Indicator thus making a wrap
around of the NDI less likely. An alternative could be to operate without soft combining in soft handover situations,
removing the need for reliable outband signaling of the new data indicator and the hybrid ARQ process number. More
robust inband signaling can be used for these quantities instead. Node B controlled ARQ without soft combining could
be considered in non-soft-handover as well, if clear gains are seen only from the ARQ mechanism and not from the soft
combining itself. Another possibility, preserving support for hybrid ARQ with soft combining in soft handover, could
be to synchronize the NodeB's soft buffer content via additional network signalling or to locate the soft buffer in the
Node B and the final ACK/NAK decision in the RNC. This technique allows the RNC to align the soft buffer status in
each Node B and may benefit from the soft handover gain for the related hybrid ARQ control signaling, but the delays
will be larger than for a pure Node B controlled scheme.

7.3 Fast DCH Setup Mechanisms


7.3.1 Background
Possible enhancements include, but are not limited to, the physical layer random access procedures, NBAP/RRC
signaling, and uplink/downlink synchronization procedures. Any enhancement, or combination of enhancements, to the
procedures for fast DCH establishments should fulfill the following requirements:

- Allow for significant reduction in switching delays.

- Fit into the connection state model and, to the extent possible, reuse existing procedures and techniques.

- Allow for unaffected operation of existing UEs and Node Bs

7.3.2 Reducing Uplink/Downlink Synchronization Time


Establishing a DCH requires the UE and Node B to synchronize the physical up- and downlink channels as briefly
described in Section 6.1.1. Techniques to reduce the downlink and/or uplink synchronization time should be studied as
a part of the overall goal of reducing the delays associated with DCH establishment.

The overall delay from t1 to t7 in Figure 6.1.2 depends both on the implementation, the performance requirements on the
UE, and the procedures in the 3GPP specifications. T1 and T2 mainly depend on network implementation. T3 depends
on the TTI used for FACH, which could be shortened at the cost of a reduced interleaving gain, and the UE processing
delays. In this section, a technique for reducing T4, accounting for 40+(N312-1)*10 ms delay, where N312=(1, 2, 4, 20,
50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000) and T5, accounting for 10-70 ms delay, by using an improved synchronization
scheme is proposed.

The proposed enhancement is illustrated in Figure 7.3.1. The basic idea is to replace the presently defined DPCCH
uplink and downlink synchronization scheme requiring a time interval T4+T5 (specified in [14]) with an enhanced
scheme reducing this time to 10 ms. A power ramping procedure is used, where the power of the uplink DPCCH is
ramped up from a calculated initial power level by sending power up commands from the Node B until the Node B has
obtained synchronization to the uplink signal. Acquisition of the uplink signal is indicated to the UE on the downlink
DPCCH simply by sending power down commands. In the radio frame following the power control preamble, data
transmission on both uplink and downlink DPDCH can start.

InFigure 7.3.2, the power ramping phase is illustrated in more detail. Downlink and uplink DPCH transmission shall
start at the same frame number, which shall be indicated in the switching message to the UE. Note that the UE already
has received data on the S-CCPCH and thus is synchronized to the network, and the relative timing between downlink
DPCH and S-CCPCH is known from L3 signaling, In Figure 7.3.2, downlink transmission starts at time instant t1
(which corresponds to t4 = t5 in Figure 7.3.1), with some offset relative to the frame timing of the CPICH. The offset is
indicated to the UE in the switching command. Uplink transmission shall start with a timing offset relative to the

3GPP
Release 6 30 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

downlink DPCH, i.e., at t1+T0+τ, where τ is the delay of the first detected path measured on CPICH and T0 = 1024 chip
intervals, as specified in [14]

For uplink ramping, a predefined setting of all DPCCH bits is preferably used to make it possible to collect all
transmitted energy for initial synchronization in the Node B receiver without caring on modulation. Uplink DPCCH
power is ramped up with one step per slot. In the ramping phase, downlink TPC bits from the Node B should be set to
“up”. As soon as the Node B receiver has been reliably synchronized to the uplink, the Node B shall enter power
control operation, i.e., transmit up/down power control commands and evaluate the TPC information received on the
uplink DPCCH (time instant t2 in Figure 7.3.2). In-sync detection is tested in Node B similarly as for PRACH
preambles based on thresholds. The UE is informed when Node B obtains in-sync through the TPC pattern received on
the downlink.

Note that the Node B uplink receiver can collect the energy for the entire ramping phase, not only the energy of the last
slot. Furthermore, as there is no modulation present on the DPCCH, it is possible to achieve a very large processing
gain at the receiver, equal to all 2560 chips (34 dB). This allows for very power efficient, highly secure detection of the
DPCCH transmission in the Node B. One possibility is to use peak detection in long-term delay power spectrum
estimations, which for instance can be calculated with a matched filter.

The initial downlink DPCCH power level is determined in the same fashion as in the present procedure, i.e., by using
the initial downlink DPCH power level IE present in the “Radio Link Setup/Addition Request” messages. Setting of the
initial power is implementation dependent. If prior information on the distance between UE and Node B or a path loss
measurement is available in the RNC, this can be used for more tight setting of the initial downlink DPCCH power
level. If no distance or path loss information is available, a “broadcast power level” needs to be employed. To secure
reception of the downlink DPCCH, its initial power should in any case be chosen somewhat higher than needed
according to pre-calculations. This means that as soon as the inner power control loop starts operation (time instant t2 in
Figure 7.3.2), it is very likely that downlink power is ramped down first. In the proposed fast synchronization scheme,
setting of initial downlink power is much less critical than in the Rel99/4/5 scheme as a somewhat too high power
would be employed only for a very short time interval.

DPCH setup failure in the Node B is identified when no uplink synchronization is obtained within the preamble period.
In the case, the downlink DPCCH transmission should be stopped at the end of the preamble interval. Stop of downlink
transmissions shall be identified in the UE by means of a fast DL DPCCH synchronization status detection scheme and
stop further uplink transmissions. Further handling of DPCH setup failure could be done in several ways. For instance, a
new attempt could be made a predefined time after the first try. Alternatively, the physical channel reconfiguration
failure procedure as defined in [15]. could apply also for this new scheme.

Introducing enhancements such as those described above can be done by defining “Synchronization Procedure C” in
addition to procedures A and B already specified in [14]. The impact on higher layers, the interaction with power
control, and in which scenarios a new synchronization procedure may be applied are for further study.

3GPP
Release 6 31 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

switching
Power decision (RRC/SRNC)

DPCCH
downlink DPCH

switching DPCH
command
SCCPCH

confirm

uplink DPCH
T4=
T1 T2 T3 T5 T6
Cell_FACH Cell_DCH

t1 t2 t3 t4 = t6 t7
t5

Figure 7.3.1: Enhanced procedure for DCH establishment.

closed-loop power controlled transmission


data transmission

power ramping DPDCH

UL DPCH
DPCCH

slot
(0.667 ms)
10 ms-radio frame (SFN ) 10 ms-radio frame (SFN + 1)
PCCH at DL DPCH
nitial power
evel

DL-UL offset
t1 T0 + τ t2 t3
start of first acquisition of UL DPCH, end of first
frame start of power control frame

Figure 7.3.2: Illustration of the enhanced uplink/downlink synchronization scheme.

7.4 Shorter Frame Size for Improved QoS


Reducing the minimum TTI supported from the 10 ms in Rel5 to a lower value may reduce the transfer delay through a
reduced Uu transfer delay and reduced delays due to TTI alignment (incoming data to be transmitted has to wait until
the start of the next TTI). A reduced TTI may also allow for reduced processing time as the payload sizes are reduced
compared to a larger TTI, a shortened roundtrip time in Node B controlled hybrid ARQ protocols and reduced latencies
in some scheduling schemes. Reduced delays may also result in a higher system throughput and better resource
utilization.

3GPP
Release 6 32 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

Thus, the major targets from a performance point of view with a reduced uplink TTI are:

- improved end-user quality

- increased user and system throughput

- significant delay reduction

The introduction of a reduced TTI should take the following aspects into account:

- End-user delay. Any reduced TTI considered should result in the possibility for a significant reduction in
uplink delay while still support reasonable payloads.

- Choice of shorter TTI. It is preferable if the Rel5 minimum TTI of 10 ms is a multiple of the reduced TTI
considered. The obvious choice is a 2 ms TTI, which also is an alignment to the short TTI adopted for HS-
DSCH.

- Link performance. The influence of a short TTI on link performance need to be considered.

- Channel structure. Support of services and applications using Rel5 channels should be considered. The
operation of UE controlled TFC selection need to be taken into account. Any increase in UE peak-to-average
ratio should be analyzed and kept low.

- Complexity. Any complexity increase due to a reduced TTI should be clearly motivated by a corresponding
performance gain.

7.5 Signalling to support the enhancements


7.5.1 Downlink signalling

7.5.1.1 Basic considerations


It can be assumed that the operation of enhanced uplink DCH requires some new signalling in downlink direction.
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RP 040046

Presentation to: TSG RAN Meeting # 23


Document for presentation: TR25.896, Version 2.0.0
Presented for: Approval

Abstract of document:
This document is a technical report titled 'Feasibility Study for Enhanced Uplink for UTRA FDD'
for the Release 6 study item “Uplink Enhancements for Dedicated Transport Channels"

Changes since last presentation to TSG RAN:


TR25.896 version 1.0.0 was presented for information for TSG RAN meeting #21. Since then the
TR has grown from 63 pages to 180 pages long. Among very many other things the conclusions
and recommendations chapter has been completed. More detailed descripton in [1].

Outstanding Issues:
No Outstanding Issues.

Contentious Issues:
No Contentious Issues.

References:
[1] RP-040021, Status Report for SI on Uplink Enhancements for Dedicated Transport Channels
ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)
Technical Report

3rd Generation Partnership Project;


Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network;
Feasibility Study for Enhanced Uplink for UTRA FDD;
(Release 6)

The present document has been developed within the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP TM) and may be further elaborated for the purposes of 3GPP.

The present document has not been subject to any approval process by the 3GPP Organizational Partners and shall not be implemented.
This Specification is provided for future development work within 3GPP only. The Organizational Partners accept no liability for any use of this Specification.
Specifications and reports for implementation of the 3GPP TM system should be obtained via the 3GPP Organizational Partners' Publications Offices.
Release 6 ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download 2 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

Keywords
UMTS, radio, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, packet mode, layer 1

3GPP

Postal address

3GPP support office address


650 Route des Lucioles - Sophia Antipolis
Valbonne - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16

Internet
http://www.3gpp.org

ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced except as authorized by written permission.


The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.

© 2003, 3GPP Organizational Partners (ARIB, CCSA, ETSI, T1, TTA, TTC).
All rights reserved.

ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download You are unable to access this email address freeprosoftz.com Clion 2019.3.3 Full Mac Archives 3GPP
Release 6 3 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

Contents
Foreword. 8
1 Scope . 9
2 References . 9
3 Definitions, symbols and abbreviations. 10
4 Introduction . 10
5 Requirements . 10
6 Reference Techniques in Earlier 3GPP Releases . 11
6.1 DCH Setup Mechanisms . 11
6.1.1 Uplink/Downlink Synchronization . 12
6.2 Uplink TFCS Management with RRC Signalling . 13
6.3 Transport Format Combination Selection in the UE . 13
6.3.1 Description of TFC selection method. 13
6.3.2 TFC selection method as a reference case for Enhanced Uplink DCH . 16
6.4 RNC controlled scheduling: DRAC FIFA 19 CPY Archives TFCS Restriction . 17
7 Overview of Techniques considered to support Enhanced Uplink. 17
7.1 Scheduling <NodeB controlled scheduling, AMC>. 17
7.1.1 Node B Controlled Rate Scheduling by Fast TFCS Restriction Control . 19
7.1.1.1 Purpose and General Assumptions . 19
7.1.1.2 General Principle . 19
7.1.1.3 Restricting the Allowed Uplink TFCs in a TFCS by L1 Signalling . 20
7.1.1.4 Issues Requiring Further Studying . 20
7.1.1.5 Signalling to Support Fast TFCS Restriction Control . 21
7.1.1.5.1 L1 signaling . 21
7.1.1.5.2 RRC signalling. 21
7.1.1.5.3 Iub/Iur signalling. 21
7.1.2 Method for Node B Controlled Time and Rate Scheduling. 21
7.1.2.1 Purpose and General Assumptions . 21
7.1.2.2 General Principle . 21
7.1.2.3 Controlling UE TFCS and transmission time . 22
7.1.2.4 Issues Requiring Further Study . 23
7.1.2.5 Signalling to Support Fast Node-B Time and Rate Control . 23
7.1.2.5.1 L1 Signalling. 23
7.1.2.5.1.1 Uplink Signalling of Scheduling Information Update . 24
7.1.2.5.1.1.1 Explicit scheduling information update signaling . 24
7.1.2.5.1.1.2 Other ways of conveying scheduling information update to Node B. 25
7.1.2.5.2 RRC Signalling (TBD). 25
7.1.2.5.3 Iub/Iur Signalling (TBD) . 25
7.1.3 Scheduling in Soft Handover. 25
7.1.4 Node B Controlled Rate Scheduling by Persistence Control. 25
7.1.4.1 Issues Requiring Further Studying . 26
7.1.4.2 Signalling to Support Fast Rate Scheduling by Persistence Control . 26
7.1.4.2.1 L1 signaling . 26
7.1.5 Brief Overview of Different Scheduling Strategies. 26
7.1.5.1 Node B Controlled Rate Scheduling by Fast TFCS Restriction Control . 26
7.1.5.2 Node B Controlled Time and Rate Scheduling . 26
7.2 Hybrid ARQ . 26
7.2.1 General . 26
7.2.2 Transport Channel Processing . 27
7.2.3 Associated Signaling . 28
7.2.4 Operation in Soft Handover. 28
7.3 Fast DCH Setup Mechanisms. 29
7.3.1 Background. 29
7.3.2 Reducing Uplink/Downlink Synchronization Time . 29

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Release 6 4 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

7.4 Shorter Frame Size for Improved QoS. 31


7.5 Signalling to support the enhancements . 32
7.5.1 Downlink signalling . 32
7.5.1.1 Basic considerations . 32
7.5.1.2 Downlink signalling multiplexed on existing channel. 32
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7.5.2 Uplink signalling . 33
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7.5.2.2.1 Mapping on (E-)DPDCH . 34
7.5.2.2.1.1 Mapping on DPDCH using a TrCH . 34
7.5.2.2.2 Mapping on DPCCH. 34
7.5.2.2.3 Mapping on a new code channel. 35
7.6 Miscellaneous enhancements . 35
7.6.1 Support for enhanced channel estimation . 35
8 Physical Layer Structure Alternatives for Enhanced Uplink DCH . 36
8.1 ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download to existing transport channels . 36
8.1.1 Transport Channel Structure. 36
8.1.1.1 Number of E-DCHs . 37
8.1.1.2 TTI . 37
8.2 TTI length vs. HARQ physical channel structure . 38
8.3 Multiplexing alternatives in general. 39
8.3.1 Reuse of current physical layer structure. 40
8.3.2 Allocating a separate code channel for Enhanced uplink DCH. 40
8.4 Multiplexing alternatives in detail. 40
8.4.1 Physical layer structures in time domain (TS25.212 ) . 41
8.4.1.1 General structures describing only how to multiplex DCH and E-DCH . 41
8.4.1.1.1 Physical Layer Structure Supporting minimum TTI of 10ms . 41
8.4.1.1.1.1 Code multiplexing between DCH and E-DCH . 41
8.4.1.1.1.2 Time multiplexing between DCH and E-DCH . 42
8.4.1.1.2 Physical Layer Structure Supporting minimum TTI of 2ms . 43
8.4.1.1.2.1 Code multiplexing between DCH and E-DCH . 43
8.4.1.1.2.2 Time multiplexing between DCH and E-DCH . 44
8.4.1.2 More detailed structures defining how to multiplex L1 signaling (HSDPCCH, DPCCH, EDPCCH) with
DCH and E-DCH. 46
8.4.2 Physical layer structures in code domain. 46
8.4.2.1 Case 1: Structure when using code multiplexing for all channels . 47
8.4.2.2 Case 2: Structure when E-DCH, DCH and EDPCCH are time Multiplexed. 48
8.4.2.3 Case 3: Structure when E-DCHDCH and EDPCCH and HS-DPCCH are time multiplexed . 49
8.4.2.4 Case 4: Structure when E-DCH, EDPCCH and HSDPCCH are time multiplexed . 50
8.4.2.5 Case 5: Structure similar to case 2, but with 8PSK included. 51
8.4.2.6 Case 6: Structure similar to case 3, but with 8PSK included. 51
8.4.2.7 Case 7: Structure similar to case 4, but with 8PSK included. 51
8.4.2.8 Case 8: Structure when using code multiplexing for all channels . 52
8.5 E-DCH timing . 53
9 Evaluation of Techniques for Enhanced Uplink. 54
9.1 Scheduling <NodeB controlled scheduling, AMC>. 54
9.1.1 Performance Evaluation . 54
9.1.1.1 Comparison of Centralized and Decentralized Scheduler . 54
9.1.1.1.1 Results with Full Buffer . 54
9.1.1.1.2 Results with Mixed Traffic Model. 56
9.1.1.1.3 Discussion . 57
9.1.2 Complexity Evaluation <UE and RNS impacts> . 58
9.1.3 Downlink Signalling. 58
9.1.4 Uplink Signalling. 58
9.1.5 8PSK link performance . 58
9.2 Hybrid ARQ . 59
9.2.1 Performance Evaluation . 59
9.2.1.1 Hybrid ARQ performance with and without soft combining . 59
9.2.1.2 Hybrid ARQ performance in soft handover . 63

3GPP
Release 6 5 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

9.2.1.3 HARQ Efficiency . 65


9.2.2 Complexity Evaluation <UE and RNS impacts> . 66
9.2.2.1 Buffering complexity. 66
9.2.2.1.1 Soft buffer at Node B . 66
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9.2.2.3 UE and RNS processing time considerations . 68
9.2.2.4 HARQ BLER operation point and complexity. 68
9.2.3 Downlink Signalling. 68
9.2.4 Uplink Signalling. 68
9.2.4.1 E-TFC signalling . 68
9.2.4.1.1 Summary of results . 69
9.2.4.1.1.1 Case 1 results . 69
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9.2.4.1.1.3 Case 3 results . 71
9.2.4.1.2 Simulation assumptions . 72
9.3 Fast DCH Setup Mechanisms. 72
9.3.1 Performance Evaluation . 72
9.3.2 Complexity Evaluation <UE and RNS impacts> . 72
9.3.3 Downlink Signalling. 72
9.3.4 Uplink Signalling. 72
9.4 Shorter Frame Size for Improved QoS. 72
9.4.1 Performance Evaluation . 72
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9.4.2 Complexity Evaluation <UE and RNS impacts> . 85
9.4.3 Downlink Signalling. 85
9.4.4 Uplink Signalling. 86
9.5 Physical layer structures. 86
9.5.1 Complexity evaluation. 86
9.5.1.1 PAR analysis . 86
9.5.1.1.1 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated one BPSK
code channel with SF=4. 88
9.5.1.1.2 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated in two BPSK
code channels with SF=4 . 89
9.5.1.1.3 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated in three BPSK
code channels with SF=4 . 91
9.5.1.1.4 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated in four BPSK
code channels with SF=4 . 92
9.5.1.1.5 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated in five BPSK
code channels with SF=4 . 93
9.5.1.1.6 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated in six BPSK
code channels with SF=4 . 94
9.5.1.1.7 Total number of channel bits from both E-DCH and DCH that can be accommodated in three 8PSK
streams with SF=4. 95
9.5.1.2 Considerations on PAR analysis. 95
9.5.1.2.1 Example based on case 2/5 and parameter set 1 . 95
9.5.1.2.2 Example based on case 1,2 (BPSK vs 8-PSK). 96
9.5.1.2.3 Example for multi-code . 97
9.5.1.2.4 Discussion . 98
9.6 Results including multiple techniques. 98
9.6.1 Results with HARQ, shorter TTI, time & rate scheduling. 98
9.6.1.1 Full Buffer results. 98
9.6.1.2 Mixed traffic model results. 105
9.6.2 Results with HARQ, 10ms TTI, rate scheduling with persistence . 113
9.6.2.1 Full Buffer results. 113
9.6.2.2 Mixed traffic model results. 114
9.7 Compatibility of the enhancements with existing releases. 120
9.7.1 Compatibility at the edge of coverage . 120
9.7.1.1 Non transparent functionality . 120

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Release 6 6 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

9.7.1.2 Transparent functionality. 120


9.7.2 Legacy UE . 121
9.7.3 Link budget. 121
9.7.4 DL capacity . 121
9.7.5 Design re-use . 122
9.7.6 Conclusion. 122
10 Impacts to the Radio Interface Protocol Architecture . 122
10.1 Protocol Model . 122
10.1 Introduction of new MAC functionality . 122
10.1.1 ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download Introduction of an enhanced uplink dedicated transport channel (E-DCH). 123
10.1.2 HARQ functionality . 123
10.1.3 Reordering entity . 123
10.1.4 TFC selection. 123
10.2 RLC . 123
10.3 RRC . 123
11 Impacts to Iub/Iur Protocols . 124
11.1 Impacts on Iub/Iur Application Protocols. 124
11.2 Impacts on Frame Protocol over Iub/Iur. 124
12 Conclusions and Recommendations . 124
12.1 Conclusions . 124
12.2 Recommendations . 125

Annex A: Simulation Assumptions and Results. 126


A.1 Link ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download Assumptions . 126
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A.1.2 Link level parameters . 127
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A.1.4 Description of Short Term FER and ECM Metod . 128
A.1.4.1 Short-term FER method: . 128
A.1.4.2 ECM method: . 129
A.1.4.3 Comparison between short term and ECM method . 130
A.2 Link Simulation Results . 132
A.2.1 HARQ Performance Evaluation . 132
A.2.1.1 HARQ Efficiency and Number of Retransmissions . 132
A.2.2 Link Performance of E-DCH for System Simulations. 135
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A.2.3.2 Results . 150
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A.3.2.1 Uplink power control. 157
A.3.3 System Simulation Outputs and Performance Metrics . 158
A.3.3.1 Output metrics for data services . 158
A.3.3.2 Mixed Voice and Data Services . 159
A.3.3.3 Voice Services and Related Output Metrics . 159
A.3.3.3.1 Voice Model. 159
A.3.3.4 Packet Scheduler . 159
A.4 System Simulation Results . 160
A.4.1 Release-99 Performance . 160

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A.4.1.1 Release-99 Performance With Full Buffer . 160


A.4.1.1.1 System Setup. 160
A.4.1.1.2 Performance Without TFC Control in AWGN . 160
A.4.1.1.3 Performance With TFC Control in AWGN . 161
A.4.1.2 Release-99 Performance With Mixed Traffic Model . 163
A.4.1.2.1 System Setup. 163
A.4.1.2.2 Performance Without TFC Control in AWGN . 164
A.4.1.3 Release-99 Voice Capacity. 166
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A.4.1.3.2 Voice Capacity. 167
A.5 Traffic Models . 167
Annex B: Lognormal description . 175
Annex C: Uplink Rise Outage Filter . 176
Annex D: Speech Source (Markov) Model . 176
Annex E: Modeling of the effect of channel estimation errors on Link performance. 177
Annex F: Change history . 178

3GPP
Release 6 ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download 8 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

Foreword
This Technical Report has been produced by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

The contents of the present document are subject to continuing work within the TSG and may change following formal
TSG approval. Should the TSG modify the contents of the present document, it will be re-released by the TSG with an
identifying change of release date and an increase in version number as follows:

Version x.y.z

where:

x the first digit:

1 presented to TSG for information;

2 presented to TSG for approval;

3 or greater indicates TSG approved document under change control.

y the second digit is incremented for all changes of substance, i.e. technical enhancements, corrections,
updates, etc.

z the third digit is incremented when editorial only changes have been incorporated in the document.

eviews 11 3GPP
Release 6 9 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

1 Scope
This present document is the technical report for the Release 6 study item “Uplink Enhancements for Dedicated
Transport Channels”(see [1]).

The purpose of this TR is to help TSG RAN WG1 to ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download and describe the potential enhancements under
consideration and compare the benefits of each enhancement with earlier releases for improving the performance of the
dedicated transport channels in UTRA FDD uplink, along with the complexity evaluation of each technique. The scope
is to either enhance uplink performance in general or to enhance the uplink performance for background, interactive and
streaming based traffic.

This activity involves the Radio Access work area of the 3GPP studies and has impacts both on the Mobile Equipment
and Access Network of the 3GPP systems.

This document is intended to gather all information in order to compare the solutions and gains vs. complexity, and
draw a conclusion on way forward.

This document is a ‘living’ document, i.e. it is permanently updated and presented to TSG-RAN meetings.

2 References
The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present
document.

• References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or
non-specific.

• For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.

• For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including
a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same
Release as the present document.

[1] 3GPP TD RP-020658: "Study Item Description for Uplink Enhancements for Dedicated Transport
Channels ".

[2] 3GPP RAN WG1 TDOC R1-00-0909, “Evaluation Methods for High Speed Downlink Packet
Access (HSDPA)”, July 4 2000

[3] Hämäläinen S., ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, P. Slanina, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, M. Hartman, A. Lappeteläinen, H. Holma, O. Salonaho, ”A Novel


Interface between Link and System Level Simulations”, Proceedings of ACTS summit 1997,
Aalborg, Denmark, Oct. 1997, pp. 509-604.

[4] 3GPP RAN WG1#29 TDOC R1-02-1326, “Link Prediction methodology for System Level
ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download Simulations”, Shanghai China, November 5 2002.

[5] Ratasuk, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, Ghosh, Classon, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, “Quasi-Static Method for Predicting Link-Level Performance” IEEE
VTC 2002.

[6] 3GPP TR 25.942 V3.3.0 (2002-06), RF System Scenarios, June 2002.

[7] 3GPP TR 25.853 V4.0.0 (2001-03), “Delay Budget within the Access Stratum”, March 2001.

[8] 3GPP TS 25.133 V3.11.0 (2002-09), “Requirements for support of radio resource management
(FDD) (Release 99)”, September 2002.

[9] Hytönen, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, T.; “Optimal Wrap-around Network Simulation”, Helsinki University of Technology
Institute of Mathematics Research Reports, 2001, www.math.hut.fi/reports/, Report number A432

Advanced WordPerfect Office Password Recovery v1.15 crack keygen 3GPP
Release 6 10 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

[10] “Source Models of Network Game Traffic", M. S. Borella, Proceedings, Networld+Interop '99
Engineer's Conference, May 1999.

[11] 3GPP RAN WG1#30 TDOC R1-03-0083, “Link Prediction Methodology for System Level
Jogos de Político de Graça para Baixar Simlations,” Lucent Technologies, San Diego, USA, January 7-10, 2003.

[12] 3GPP2, 1xEV-DV Evaluation Methodology.

[13] ETSI TR 101 12, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Selection procedures
for the choice of radio transmission technologies of the UMTS (UMTS 30.03 v3.2.0)

[14] TS 25.214, v5.3.0, “Physical layer procedures (FDD)”, December 2002

[15] TS 25.331, v5.4.0, "Radio Resource Control (RRC); Protocol Specification", March 2003

[16] TS 25.321 v.5.5.0: ”Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocol Specification", June 2003

3 Definitions, symbols and abbreviations


E-DCH ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download Enhanced DCH, a new dedicated transport channel type or enhancements to an
existing dedicated transport channel type (if required by a particular proposal)

E-DPCCH Enhanced DPCCH, a physical control channel associated with the E-DPDCH (if
required by a particular proposal)

E-DPDCH Enhanced DPDCH, a new physical data channel or enhancements to the current
DPDCH (if required by a particular proposal)

4 Introduction
At the 3GPP TSG RAN #17 meeting, SI description on “Uplink Enhancements for Dedicated Transport Channels” was
approved [1].

The justification of the study item was, that since the use of IP based services becomes more important there is an
increasing demand to improve the coverage and throughput as well as reduce the delay of the uplink. Applications that
could benefit from an enhanced uplink may include services like video-clips, multimedia, e-mail, telematics, gaming,
video-streaming etc. This study item investigates enhancements that can be applied to UTRA in order to improve the
performance on uplink dedicated transport channels.

The study includes, but is not restricted to, the following topics related to enhanced uplink for UTRA FDD to enhance
uplink performance in general or to enhance the uplink performance for background, interactive and streaming based
traffic:

- Adaptive modulation and coding schemes

- Hybrid ARQ protocols

- Node B controlled scheduling

- Physical layer or higher layer signalling mechanisms to support the enhancements

- Fast DCH setup

- Shorter frame size and improved QoS

5 Requirements
- The overall goal is to improve the coverage and throughput as well as to reduce the delay of the uplink
dedicated transport channels.

3GPP
Release 6 11 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

- The focus shall be on urban, sub-urban and rural deployment scenarios. Full mobility shall be supported, i.e.,
mobility should be supported for high-speed cases also, but optimisation should be for low-speed to medium-
speed scenarios.

- The study shall investigate the possibilities to enhance the uplink performance on the dedicated transport
channels in general, with priority to streaming, interactive and background Downloader Archives - Cracked Software Links - Features or group of features should ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download significant incremental gain, with reasonable complexity.
The value added per feature should be considered in the evaluation.

- The UE and network complexity shall be minimised for a given level of system performance.

- The impact on current releases in terms of both protocol and hardware perspectives shall be taken into account.

- It shall be possible to introduce the new features in the network which has terminals from Release’99, Release
4 or Release 5.

6 Reference Techniques in Earlier 3GPP Releases

6.1 DCH Setup Mechanisms


A fundamental concept in WCDMA is the connection state model, illustrated in Figure 6.1.1. The connection state
model enables optimization of radio and hardware resources depending on the activity level of each UE.

- Aliens: Fireteam Elite Free Download (v1.00) Users with high transmission activity (in either uplink, downlink or both) should be in CELL_DCH state,
where power-controlled dedicated channels are established to/from the UE. In CELL_DCH state, the UE is
assigned dedicated radio and hardware resources, which minimizes processing delay ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download allows for high
capacity.

- Users with low transmission activity should be in CELL_FACH state, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, where only common channels are used.
The major advantages with CELL_FACH state are the possibility for low UE power consumption and that no
dedicated hardware resources in the Node B are needed.

- Users with no transmission activity are in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH states, which enable very low UE power
consumption but do not allow any data transmission. These states are not discussed further in this section.

Switching between CELL_DCH and CELL_FACH are controlled by the RRC ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download on requests from either the
network or ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download UE. Entering CELL_DCH implies the establishment of a DCH, which involves a physical layer random
access procedure, NBAP and RRC signaling, and uplink and downlink physical channel synchronization.

Clearly, it is desirable to switch a UE to CELL_FACH state when there is little transmission activity in order to save
network resources and to reduce the UE power consumption. Switching between CELL_DCH and CELL_FACH is
especially useful in scenarios with a large number of bursty packet data users, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, where there is a risk that the system
becomes code limited if users temporarily not receiving/transmitting any packets are not switched to CELL_FACH.
When the activity increases, the UE should rapidly be switched back to CELL_DCH and a dedicated channel be
established.

U-he ACE v1.0 crack serial keygen 3GPP
Release 6 12 ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

CELL_FACH CELL_DCH
CELL_PCH, URA_PCH
ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download bandicut crack 2020 Archives Adobe Photoshop 2021 22.5 Crack Mac/Windows FREE Download Low transmission activity. No High transmission activity.
No transmission activity.
dedicated channels established. Dedicated channels established.

Iobit Uninstaller Pro 9.2.0.13 serial key Archives TrCh/PhyCh
reconfiguration

Figure 6.1.1: Connection states.

6.1.1 Uplink/Downlink Synchronization


The DCH setup procedure in Rel99/4/5 is illustrated in Figure 6.1.2, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. At time t1, downlink data arrives to the RNC and a
decision to establish a DCH is taken at time t2. The decision is sent to the UE via the S-CCPCH, which starts to
establish synchronization to the downlink DPCCH at time t4, using the standardized procedure described in [14].

The downlink synchronization procedure is divided into two phases: The first phase starts when higher layers in the UE
initiate physical dedicated channel establishment and lasts until 160 ms after the downlink dedicated channel is
considered established by higher layers. During this time, out-of-sync shall not be reported and in-sync shall be reported
using the CPHY-Sync-IND primitive if the downlink DPCCH quality exceeds a threshold for at least 40 ms. The second
phase starts 160 ms after the downlink dedicated channel is considered established by higher layers. During this phase,
both out-of-sync and in-sync are reported, depending on the situation in the UE. As the UE is not allowed to report in-
sync until at least 40 ms after the start of the first synchronization phase, the interval T4 equals at least 40 ms.

Once the UE has detected the in-sync condition for the downlink DPCCH, the UE starts transmitting the uplink power
control preamble at time t5. The length of the power control preamble, T5, is set by higher layer signaling. During this
period, the Node B establishes synchronization with the UE on the uplink. Once the power control preamble is finished,
at t6, the UE uplink/downlink DPCH is established and data transmission may begin.

switching
Power decision (RRC/SRNC)

DPCCH

downlink DPCH

switching DPCH
command
SCCPCH

confirm

uplink DPCH

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
Cell_FACH ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download Cell_DCH

t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7

Figure 6.1.2: Rel99/4/5 procedure for DCH establishment. Note that T6 is optional and data transmission may
start already at t6.

3GPP
Release 6 13 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

6.2 Uplink TFCS Management with RRC Signalling


There are following TFCS reconfiguration messages available in current specifications [15]:

- Complete reconfiguration, in which case UE shall remove a previously stored TFCS set, if it exists

- Addition, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, in which case UE shall insert the new additional TFC(s) into the first available position(s) in
ascending order in the TFCS.

- Removal, in which case UE shall remove the TFC indicated by “IE” TFCI from the current TFCS, and regard
this position (TFCI) as vacant.

- Replace, in which case UE shall replace the TFCs indicated by “IE” TFCI and replace them with the defined
new TFCs.

In addition to those, there is also Transport format combination control message defined in [15], with which the
network can define certain restrictions in the earlier defined TFCS set, as described below.

- Transport Format Combination Subset 8020 Retriever v2.1 crack serial keygen the TFC control message can be defined in the format of TFCS
restriction; for downgrading the original TFCS set. There are several different formats possible. The message
can define the minimum allowed TFC index in the original TFCS set. Or it can define that a certain TFC subset
from the original TFCS set is either allowed or not. One possible way to define the message is to list what
Transport channels have restrictions, and then list the allowed TFIs for the restricted Transport channels.

- Transport Format Combination Subset in the TFC control message message can be defined in the format of
canceling the earlier TFCS restriction; i.e, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. defining that the original TFCS set is valid again.

Transport luminar aurora hdr Archives combination control message includes activation time. The activation time defines the frame number
/time at which the changes caused by the related message shall take effect. The activation time can be defined as a
function of CFN, ranging between 0…255, the default being “now”.

Transport format combination control message can also include an optional parameter of TFC control duration, which
defines the period in multiples of 10 ms frames for which the defined restriction, i.e. TFC subsetis to be applied. The
possible values for this are (1,2,4,8,16,24,32,48,64,128,192,256,512).

In [15], in chapter 13.5, it is defined separately for each RRC procedure, what kind of delay requirements there are for
UE. For TFCS control messages there are following delay requirements:

- TRANSPORT FORMAT COMBINATION CONTROL : N1 = 5. This defines the upper limit on the time
required to execute modifications in UE after the reception of the RRC message has been completed. This
means that after receiving the TFCS control message, the UE shall adopt the changes in the beginning of the
next TTI starting after N1*10ms .

- TRANSPORT FORMAT COMBINATION CONTROL FAILURE: N2=8, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. This defines the number of 10 ms
radio frames from end of reception of UTRAN -> UE message on UE physical layer before the transmission of
the UE -> UTRAN response message must be ready to start on a transport channel with no access delay other
than the TTI alignment. The UE response message transmission from the physical layer shall begin at the latest
(N2*10)+TTI ms after completion of the reception of the last TTI carrying the triggering UTRAN -> UE
message. When Target State is CELL_DCH, the UE response message transmission from the physical layer
may be additionally delayed by the value of IE "SRB delay".

6.3 Transport Format Combination Selection in the UE


6.3.1 Description of TFC selection method
The TFC selection is a MAC function that the UE uses to select a TFC from its current TFCS whenever it has
something to transmit. The TFC is selected based on the need for data rate (i.e. UE buffer contents), the currently
available transmission power, the available TFCS and the UE’s capabilities. The details of the TFC selection function
are covered in [8] and [16].

3GPP
Release 6 14 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

The most important parameters governing the behavior of the TFC selection function are called X,Y and Z, and their
values have been agreed to be static in the current specifications. Table 6.3.1 below shows the values of these
parameters.

Table 6.3.1: X, Y, Z parameters for TFC selection

X Y Z
15 30 30

Based on these parameters, the UE shall continuously evaluate based on the Elimination, Recovery and Blocking
criteria defined below, how TFCs on an uplink DPDCH can be used for the purpose of TFC selection. The following
diagram illustrates the state transitions for the state of a given TFC.

Elimination criterion is met Blocking criterion is met

2.
Supported Excess-power ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download Blocked
state state state

ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download Recovery criterion is met

Recovery criterion is met

Figure 6.3.1: State transitions for the state of a given TFC

The evaluation shall be performed for every TFC in the TFCS using the estimated UE transmit power. The UE transmit
power estimation for a given TFC shall be made using the UE transmitted power measured over the measurement
period, defined in section 9.1.6.1 of [8] as one slot, and the gain factors of the corresponding TFC. Table 6.3.2 below,
extracted from [8], shows the specified accuracy requirements for measuring UE transmit power over the one slot
measurement period, as a function of the current transmit power level relative to maximum output power.

Table 6.3.2: UE transmitted power absolute accuracy

Accuracy [dB]

Parameter Unit
PUEMAX PUEMAX
24dBm 21dBm

UE transmitted power=PUEMAX dBm +1/-3 ±2

UE transmitted power=PUEMAX-1 dBm +1.5/-3.5 ±2.5

UE transmitted power=PUEMAX-2 dBm +2/-4 ±3

UE transmitted power=PUEMAX-3 dBm +2.5/-4.5 ±3.5

PUEMAX-10≤UE transmitted power<PUEMAX-3 dBm +3/-5 ±4

NOTE 1: User equipment maximum output power, PUEMAX, is the maximum output power level without tolerance
defined for the power class of the UE in TS 25.101, section 6.2.1.

The UE shall consider the Elimination criterion for a given TFC to be detected if the estimated UE transmit power
needed for this TFC is greater than the Maximum UE transmitter power for at least X out of the last Y successive

3GPP
Release 6 ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download 15 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

measurement periods immediately preceding evaluation. The MAC in the UE shall consider that the TFC is in Excess-
Power state for the purpose of TFC selection.

MAC in the UE shall indicate the available bitrate for each logical channel to upper layers within Tnotify from the
moment the Elimination criterion was detected.

The UE shall consider the Recovery criterion for a given TFC to be detected if the estimated UE transmit power needed
for this TFC has not been greater than the Maximum UE transmitter power for the last Z successive measurement
periods immediately preceding evaluation. The MAC in the UE shall consider that the TFC is in Supported state for the
purpose of TFC selection.

MAC in the UE shall indicate the available bitrate for each logical channel to upper layers within Tnotify from the
moment the Recovery criterion was detected.

The evaluation of the Elimination criterion and the Recovery criterion shall be performed at least once per radio frame.

The UE shall consider the Blocking criterion for a given TFC to be fulfilled at the latest at the start of the longest uplink
TTI after the moment at which the TFC will have been in Excess-Power state for a duration of:

(Tnotify + Tmodify+ TL1_proc)

where:

Tnotify equals 15 ms

Tmodify equals MAX(Tadapt_max,TTTI)

TL1 proc equals 15 ms

Tadapt_max equals MAX(Tadapt_1, Tadapt_2. ., Tadapt_N)

N equals the number of logical channels that need to change rate

Tadapt_n equals the time it takes for higher layers to provide data to MAC in a new supported bitrate,

Windows 7 Ultimate 32bit & 64bit crack serial keygen for logical channel n. Table 6.3.3 defines Tadapt times for different services. For services where no codec
is used Tadapt shall be considered to be equal to 0 ms.

Table 6.3.3: Tadapt


ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download Service Tadapt [ms]
UMTS AMR 60
UMTS AMR2 60

TTTI equals the longest uplink TTI of the selected TFC (ms).

Before selecting a TFC, i.e. at every boundary of the shortest TTI, the set of valid TFCs shall be established. All TFCs
in the set of valid TFCs shall:

1. belong to the TFCS.

2. not be in the Blocked state.

3. be compatible with the RLC configuration.

4. not require RLC to produce padding PDUs

5. not carry more bits than can be transmitted in a TTI (e.g. when compressed mode by higher layer
scheduling is used and the presence of compressed frames reduces the number of bits that can be
transmitted in a TTI using the Minimum SF configured).

The UE may remove from the set of valid TFCs, TFCs in Excess-power state in order to maintain the quality of service
for sensitive applications (e.g. speech), ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. Additionally, if compressed frames are present within the longest configured
TTI to which the next transmission belongs, the UE may remove TFCs from the set of valid TFCs in order to account
for the higher power requirements.

3GPP
Release 6 16 ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

The chosen TFC shall be selected from within the set of valid TFCs and shall satisfy the following criteria in the order
in which they are listed below:

1. No other TFC shall allow the transmission of more highest priority data than the chosen TFC.

2. No other TFC shall allow the transmission of more data from the next lower priority logical channels.
Apply this criterion recursively for the remaining priority levels.

3. No other TFC shall have a lower bit rate than the chosen TFC.

The above rules for TFC selection in the UE shall apply to DCH, and the same rules shall apply for TF selection on
RACH and CPCH.

UE shall consider that the Blocking criterion is never met for TFCs included in the minimum set of TFCs Xilisoft DVD Creator 6.0.5.0115 crack serial keygen [15]).

6.3.2 TFC selection method as a reference case for Enhanced Uplink


DCH
The important parameters to be included to the simulation assumptions for TFC selection method in the reference case
are:

a) Accuracy of the UE transmit power estimate. See table 6.3.2 in the previous section as a reference. This will have
an effect how fast UE moves a certain TFC to excess power state. Since the accuracy depends on the currently used
transmit power level, it is noted for the purpose of general understanding, that the accuracy is thus in average worse
with a bursty traffic model, in which quite often only DPCCH is transmitted, than with more real-time type of
application in which transmission of DPDCH is more continuous. Also the location in the cell will effect to the
accuracy due to the same reason. It is however seen that for the sake of simplicity, it would be appropriate to define
only one value for this parameter used in all simulations.

It is thus proposed that the accuracy defined for the maximum Ptx power level, ±2 dB, is used in all cases, for the
sake of simplicity of the simulations. This is to be modelled so that the error is lognormally distributed with zero
mean and std=1.2159 dB, which has the effect of causing 90% of the errors to occur within ±2 dB of the zero mean.
It is noted that the accuracy requirements in [8] are also defined for 90% probability.

b) Delay between the moment when elimination criterion is met in L1 and when the TFC is moved into blocked state.
See the previous section as a reference, together with the Annex A.6.4.2.1 from [8], defining the maximum delay to
be Tnotify + Tmodify+ TL1_proc + Talign_TTI. In addition to thisif criterion is met with a maximum misalignment between
the frame boundary, an extra 14 slots (9.33 ms) will need to be added to this delay. It is proposed that in the
simulation assumptions the assumption is that there is no codec (e.g. AMR) involved, the rate of which should be
adjusted and that the longest TTI in the selected TFC is TTTI =10 ms= Tmodify. This will result in a maximum delay
of (9.33 Office Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks + Tnotify + Tmodify+ TL1_proc + Talign_TTI ) = (9.33 + 15 + 10 + 15 + 10) ms= 59.33 ms.

c) Delay between the moment recovery criterion is met and when TFC is moved back to supported state. See the
previous section as a reference, together with the Annex A.6.4.2.1 from [8], defining the maximum delay to be
Tnotify + Tmodify+ TL1_proc + Talign_TTI. In addition to thisif criterion is met with a maximum misalignment between
the frame boundary, an extra 14 slots (9.33 ms) will need to be added to this delay. It is proposed that in the
simulation assumptions the assumption is that there is no codec (e.g. AMR) involved, the rate of which should be
adjusted and that the longest TTI in the selected TFC is TTTI =10 ms= Tmodify. This will result in a maximum delay
of (9.33 ms + Tnotify + Tmodify+ TL1_proc + Talign_TTI ) = (9.33 + 15 + 10 + 15 + 10) ms= 59.33 ms.

d) TFCS ; i.e. the set of allowed user bit rates allocated to the UE. These are the bit rates that UE can use in the TFC
selection algorithm. There should be enough steps in the TFCS to allow the UE to decrease the used data rate in a
flexible fashion at the cell edge. It is proposed that there are two TFCS sets used in the reference case: [8, 16, 32,
64, 128, 256, 384] kbit/s and [8, 16, 32, 64, 128, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, 256, 384, 768, 1000] kbit/s. The idea why to have 2 sets is to
allow to study different peak data rate in the proposed schemes with a sensible TFCS set in the reference case to be
compared with.

The parameters and parameter values explained above are inserted to the Annex A.3, System simulation assumptions,
Table A - 8 - System Level Simulation parameters used in the reference rel99/rel4/rel5 case.

3GPP
Release 6 17 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

It is noted that TFC selection method should be modelled also in the new schemes proposed for Enhanced Uplink DCH,
if there is no clear reason why it can not/should not be included into the proposed scheme. The parameters used should
be the same, or at least similar (e.g. TFCS set), as defined in the reference case.

6.4 RNC controlled scheduling: DRAC and TFCS Restriction


In R99/R4/R5, the uplink scheduling and rate control resides in the RNC. UE transmission can be controlled using
DRAC and TFCS Restriction.

The DRAC (Dynamic Resource Allocation Control) procedure is used by the ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download to dynamically control the
allocation of resources on an uplink DCH. The method is based on statistical scheduling. In ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download TTI, the UE
determines whether it can transmit or not based on the DRAC static parameters which have been determined by the
RNC ("Transmission Time Validity" and "Time duration before retry").

DRAC parameters are broadcasted in SIB 10. The UE determines the most stringent DRAC parameters from the last
received values from each cell of its active set. It also determines the allowed subset of TFCS according to the selected
maximum bit rate value.

Rules have been defined so that the UE always know which DRAC static parameters to use: in case several SIB10
messages from different cells are scheduled at the same time, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, the UE shall only listen to the SIB10 broadcast in the cell
of its Active Set having the best CPICH measurements.

7 Overview of Techniques considered to support


Enhanced Uplink

7.1 Scheduling <NodeB controlled scheduling, AMC>


The term “Node B scheduling” denotes the possibility for the Node B to control, within the limits set by the RNC, the
set of TFCs from which the UE may choose a suitable TFC. In Rel5, the uplink scheduling and rate control resides in
the RNC. By providing the Node B with similar tools, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, tighter control of the uplink interference is possible which in
turn, may result in increased capacity and improved coverage. Two fundamental approaches to scheduling exist:

- Rate scheduling, where all uplink transmission occur in parallel but at a low enough rate such that the desired
noise rise at the Node B is not exceeded.

- Time scheduling, where theoretically only a subset of the UEs that have traffic to send are allowed to transmit
at a given time, again such that the desired total noise rise at the Node B is not exceeded.

The usage of either rate or time scheduling is of course restricted by available power as the E-DCH will have to co-exist
with a mix of other transmissions by that UE and other UEs in the uplink. A hybrid of these two approaches is also
possible, where different proposals will tend to favor one or other of the fundamental approaches.

The scheduling schemes can all be viewed as management of the TFC selection in the UE and mainly differs in how the
Node B can influence this process and the associated signaling requirements. Hence, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, this section aims at describing the
commonalities among the scheduling schemes. Whether one or multiple methods for the Node B to influence the UE
TFC selection process is to be supported is FFS.

The set of TFCs from which the UE may choose a suitable TFC is denoted “Node B controlled TFC subset” in the
following. The UE selects a suitable TFC from the “Node B controlled TFC subset” employing the Rel5 TFC selection
algorithm (or modifications thereof if applicable). Any TFC in the Node B controlled TFC subset might be selected by
the UE, provided there is (1) sufficient power margin, (2) sufficient data available, (3) TFC is not in the blocked state.
The Node B controlled TFC subset relates to the TFCS and minimum set defined in Rel5 as

- “TFCS”. This is identical to the TFCS in Rel5 and is the set of all possible TFCs as configured by the RNC.

- “Node B controlled TFC subset”. The TFC selection algorithm in the UE selects a TFC from the “Node B
controlled TFC subset”. Note that the “Node B controlled TFC subset” is equal to or a subset of the TFCS and,
at the same time, equal to or a superset of the minimum set, i.e. “Minimum set” ⊆ “Node B controlled TFC
subset” ⊆ “TFCS”.

3GPP
Release 6 18 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

- “Minimum set”. This is identical to the minimum set in Rel5 as specified in [15]. The UE can always select a
TFC from the minimum set as TFCs in the minimum set never can be in blocked state.

In Figure 7.1, the different (sub)sets are illustrated. Setting the “Node B controlled TFC subset” equal to the TFCS
would result in behavior identical to Rel5. Furthermore, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, note that the smallest possible “Node B controlled TFC subset”
may be larger than the minimum set, i.e., “Node B controlled TFC subset” ⊃ “minimum set”.

TFC
ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download 360 Professional Suite crack serial keygen TFC
TFC TFCS configured
TFC
by RNC
TFC
TFC
ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download Node B controlled
TFC
TFC TFC subset

TFC Minimum Set


TFC

Figure 7.1 : Illustration of different sets of TFCs.


The ideas behind the ”Node B controlled TFC subset” are similar to the use of transport format combination control
specified in [15]. This signaling is typically used to allow the RNC to control the allowed uplink transport formats by
specifying a "TFC subset" along with an optional duration under which the “TFC subset” is valid. Node B scheduling
can be viewed as providing the Node B with similar tools, but GameMaker Studio Ultimate 2.3.2.560 Full Crack Download [Latest] for faster adaptation to interference variations.
The interaction between RNC TFC control and Node B TFC control is FFS, although a preferable solution is to require
the UE not to choose a TFC outside any of these restrictions.

The main difference between scheduling strategies is how updates to the “Node B controlled TFC subset” are
controlled. In principle, an update needs to specify

- The new “Node B controlled TFC subset”

- The start time and the duration for which the update is valid

- The “Node B controlled TFC subset” to use when the scheduling period has expired.

This information can either be signaled, deduced from rules mandated in the specifications, or combinations thereof.
The main difference between different scheduling approaches therefore lies in the signaling and the rules associated
with the signaling. For example, simplistic implementations of rate scheduling and time scheduling could be as follows:

- Rate scheduling results if the “Node B controlled TFC subset” of different UEs are updated such that data
transmission from different UEs may overlap in time, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, regardless of the data rates used. The new “Node B
controlled TFC subset” is valid until the next time it is updated.

- Time scheduling results if the “Node B controlled TFC subset” of different UEs are updated such that only a
small set of the UEs have the possibility to transmit using TFCs outside the minimum set. The updated “Node
B controlled TFC subset” have a relatively short validity, typically in the order of milliseconds, where after the
“Node B controlled TFC subset” reverts to the situation prior to the scheduling interval or to the minimum set.

Depending on the scheduling scheme, the signaling may take different forms. Typically, both downlink and uplink
signaling is required.

Downlink signaling is required to command the UE to update the “Node B controlled TFC subset”. The start time and
the duration for which the update is valid may either be signaled explicitly or deduced from rules mandated in the
specifications. The signaling can either be dedicated for a certain UE, or common for several UEs. Furthermore, the
signaling can either be absolute, i.e., directly specify the “Node B controlled TFC subset”, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, or relative, i.e., specify the

ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download 3GPP
Release 6 19 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

new “Node B controlled TFC subset” as an update of the previous subset. The former typically allows for more rapid
changes to the “Node B controlled TFC subset”, while the latter may imply less signaling overhead in the downlink
direction.

In the uplink, signaling is typically required to indicate to the Node B that the UE has data to transmit. Additional
information may be provided to the ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download B, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, e.g., the amount of data, an indication of the power availability in the UE,
channel quality etc.

If E-DCH utilizes the HARQ, the possible operations for scheduling considering retransmission are as follows.

- Autonomous retransmission by UE: UE sends the retransmission at subsequent retransmission timing without
allowance of Node-B if UE receives no ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. In this case, UE does not need to monitor the scheduling related
channel for retransmission. But UE could cause unexpected interference in the cell if Node B does not reserve
the noise rise of this UE for retransmission.

- Scheduled by Node B for retransmission: UE sends the retransmission if UE receives no ACK and Node B
allows retransmission at retransmission timing. In this option, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, one possibility is that UE may be allowed to
retransmit only if the TFC of initial transmission is within the allowed TFC subset assigned by Node B. In this
case, retransmission could be delayed if Node B assigns the lower TFC subset than TFC of initial
transmission. Another possibility is that even if the assigned TFC subset doesn’t include the TFC of initial
transmission, UE is allowed to retransmit with the same TFC of initial transmission at a transmit power
derived appropriately from the assigned TFC subset.

Considering above relationship, the design of scheduling scheme needs to take into account HARQ operation.

7.1.1 Node B Controlled Rate Scheduling by Fast TFCS Restriction


Control

7.1.1.1 Purpose and General Assumptions


The purpose of the studied technique is to enable more efficient use of the uplink power resource of the cell in order to
provide a higher cell throughput in the uplink and a larger coverage area for higher uplink data rates for streaming,
interactive and background class services. These goals are to be reached by fast Node B controlled uplink scheduling
which provides a better control to uplink noise rise and enables better control to noise rise variance.

In the existing Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5 system the uplink scheduling and data rate control resides in the RNC, which is not
able to respond to the changes in the uplink load as fast as a control residing in Node B could. Thus the Node B control
is seen to be requiring less UL noise rise headroom for combatting overload conditions. Node B control is also seen
capable of smoothing the noise rise variance by allocating higher data rates quickly when the uplink load decreases and
respectively by restricting the uplink data rates when the uplink load increases.

This enhancement technique is a method which itself does not require changes to the uplink DCH structure but rather
introduces new L1 signalling to facilitate fast UL scheduling by means of transport format combination control. Hence
the method does not require a new transport channel to be defined, but does not forbid it either. The method can be
applied with or without other enhancements such as for example HARQ and Fast DCH Setup.

7.1.1.2 General Principle


The basic principle of the technique is to allow Node B set and control a new restriction to the TFC selection
mechanism of the UE by fast L1 signalling. From the UE point of view the scheduling principle is the same than in
existing Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5 system with the modification that there would be additional L1 control over a new restriction
to its TFC selection mechanism. In the UTRAN side, a new scheduling by the means of fast TFCS restriction control is
introduced in Node B.

All the same functions considered for the enhancement technique can be achieved with already existing RRC
procedures for TFCS configuration and transport format combination control. However, by allowing the Node B to
have control over TFCS restrictions (i.e. provide a mechanims for transport format combination contorol in L1)
enhances the speed of which the UTRA can adapt to the changes in the UL load. In Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5, restricting the set
of alowed TFCs in a TFCS is done using an RRC signalling procedure called transport format combination control.

ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download 3GPP
Release 6 20 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

7.1.1.3 Restricting the Allowed Uplink TFCs in a TFCS by L1 Signalling


In the subsequent chapters, a new mechanism and related L1 signalling are introduced. The purpose is to enable the
Node B to have a fast control over the TFC subset allowed to be used by the TFC selection algorithm of the UE. This is
to be achieved by defining two TFC subsets of the TFCS (A "Node B allowed TFC subset" and a "UE allowed TFC
subset"), and control signalling for adjusting these subsets.

Node B provides UE with an allowed TFC subset" from which the UE's TFC selection algorithm selects a TFC to be
used by employing the TFC selection method defined in Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5 specifications. This TFC subset provided by
the Node B is is named the “UE allowed TFC subset”.

In order to give RNC efficient control over the "UE allowed TFC subset" primarily controlled by the Node B, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, the RNC
provides the Node B with a second TFC subset named “Node B allowed TFC subset”. Node B defines and freely
reconfigures the "UE allowed TFC subset" as a subset of the "Node B allowed TFC subset". It is expected that with the
“Node B allowed TFC subset” RNC is able to do similar TFC restrictions as done in Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5 by using
Transport Format Combination Control procedure defined in RRC signalling. Both subsets are defined individually for
each UE.

The “UE allowed TFC subset” and the “Node B allowed TFC subset” may be signalled in the form of TFC pointers
pointing to the TFCS of the UE, if the TFCs can be arranged in an order that corresponds to the TFC restriction rule (or
scheduling strategy) that the Node B would be willing to apply. The ordering rule may be explicit or implicit.

In a example illustrated in the Figure7.1.1 below the Node B may want to restrict the TFCs is the order of Tx power for
the CCTrCH. In Figure 7.1.1, the TFCs in a TFCS are shown ordered in descending order (with respect to the power
required) starting from zero. Both TFC pointers are initialised to both the Node B and to the UE by the RNC in the
beginning of the connection. After initialisation the Node B can command the UE pointer up/down with the restriction
that UE pointer may not exceed Category Archives: Windows B pointer. The TFC selection algorithm in the UE may select any TFC up to the
TFC indicated by the UE pointer. The purpose here is to control the UE's power usage by restricting it's TFC (i.e. data
rate) selection.

TFCS
TFC0
Node B pointer TFC1
TFC2
(assigned to Node B by RNC)
TFC3
TFC4 Required Power of
Super Naughty Maid 2 Free Download TFC5 CCTrCH
UE pointer TFC6
(commanded up/down TFC7
TFC8
to UE by Node B)
TFC9
TFC10

Figure 7.1.1: Depiction of the TFC pointers


The UE and Node B allowed TFC subsets should not restrict the use of the TFCs in the minimum TFC set guaranteed to
be available for UE's TFC selection at all times unless the minimum TFC set definition in the already existing
specifications is changed. (Minimum TFC set is defined in Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5 specifications)

7.1.1.4 Issues Requiring Further Studying


It is FFS, how a DCH controlled with this method could be multiplexed with DCHs controlled with Rel'99/Rel'4/Rel'5
methods, especially keeping in mind that simultaneous conversational traffic should be possible. Methods for using
separate code channel and TFCS, as well as multiplexing the Node B controlled DCH with e.g. a DCH carrying voice in
the same CCTrCH are to be studied, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. Naturally, if a DCH carrying e.g. conversational traffic is multiplexed with a DCH
carrying streaming, interactive or background traffic, the first DCH carrying conversational traffic still represents the
non-controllable load and only the second DCH could be controlled by the proposed method.

It is FFS how the method should work in different reconfiguration cases, such as physical channel and transport channel
reconfigurations, TFCS reconfiguration for the UE, Node B allowed TFC subset reconfiguration for the Node B. E.g. in
TFCS reconfiguration it should be defined whether UE continues the transmission with the new “UE allowed TFC
subset”, or continues with the old one. To allow flexible update of “Node B allowed TFC subset" to the Node B, and

3GPP
Release 6 21 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

simultaneously minimise the amount of RRC signaling, one possibility is that “Node B allowed TFC subset" is not
informed to the UE at all.

It is also FFS how the method should work in soft handover. One possibility in the event the use of two pointers is
applicable is to use the same kind of method as defined for TPC commands. I.e. each cell in the active set receives L1
signalling from the UE and transmits L1 signalling to the UE independently from the other cells. Only if all the cells in
the active set command the UE pointer increment, the UE increases the UE pointer with one step. Respectively, if at
least one Node B in the active set commands the UE pointer decrement, the UE decreases the UE pointer (and therefore
the maximum power that can be ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download with one step. Also other possibilities exist and should be investigated.

The impacts of L1 signalling errors (including possible error accumulation) is FFS. This includes possible mitigation
techniques. Both the non-SHO and the SHO cases need to be considered.

7.1.1.5 Signalling to Support Fast TFCS Restriction Control

7.1.1.5.1 L1 signaling
Two new L1 messages are introduced in order to enable the transport format combination control by L1 signalling
between the Node B and the UE.

- Rate Request (RR), sent in the uplink by the UE to the Node B. With the RR the UE can ask the Node B to
change the set of the 2Flyer Screensaver Builder Pro 6.2.1 crack serial keygen uplink transport format combinations within the transport format combination
set.

- Rate Grant (RG), sent in the downlink by the Node B to the UE. With RG, the Node B can change the allowed
uplink transport format combinations within the transport format combination set.

7.1.1.5.2 RRC signalling

7.1.1.5.3 Iub/Iur signalling

7.1.2 Method for Node B Controlled Time and Rate Scheduling

7.1.2.1 Purpose and General Assumptions


Current UMTS R99/R4/R5 DCH specifications support autonomous UE transmission and UE TFCS control using
Radio Resource Control (RRC) messaging to establish and manage a per UE Transport Format Combination Set
(TFCS). TFCS reconfiguration latency and update rate is restricted by the communication delay between the RNC and
Node-B since the TFCS reconfiguration function is centralized in the RNC. Besides using more frequent and lower
latency TFCS updates to better manage uplink interference, additional advantages are possible by controlling the time at
which UEs transmit compared to allowing autonomous UE transmissions. If TFCS control is to be shared between the
RNC and Node B to enable fast TFCS control and higher UE uplink data rates are to be supported, then controlling time
of UE transmissions may also be necessary to most efficiently and correctly control uplink intereference levels for
maximizing throughput.

7.1.2.2 General Principle


The basic principle of the technique is to allow Node B control of UE TFCS and UE transmission time by fast L1
signalling. The difference to existing R99/R4/R5 systems is that the UE would receive additional L1 control over its
TFC selection and L1 control of its transmission time. From the UTRAN’s perspective, scheduling by means of TFCS
indicator and transmission time control is introduced at the Node B. A UE is sent a scheduling assignment by a
scheduling Node B. The UE transmits during the time interval specified by the downlink scheduling assignment using a
restricted TFCS, which is determined from a TFCS indicator in the scheduling assignment. It is possible to make use of
existing RRC procedures for TFCS configuration and transport format combination control and utilize them at the Node
B for determining a TFC. RNC and Node B control of UE TFCS and transmission time allows the UTRAN to control
the changes in the UL load.

In order to achieve a better QoS and fairer scheduling decisions, Node B may also create relative Comparative Metric
(CM) for UE using, for example, a combination of the following:

3GPP
Release 6 Windows 8.1 pro crack serial keygen 22 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

- It employs buffer status information received from UEs to create another comparative metric. This metric explains
how much congestion is faced by each UE at uplink, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. Each UE is aware of buffer filling status of other UEs.

- It may also employ information for each UE such as the achieved QoS or latency to the destination and use such
information to create a comparative metric for each UE. This comparative metric reveals how well each UE is
doing the term of QoS provisioning comparing to other UEs.

Node B sends CM along side the TFCS to each UE for determining the UL scheduling events. In addition, it is also
useful to utilise historical information and trend for each UE to determine the CM and control scheduling events for a
better QoS and UL load balance.

7.1.2.3 Controlling UE TFCS and transmission time


In the subsequent chapters, a new mechanism for scheduling and related L1 signalling is introduced. The purpose is to
enable the Node-B to explicitly determine when and which UE’s should transmit data on the uplink and to control the
TFCS at each scheduled UE to control the uplink interference level and variation.

Instead of a Node-B continously controlling each UE’s TFCS by sending up/down adjustments to a pointer, the Node-B
sends a TFCS indicator (which could be a pointer e.g.) in the signaled scheduling assignment. The scheduling
assignment also indicates the scheduling time interval over which the UE must transmit given it has non-zero buffer
occupancy. The TFCS indicator specifies the TFC(s) corresponding to the highest rate/power level the UE is allowed to
transmit at during the specified time interval. After the scheduled time interval has elapsed, the TFCS reverts back to
the set that existed prior to the scheduled time interval. A scheduled UE is allowed to choose among the TFCs in the
restricted TFCS in terms of rate and power as determined by the TFCS indicator and based upon its own status e.g.
actual available power and latest buffer status. In addition, UE may also choose rate, power and transport format based
on CM. CM gives UEs information about their standing among other UEs in terms of relative congestion of buffer data
and relative QoS or latency to the destination. The rates used by the UE could be signaled on the associated uplink
signalling channel e.g. E-DPCCH at the time of transmission. Uplink ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download control information received by each UE
may be used to effectively adjust the TFCS indicator over the scheduling interval.

The Node B may decide which UE(s) are ProShow Gold 9.1 Crack + Registration Key 100% Working (2020) Archives to transmit and the corresponding TFCS indicators on a per TTI basis
based on, for example, some knowledge of the following:

- Buffer status of each UE

- Power status of each UE1

- Local Node B measured channel quality estimate for each UE2 or maximum UE power capability at Node B.

- Available interference Rise Over Thermal (RoT) margin (or XYplorer 22.20.0200 Crack 2022 Version key Download level) at the Node B

- Comparative Metric (CM) for each UE

The RoT margin may be computed by taking into account the thermal noise, other cell interference (Ioc), the Eb/No
requirements for power controlled (e.g. voice) channels (see Figure 7.1.2) and information provided by the RNC.

Node B Controlled Time and Rate scheduling may have several advantages. Reduced latencies in rate control,
exploitation of fast channel quality variations, more precise RoT control (i.e., better interference management), and
consequently, NetCaptor Pro v6.5.0 Beta 8 crack serial keygen efficiency for a given RoT constraint are enabled through such Node B controlled scheduling.
Downlink signaling overhead is only required for a small number of scheduled UEs, rather than for all UEs in the case
of a continuously updated TFCS. Furthermore, the scheduled mode can more precisely control how many UEs transmit
data on their respective enhanced uplink channel in a given time interval. In the uplink of CDMA systems, simultaneous
transmissions always interfere with each other and therefore, the scheduled mode can even ensure that always, for
example, only one UE transmits data on its enhanced uplink channel at a time. Under certain conditions, this is likely to
enhance throughput.

1 Note that power status is also effectively updated at the serving Node B(s) by each uplink data transmission from the accompanying TFCI or TFRI
information. It also may be advantageous to include buffer occupancy updates at the time of each uplink transmission in addition to periodic or
triggered updates.
2 Note that UE maximum power capability along with knowledge of the UE DPCCH power can be used for determining the TFCS indicator.
Equivalently, Ec/Nt for the DPCCH measured at the Node B along with UE power margin to DPCCH power ratio can be used for determining
the TFCS indicator.

3GPP
Release 6 23 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download Blur crack serial keygen EaseUS Partition Recovery 5.6.1 crack serial keygen RoT threshold
Allowable Noise rise from E- PUL_data
DCH (i.e., amount of
headroom or margin)

Power requirements of …
active power controlled
channels (e.g. voice)

Ioc (Other cell


Interference)
N0W (thermal noise)

Figure 7.1.2: Noise Rise Bin for Node B controlled scheduling.

7.1.2.4 Issues Requiring Further Study


It is FFS how the method should work in soft handover. One problem is that scheduling UEs in soft handoff without
any coordination between Node Bs in the active set could lead to RoT violations that significantly impact power
controlled channels. However, one possibility is to simply send TFCS indicators that restrict UEs power level in soft
handoff to control their interference impact on adjacent non-scheduling cells. The Node B would need to be made aware
of a UEs soft handoff state in this case. Alternatively or additionally, TFC determination by the UE can include using
soft handoff state information. Another limitation of scheduling a UE in soft handoff is that if the UE simply follows the
scheduling command of either Node B, then the active set Node B(s) for the UE that do not schedule the user, may not
attempt to decode its data. Therefore, the UE transmission will not derive any macro-diversity benefit. Yet another
possiblility FFS is to use only TFCS control for UEs during soft handoff and allow autonomous transmissions. This
alternative may avoid the complexity that could result in the operation of the Time and Rate scheduling in SHO.
Finally, it is possible that each active set serving cell uses its knowledge of link imbalance (e.g. based on uplink
DPCCH SNR consistently below the RNC defined outer loop power control threshold) to help limit scheduling
activities for a given UE in soft handoff.

It is also FFS to minimize the number of scheduling information status update messages that are sent or alternatively
how often scheduling information requests are made. Similarly, it needs to be determined whether UEs should
autonomously report scheduling information (periodically and/or triggered on events) or whether they should only be
requested by the Node B.

Finally, it is also for FFS on how to support both TFCS controlled autonomous transmissions and TFCS controlled and
transmission time controlled scheduling for both the enhanced uplink DCH and along with the Rel’99/Rel’4/Rel’5
DCHs. The co-existence of the different modes may provide flexibility in serving the different traffic types. For
example, traffic with small amount of data and/or higher priority such as TCP ACK may be sent using only a rate
control mode with autonomous transmissions compared to using time and rate control scheduling as the former would
involve lower latency and lower signaling overhead. It also may be desirable to confine autonomous transmissions to
specific time intervals different than when scheduled transmissions occur.

7.1.2.5 Signalling to Support Fast Node-B Time and Rate Control

7.1.2.5.1 L1 Signalling
Two new L1 messages are introduced in order to enable fast time and rate control between the Node B and the UE.

- Scheduling Information Update (SI), sent in the uplink by the UE to the Node B. With the SI the UE can
provide the Node B buffer occupancy and rate or power information so its scheduler(s) can maintain fairness
and determine the UEs TFCS indicator and appropriate transmission time interval.

3GPP
Release 6 24 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

- Scheduling Assignment or Grant (SA), sent in the downlink by the Node B to the UE. With SA, the Node B
can set the TFCS indicator and subsequent transmission start time(s) and time interval(s) to be used by the UE.

7.1.2.5.1.1 Uplink Signalling of Scheduling Information Update

7.1.2.5.1.1.1 Explicit scheduling information update signaling

With the explicit scheduling information update, the UE can provide the Node B with either the amount of data in its
buffer or the supportable data rate as well as the transmit power status.

Since Node B cannot predict data occurrence in the UE buffer, a possible method to save uplink RoT resource would be
that the UE autonomously starts transmitting the scheduling information update when the amount of data in the UE
buffer exceeds a predefined threshold. The threshold can be defined by taking into account the amount of data, which
can be autonomously transmitted within the delay requirement without acquiring the scheduling grant. Attaching CRC
to the scheduling information update could help the Node B to detect it.

If signalling of the supportable data rate is employed, the UE could get the scheduling grant only after sending the
supportable data rate to the Node B, since the Node B cannot estimate the data rate that can be accommodated by the
UE.

If the data amount reporting is employed, the Node B can estimate the amount of data remaining in the UE buffer from
its knowledge of amount of data received after the previous report. This provides a possibility to reduce the signalling
overhead. However, it should be noted that the Node B cannot take into account new data, which has occurred after the
previous report.

Possible options for data amount reporting are listed as follows:

- Periodic reporting: Amount of data in the UE buffer is reported periodically after the initial reporting. It would
be worthwhile noting that the data amount reporting may be useless if no new data has occurred after the
previous report. It is also noted that each UE could have ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download timing offset for the data amount reporting to
spread out the uplink interference as done in CQI reporting in HSDPA.

- Event-triggered reporting: After the initial reporting, amount of data in the UE buffer can be reported at any
time if new data occurs at the UE buffer after the previous report, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. How frequently it will be reported would
depend on realistic traffic situation.

- Event-triggered reporting at periodic timings: After the initial reporting, amount of data in the UE buffer can
be reported at the predefined periodic timings only if there is new data occurred after the previous report. The
maximum reporting frequency is limited by the predefined reporting period.

Exact definition of the data amount report is FFS.

Regarding the report timing of the transmit power status, a possible option could be to send the transmit power status at
the same time as the supportable data rate or the data amount report. However, another possible option could be to
allow different report timing due to the following reasons:

- For efficient scheduling operation between multiple UEs, the Node B may need periodic reporting of the
transmit power status from each UE.

- The data amount report timing may depend on the traffic situation as discussed above.

Exact definition of the transmit power status report is FFS. It could be a short-term measurement if instantaneous
information about the transmit power status is needed, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. On the other hand, considering that the short-term variation in
uplink channel condition can be overcome by the power control to a certain extent, it could be a long-term
measurement. It is noted that it may be possible for the Node B to calculate the long-term measurement by taking
average of the short-term measurements.

3GPP
Release 6 25 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

7.1.2.5.1.1.2 Other ways of conveying scheduling information update to Node B

7.1.2.5.2 RRC Signalling (TBD)

7.1.2.5.3 Iub/Iur Signalling (TBD)

7.1.3 Scheduling in Soft Handover


When more than one Node B control the cells present in the UE active set, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, there are several alternatives as to the
location of the scheduling entity which controls the UE. Possible solutions are:

- The Node B controlling the best downlink cell (as defined by RRC for DSCH/HS-DSCH operation) is
identified as the sole scheduling entity.

- The Node B controlling the best uplink cell (the meaning of best uplink cell would have to be defined
precisely) is identified as the sole scheduling entity for the UE.

- All Node Bs controlling one or more cells in the UE active set are identified as valid scheduling entities. This
Life Balance v3.2.5 crack serial keygen approach requires an additional decision procedure in the UE when the UE receives the scheduling
assignments from multiple Node Bs.

It is noted that the E-DCH transmission of the UEs in soft handover may have an effect on the RoT variation of the
multiple cells in the active set. If one Node B is identified as a sole scheduling entity, scheduling of a UE in SHO
without consideration of non-scheduling cells in the active set could lead to an unexpected variation of the RoT in those
cells. To control the RoT variation, it is possible that a Node B uses information from the network, for example, a
scheduling weight for each UE in soft handover.

If multiple Node Bs are identified as valid scheduling entities, a UE in a SHO region may receive different scheduling
assignments from multiple Node Bs and hence UE operation upon receiving the scheduling assignments should be
defined. Possible UE operations are as follows:

- UE chooses the scheduling assignment from the ones indicated by the controlling Node Bs. For example,
either the best scheduling assignment or the worst one can be chosen.

- UE combines the scheduling assignments from the controlling Node Bs based on a certain algorithm, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. For
example, UE generates a single scheduling assignment by applying weighting factor (determined by the
Windows 8 Product Keys Free List network) to each scheduling assignment.

Various options have to be considered in terms of system performance in particular in presence of link imbalance and in
terms of overall system complexity. Reliability of downlink signalling in soft handover, e.g., the scheduling
assignment(s) from the controlling Node B(s), should be taken into account in further evaluation.

If the Node B controlled scheduling in soft handover is not seen as feasible, then one possibility would be to turn off the
Node B controlled E-DCH scheduling in soft handover.

7.1.4 Node B Controlled Rate Scheduling by Persistence Control


The basic principle of the technique is to allow fast control of the number of UEs that can transmit while fast control of
their TFCS restriction is still taking place. Fast control of the number of UEs is enabled by use of a persistence
parameter which works in a similar way to that used for RACH or DRAC in R99/4/5. In each TTI the UEs may transmit
data with a probability given by the persistence parameter. The persistence (p) is controlled and periodically updated by
the Node B within constraints determined by the RNC (unlike the case of DRAC where only the RNC determined the
persistence parameter).

The method is beneficial in rate control mode because one can control the interference in a system by using a single
persistence value since the UE's are transmiting asynchronously. The persistence represents the available interference
the system can tolerate and thus prevent's UE's in rate control mode to introduce additional interference. This in turn
improves uplink capacity.

3GPP
Release 6 26 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

7.1.4.1 Issues Requiring Further Studying


It is FFS to determine how rate scheduling with persistence control would work in soft handoff. One possibility is to
send persistence information from all Active Set cells. Another possibility to avoid uplink interference management
problems from soft handoff is for a UE in soft handoff to further restrict its TFCS based on its soft handoff state.
Alternatively, the persistence parameter could be modified by UEs when Street Fighter V Crack Archives soft handoff. The persistence information
would apply to Nero Burning ROM 2021 Crack With Serial Key Full Version rate controllable load [composed of non signaling and ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download data] of a CCTrCH. It is
for further study on how persistence would be used in the case of multiple CCTrCHs.

7.1.4.2 Signalling to Support Fast Rate Scheduling by Persistence Control

7.1.4.2.1 L1 signaling
The persistence parameter p needs to be signaled on the DL to the UE from the Node-B. The persistence parameter can
be different for different users.

7.1.5 Brief Overview of Different Scheduling Strategies


The purpose of this subsection is Adobe XD CC 2021 v43.0.12 Crack Full Version Free Download provide a brief overview of the different scheduling strategies currently listed in the
TR to simplify the understanding and highlight similarities between different proposals.

7.1.5.1 Node B Controlled Rate Scheduling by Fast TFCS Restriction Control


The basic mechanism used in this approach allows the Node B to expand/reduce the “Node B controlled TFC subset”
e.g. one step at a time by differential up/down commands sent on the downlink from the Node B. The update is valid
until the next update received from the Node B. Transmissions from different UEs may overlap in time.

7.1.5.2 Node B Controlled Time and Rate Scheduling


The basic mechanism used in this approach allows the Node B to update the “Node B controlled TFC subset” to any
allowed value through explicit signaling specifying the new “Node B controlled TFC subset”, the start time and the
validity period. The validity period is short, in the order of milliseconds, where after the “Node B controlled TFC
subset” reverts to the value prior to the scheduling period. Updates of the “Node B controlled TFC subsets” for different
UEs are coordinated by the Node B in order to avoid transmissions from multiple UEs ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download in time to the extent
possible.

For UEs with low delay tolerance services, a deterministic cooperative approach for time and rate scheduling may be
possible for example utilising congestion-based Comparative Metric (CM) described in Section 7.1.2 to decide which
UE should transmit ,when and at what data rate.

7.2 Hybrid ARQ


7.2.1 General
Node B controlled hybrid ARQ allows for rapid retransmissions of erroneously received data units, thus reducing the
number of RLC retransmissions and the associated delays. This can improve the quality of service experienced by the
end user. As a Node B controlled retransmission is less costly from a delay perspective, the physical channel can be
operated with somewhat higher error probability than in Rel 5, which may result in improved system capacity. The
retransmission probability for the initial transmission is preferably in the order of 10-20% when evaluating hybrid ARQ
as closed loop power control is used for the uplink, maintaining a given quality level. Significantly higher
retransmission probabilities may lead to considerably reduced end user throughput, while at very small retransmission
probabilities the Node B controlled hybrid ARQ will not provide any additional gains compared to R99/4/5. Soft
combining can further improve the performance of a Node B controlled hybrid ARQ mechanism.

Not all services may allow for retransmissions, e.g., conversational services with strict delay requirements. Hybrid ARQ
is thus mainly applicable to interactive and background services and, to some extent, to streaming services.

Thus, the major targets from a performance point of view with hybrid ARQ to consider in the evaluation of uplink
hybrid ARQ are

ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download 3GPP
Release 6 27 MediaMonkey Gold Crack v5.0.2 Method: 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

- reduced delay

- increased user and system throughput

The design of an uplink hybrid ARQ scheme should take the following aspects into account:

- Memory requirements, both in the UE and the Node B. Rapid retransmissions reduce the amount of buffer
memory required in the Node B for buffering of soft bits when a retransmission has been requested.

- Low overhead. The overhead in terms of power and number of bits required for the operation of the hybrid
ARQ protocol should be low, both in uplink and downlink. Note that, unlike the HS-DSCH, the number of
simultaneous users employing hybrid ARQ for transmitting data in the uplink may be significant, stressing the
fact that the overhead for each user needs to be kept at a minimum.

- In-sequence delivery. The RLC requires in sequence delivery of ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download PDUs. Note that the in sequence
delivery mechanism can be located either in the Node B or the RNC, depending on the scheme considered.

- Operation in soft handover. In soft handover, data is received by multiple Node Bs and alignment of a user’s
protocol state among different Node Bs needs to be considered. This problem is not present for the HS-DSCH,
were reception occurs at a single node, the UE. Therefore, the feasibility of different modes of hybrid ARQ in
conjunction with soft handover needs to be studied and, if found feasible, the cost of the required signaling
investigated.

- Multiplexing of multiple transport channels. Hybrid ARQ cannot be used by all transport channels and
multiplexing of transport channels using hybrid ARQ and those not using hybrid ARQ needs to be considered.
In the downlink, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, there is a separate CCTrCh carrying the HS-DSCH, while the assumption of a separate
CCTrCh is not necessarily true in the uplink scenario. In R99/4/5, only a single uplink CCTrCh is allowed.

- UE power limitations. The operation of the UE controlled TFC selection for R99/4/5 channels need to be taken
into account in the design, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. In particular, UE power limitations in conjunction with activity on other transport
channels with higher priority should be considered.

- Complexity. The hybrid ARQ schemes studied should minimize as much as possible the additional
implementation complexity at all involved entities.

7.2.2 Transport Channel Processing


A protocol structure with multiple stop-and-wait hybrid ARQ processes can be used, similar to the scheme employed
for the downlink HS-DSCH, but with appropriate modifications motivated by the differences between uplink and
downlink. The use of hybrid ARQ affects multiple layers: the coding and soft combining/decoding is handled by the
physical layer, while the retransmission protocol is handled by a new MAC entity located in the Node B and a
corresponding entity located in the UE.

ACK/NAK signaling and retransmissions are done per uplink TTI basis. Whether multiple transport channels using
hybrid ARQ are supported and whether there may be multiple transport blocks per TTI or not are to be studied further.
The decision involves e.g. further discussion whether the current definition of handling logical channel priorities by the
UE in the TFC selection algorithm remains as in R99/4/5 or if it is altered. It also involves a discussion on whether
different priorities are allowed in the same TTI or not, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. The R99/4/5 specifications require a UE to maximize the
transmission of highest priority logical channel in each TTI. If this rule is maintained, the delay for different logical
channel priorities could be different, depending on whether the TFCS contains one or several transport channels.

Channel coding can be done in a similar way as in the R99/4/5 uplink. Transport blocks are coded and rate matching is
used to match the number of coded bits to the number of channel bits. If multiple transport channels are multiplexed,
rate matching will also be used to balance the quality requirements between the different transport channels. Note that
multiplexing of several transport channels implies that the number of bits may vary between retransmissions depending
on the activity, i.e., the retransmission may not necessarily consist of the same set of coded bits as the original
transmission.

Unlike the downlink, the uplink is not code limited and initial transmissions typically use a lower code rate than is the
case for HS-DSCH. Incremental redundancy with multiple redundancy versions is mainly beneficial at a relatively high
initial code rate. Thus, the need for support of multiple redundancy versions may be smaller in the uplink than for the
HS-DSCH. Explicit support for multiple redundancy versions, if desired, can be incorporated in the rate matching
process as was done for HS-DSCH.

3GPP
Release 6 28 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

7.2.3 Associated Signaling


Associated control signaling required for the operation a particular scheme consists of downlink and uplink signaling.
Different proposals may have different requirements on the necessary signaling. Furthermore, the signaling structure
may depend on other uplink enhancements considered.

The overhead required should be Lightworks Pro 2021.3 Crack With Torrent Latest 2021 small in order not to waste power and code resources in the downlink and not to
create unnecessary interference in the uplink.

Downlink signaling consists of a single ACK/NAK per (uplink) TTI from the Node B. Similar to the HS-DSCH, a well-
defined processing time from the reception of a transport block at the Node B to the transmission of the ACK/NAK in
the downlink can be used in order to avoid explicit signaling of the hybrid ARQ process number along with the
ACK/NAK. The details on how to transmit the ACK/NAK are to be studied further.

The necessary information needed by the Node B to operate the hybrid ARQ mechanism can be grouped into two
different categories: information required prior to soft combining/decoding (outband signaling), and information
required after successful decoding (inband signaling). Depending on the scheme considered, parts of the information
might either be explicitly signaled or implicitly deduced, e.g., from CFN or SFN.

The information required prior to soft combining consists of:

- Hybrid ARQ process number.

- New data indicator. The new data indicator is used to control when the soft combining buffer should be cleared
in the same way as for the HS-DSCH.

- Redundancy version. If multiple redundancy versions are supported, the redundancy version needs to be
known to the Node B. The potential gains with explicit support of multiple redundancy versions should be
carefully weighted against the increase in overhead due to the required signaling. Note that, unlike the HS-
DSCH, the number of users simultaneously transmitting data in the uplink using hybrid ARQ may be
significant.

- Rate matching parameters (number of physical channel bits, transport block size). This information is required
for successful decoding. In R99/4/5, there is a one-to-one mapping between the number of physical channel
bits and the transport block size, given by the TFCI and attributes set by higher layer signaling. This
assumption does not hold for hybrid ARQ schemes if the number of available channel bits varies between
(re)transmissions, e.g., due to multiplexing with other transport channels. Hence, individual knowledge of
these two quantities is required in the Node B.

The information required after successful decoding can be sent as a MAC header. The content is similar to the MAC-hs
header, e.g., information for reordering, de-multiplexing of MAC-d PDUs, etc.

The information needed by UE necessary to operate the hybrid ARQ mechanism is either explicitly signaled by Node B,
or decided by the UE itself, depending on the scheme. It is noted ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download whether the UE will decide the parameter values
or the Node B will signal them, could affect the round trip time for HARQ retransmissions.

7.2.4 Operation in Soft Handover


The support of hybrid ARQ in different forms in soft handover requires careful consideration. In one possible scheme,
all Node Bs serving the UE process the received data and transmit ACK or NAK to signal the result. If the UE does not
receive an ACK from any of the involved Node Bs, it will schedule a retransmission. Otherwise, the transport block(s)
will be considered as successfully transmitted and the UE will increment the new data indicator to signal to all involved
Node Bs that the new data should not be soft combined with previous transmissions. To ensure that all involved Node
Bs have the possibility to decode the transmission, regardless of the result from earlier transmissions, self-decodable
transmissions are preferable.

A major problem with Node B controlled hybrid ARQ in soft handover is the link imbalance. Since the associated up-
and downlink signaling does not benefit from the soft handover gain, it might be error-prone and/or require significant
power offsets, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. Therefore, the feasibility of hybrid ARQ in soft handover situations should be investigated, taking the
power required for control signaling into account. Protocol robustness in presence of signaling errors needs to be
considered and additional protection of the control signaling may be required.

ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download 3GPP
Release 6 29 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

In the downlink direction, the UE may not be able to receive the ACK/NAK signals from all involved Node Bs. The
consequences of downlink ACK/NAK errors are similar to the uplink ACK/NAK errors studied for HS-DSCH and it
should be studied whether solutions similar to those used for HS-DSCH are applicable.

In the uplink direction, not all involved Node Bs may be able to receive the associated control signaling from the UE,
which may lead to unsynchronised soft buffers between different Node Bs. This could result in erroneous combining of
new packets with previously stored packets that have not been flushed. One possibility to reduce the occurrence of
erroneous combining could be to increase the reliability of the uplink HARQ control signaling. This could be for
example done by power offsets or by increasing the number of bits for the New Data Indicator thus making a wrap
around of the NDI less likely. An alternative could be to operate without soft combining in soft handover situations,
removing the need for reliable outband signaling of the new data indicator and the hybrid ARQ process number. More
robust inband signaling can be used for these quantities instead. Node B controlled ARQ without soft combining could
be considered in non-soft-handover as well, if clear gains are seen only from the ARQ mechanism and not from the soft
combining itself. Another possibility, preserving support for hybrid ARQ with soft combining in soft handover, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, could
be to synchronize the NodeB's soft buffer content via additional network signalling or to locate the soft buffer in the
Node B and the final ACK/NAK decision in the RNC. This technique allows the RNC to align the soft buffer status in
each Node B and may benefit from the soft handover gain for the related hybrid ARQ control signaling, but the delays
will be larger than for a pure Node B controlled scheme.

7.3 Fast DCH Setup Mechanisms


7.3.1 Background
Possible enhancements include, but are not limited to, the physical layer random access procedures, NBAP/RRC
signaling, and uplink/downlink synchronization procedures. Any enhancement, or combination of enhancements, to the
procedures for fast DCH establishments should fulfill the following requirements:

- Allow for significant reduction in switching delays.

- Fit into the connection state model and, to the extent possible, reuse existing procedures and techniques.

- Allow for unaffected operation of existing UEs and Node Bs

7.3.2 Reducing Uplink/Downlink Synchronization Time


Establishing a DCH requires the UE and Node B to synchronize the physical up- and downlink channels as briefly
described in Section 6.1.1. Techniques to reduce the downlink and/or uplink synchronization time should be studied as
a part of the overall goal of reducing the delays associated with DCH establishment.

The overall delay from t1 to t7 in Figure 6.1.2 depends both on the implementation, the performance requirements on the
UE, and the procedures in the 3GPP specifications. T1 and T2 mainly depend on network implementation. T3 depends
on the TTI used for FACH, which could be shortened at the cost What’s New a reduced interleaving gain, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, and the UE processing
delays. In this section, a technique for reducing T4, accounting for 40+(N312-1)*10 ms delay, where N312=(1, 2, 4, 20,
50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000) and T5, accounting for 10-70 ms delay, by using an improved synchronization
scheme is proposed.

The proposed enhancement is illustrated in Figure 7.3.1. The basic idea is to replace the presently defined DPCCH
uplink and downlink synchronization scheme requiring a time interval T4+T5 (specified in [14]) with an enhanced
scheme reducing this time to 10 ms. A power ramping procedure is used, where the power of the uplink DPCCH is
ramped up from a calculated initial power level by sending power up commands from the Node B until the Node B has
obtained synchronization to the uplink signal, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download. Acquisition of the uplink signal is indicated to the UE on the downlink
DPCCH simply by sending power down commands. In the radio frame following the power control preamble, data
transmission on both uplink and downlink DPDCH can start.

InFigure 7.3.2, the power ramping phase is illustrated in more detail. Downlink and uplink DPCH transmission shall
start at the same frame number, which shall be indicated in the switching message to the UE. Note that the UE already
has received data on the S-CCPCH and thus is synchronized to cFosSpeed 10.27 license key Archives network, and the relative timing between downlink
DPCH and S-CCPCH is known from L3 signaling, In Figure 7.3.2, downlink transmission starts at time instant t1
(which corresponds to t4 = t5 in Figure 7.3.1), with some offset relative to the frame timing of the CPICH. The offset is
indicated to the UE in the switching command. Uplink transmission shall start with a timing offset relative to the

3GPP
Release 6 30 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

downlink DPCH, i.e., at t1+T0+τ, where τ is the delay of the first detected path measured on CPICH and T0 = 1024 chip
intervals, as specified in [14]

For uplink ramping, a predefined setting of all DPCCH bits is preferably used to make it possible to collect all
transmitted energy for initial synchronization in the Node B receiver without caring on modulation. Uplink DPCCH
power is ramped up with one step per slot. In the ramping phase, ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download, downlink TPC bits from the Node B should be set to
“up”. As soon as the Node B receiver has been reliably synchronized to the uplink, the Node B shall enter power
control operation, i.e., transmit up/down power control commands and evaluate the TPC information received on the
uplink DPCCH (time instant t2 in Figure 7.3.2). In-sync detection is tested in Node B similarly as for PRACH
preambles based on thresholds. The UE is informed when Node B obtains in-sync through the TPC pattern received on
the downlink.

Note that the Node B uplink receiver can collect the energy for the entire ramping phase, not only the energy of the last
slot. Furthermore, as there is no modulation present on the DPCCH, it is possible to achieve a very large processing
gain at the receiver, equal to all 2560 chips (34 dB). This allows for very power efficient, highly secure detection of the
DPCCH transmission June 2020 - Crack Pc games rar the Node B. One possibility is to use peak detection in long-term delay power spectrum
estimations, which for instance can be calculated with a matched filter.

The initial downlink DPCCH power level is determined in the same fashion as in the present procedure, i.e., by using
the initial downlink DPCH power level IE present in the “Radio Link Setup/Addition Request” messages. Setting of the
initial power Tiger Woods PGA Tour 08 crack serial keygen implementation dependent. If prior information on the distance between UE and Node B or a path loss
measurement is available in the RNC, this can be used for more tight setting of the ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download downlink DPCCH power
level. If no distance or path loss information is available, a “broadcast power level” needs to be employed. To secure
reception of the downlink DPCCH, its initial power should in any case be chosen somewhat higher than needed
according to pre-calculations. This means that as soon as the inner power control loop starts operation (time instant t2 in
Figure 7.3.2), it is very likely that downlink power is ramped down first. In the proposed fast synchronization scheme,
setting of initial downlink power is much less critical than in the Rel99/4/5 scheme as a somewhat too high power
would be employed only for a very short time interval.

DPCH setup failure in the Node B is identified when no uplink synchronization is obtained within the preamble period.
In the case, the downlink DPCCH transmission should be stopped at the end of the preamble interval. Stop of downlink
transmissions shall be identified in the UE by means of a fast DL DPCCH synchronization ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download detection scheme and
stop further uplink transmissions. Further handling of DPCH setup failure could be done in several ways. For instance, a
new attempt could be made a predefined time after the first try. Alternatively, the physical channel reconfiguration
failure procedure as defined in [15]. could apply also for this new scheme.

Introducing enhancements such as those described above can be done by defining “Synchronization Procedure ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download in
addition to procedures A and B already specified in [14]. The impact on higher layers, the interaction with power
control, and in which scenarios a new synchronization procedure may be applied are for further study.

3GPP
Release 6 31 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

switching
Power decision (RRC/SRNC)

DPCCH
downlink DPCH

switching DPCH
ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download command
SCCPCH

confirm

uplink DPCH
ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download T4=
T1 T2 T3 T5 T6
Cell_FACH Cell_DCH

ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download t1 t2 t3 t4 = t6 t7
ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download t5

Figure 7.3.1: Enhanced procedure for DCH establishment.

closed-loop power controlled transmission


data transmission

power ramping DPDCH

UL DPCH
DPCCH

slot
(0.667 ms)
ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download 10 ms-radio frame (SFN ) 10 ms-radio frame (SFN + 1)
ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download PCCH at DL DPCH
nitial power
evel

DL-UL offset
t1 T0 + τ t2 t3
start of first acquisition of UL DPCH, end of first
frame start of power control frame

Figure 7.3.2: Illustration of the enhanced uplink/downlink synchronization scheme.

7.4 Shorter Frame Size for Improved QoS


Reducing the minimum TTI supported from the 10 ms in Rel5 to a lower value may reduce the transfer delay through a
reduced Uu transfer delay and reduced delays due to TTI alignment (incoming data to be transmitted has to wait until
the start of the next TTI). A reduced TTI may also allow for reduced processing time as the payload sizes are reduced
compared to a larger TTI, a shortened roundtrip time in Node B controlled hybrid ARQ protocols and reduced latencies
in some scheduling schemes. Reduced delays may also result in a higher system throughput and better resource
utilization.

3GPP
Release 6 32 3GPP TR 25.896 V2.0.0 (2004-03)

Thus, the ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download targets from a performance point of view with a reduced uplink TTI are:

- improved end-user quality

- increased user and system throughput

- significant delay reduction

The introduction of a reduced TTI should take the following aspects into account:

- End-user delay. Any reduced TTI considered should result in the possibility for a significant reduction in
uplink delay while still support reasonable payloads.

- Choice of shorter TTI. It is preferable if the Rel5 minimum TTI of 10 ms is a multiple of the reduced TTI
considered. The obvious choice is a 2 ms TTI, which also is an alignment to the short TTI adopted for HS-
DSCH.

- Link performance. The influence of a short TTI on link performance need to be considered.

- Channel structure. Support of services and applications using Rel5 channels should be considered. The
operation of UE controlled TFC selection need to be taken into account. Any increase in UE peak-to-average
ratio should be analyzed and kept low.

- Complexity. Any complexity increase due to a reduced TTI should be clearly motivated by a corresponding
performance gain.

7.5 Signalling to support the enhancements


7.5.1 Downlink signalling

7.5.1.1 Basic considerations


It can be assumed that the operation of enhanced uplink DCH requires some new signalling in downlink direction.
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ADINA System Crack 2021 (9.6.3) With License Key Full Free Download

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