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NameDescriptionCVE-2021-43618GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library (GMP) through 6.2.1 has an mpz/inp_raw.c integer overflow and resultant buffer overflow via crafted input, leading to a segmentation fault on 32-bit platforms. CVE-2021-41991The in-memory certificate cache in strongSwan before 5.9.4 has a remote integer overflow upon receiving many requests with different certificates to fill the cache and later trigger the replacement of cache entries. The code attempts to select a less-often-used cache entry by means of a random number generator, but this is not done correctly. Remote code execution might be a slight possibility. CVE-2021-41990The gmp plugin in strongSwan before 5.9.4 has a remote integer overflow via a crafted certificate with an RSASSA-PSS signature. For example, this can be triggered by an unrelated self-signed CA certificate sent by an initiator. Remote code execution cannot occur. CVE-2021-41864prealloc_elems_and_freelist in kernel/bpf/stackmap.c in the Linux kernel through 5.14.9 allows unprivileged users to trigger an eBPF multiplication integer overflow with a resultant out-of-bounds write. CVE-2021-41203TensorFlow is an open source platform for machine learning. In affected versions an attacker can trigger undefined behavior, integer overflows, segfaults and `CHECK`-fail crashes if they can change saved checkpoints from outside of TensorFlow. This is because the checkpoints loading infrastructure is missing validation for invalid file formats. The fixes will be included in TensorFlow 2.7.0. We will also cherrypick these commits on TensorFlow 2.6.1, TensorFlow 2.5.2, and TensorFlow 2.4.4, as these are also affected and still in supported range. CVE-2021-41099Redis is an open source, in-memory database that persists on disk. An integer overflow bug in the underlying string library can be used to corrupt the heap and potentially result with denial of service or remote code execution. The vulnerability involves changing the default proto-max-bulk-len configuration parameter to a very large value and constructing specially crafted network payloads or commands. The problem is fixed in Redis versions 6.2.6, 6.0.16 and 5.0.14. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to prevent users from modifying the proto-max-bulk-len configuration parameter. This can be done using ACL to restrict unprivileged users from using the CONFIG SET command. CVE-2021-40346An integer overflow exists in HAProxy 2.0 through 2.5 in htx_add_header that can be exploited to perform an HTTP request smuggling attack, allowing an attacker to bypass all configured http-request HAProxy ACLs and possibly other ACLs. CVE-2021-39254A crafted NTFS image can cause an integer overflow in memmove, leading to a heap-based buffer overflow in the function ntfs_attr_record_resize, in NTFS-3G < 2021.8.22. CVE-2021-38714In Plib through 1.85, there is an integer overflow vulnerability that could result in arbitrary code execution. The vulnerability is found in ssgLoadTGA() function in src/ssg/ssgLoadTGA.cxx file. CVE-2021-38185GNU cpio through 2.13 allows attackers to execute arbitrary code via a crafted pattern file, because of a dstring.c ds_fgetstr integer overflow that triggers an out-of-bounds heap write. NOTE: it is unclear whether there are common cases where the pattern file, associated with the -E option, is untrusted data. CVE-2021-38166In kernel/bpf/hashtab.c in the Linux kernel through 5.13.8, there is an integer overflow and out-of-bounds write when many elements are placed in a single bucket. NOTE: exploitation might be impractical without the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability. CVE-2021-38094Integer Overflow vulnerability in function filter_sobel in libavfilter/vf_convolution.c in Ffmpeg 4.2.1, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or other unspecified impacts. CVE-2021-38093Integer Overflow vulnerability in function filter_robert in libavfilter/vf_convolution.c in Ffmpeg 4.2.1, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or other unspecified impacts. CVE-2021-38092Integer Overflow vulnerability in function filter_prewitt in libavfilter/vf_convolution.c in Ffmpeg 4.2.1, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or other unspecified impacts. CVE-2021-38091Integer Overflow vulnerability in function filter16_sobel in libavfilter/vf_convolution.c in Ffmpeg 4.2.1, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or other unspecified impacts. CVE-2021-38090Integer Overflow vulnerability in function filter16_roberts in libavfilter/vf_convolution.c in Ffmpeg 4.2.1, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or other unspecified impacts. CVE-2021-37646TensorFlow is an end-to-end open source platform for machine learning. In affected versions the implementation of `tf.raw_ops.StringNGrams` is vulnerable to an integer overflow issue caused by converting a signed integer value to an unsigned one and then allocating memory based on this value. The [implementation](https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/8d72537c6abf5a44103b57b9c2e22c14f5f49698/tensorflow/core/kernels/string_ngrams_op.cc#L184) calls `reserve` on a `tstring` with a value that sometimes can be negative if user supplies negative `ngram_widths`. The `reserve` method calls `TF_TString_Reserve` which has an `unsigned long` argument for the size of the buffer. Hence, the implicit conversion transforms the negative value to a large integer. We have patched the issue in GitHub commit c283e542a3f422420cfdb332414543b62fc4e4a5. The fix will be included in TensorFlow 2.6.0. We will also cherrypick this commit on TensorFlow 2.5.1, TensorFlow 2.4.3, and TensorFlow 2.3.4, as these are also affected and still in supported range. CVE-2021-37645TensorFlow is an end-to-end open source platform for machine learning. In affected versions the implementation of `tf.raw_ops.QuantizeAndDequantizeV4Grad` is vulnerable to an integer overflow issue caused by converting a signed integer value to an unsigned one and then allocating memory based on this value. The [implementation](https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/8d72537c6abf5a44103b57b9c2e22c14f5f49698/tensorflow/core/kernels/quantize_and_dequantize_op.cc#L126) uses the `axis` value as the size argument to `absl::InlinedVector` constructor. But, the constructor uses an unsigned type for the argument, so the implicit conversion transforms the negative value to a large integer. We have patched the issue in GitHub commit 96f364a1ca3009f98980021c4b32be5fdcca33a1. The fix will be included in TensorFlow 2.6.0. We will also cherrypick this commit on TensorFlow 2.5.1, and TensorFlow 2.4.3, as these are also affected and still in supported range. CVE-2021-37600** DISPUTED ** An integer overflow in util-linux through 2.37.1 can potentially cause a buffer overflow if an attacker were able to use system resources in a way that leads to a large number in the /proc/sysvipc/sem file. NOTE: this is unexploitable in GNU C Library environments, and possibly in all realistic environments. CVE-2021-36058XMP Toolkit SDK version 2020.1 (and earlier) is affected by an Integer Overflow vulnerability potentially resulting in application-level denial of service in the context of the current user. Exploitation requires user interaction in that a victim must open a crafted file. CVE-2021-3520There's a flaw in lz4. An attacker who submits a crafted file to an application linked with lz4 may be able to trigger an integer overflow, leading to calling of memmove() on a negative size argument, causing an out-of-bounds write and/or a crash. The greatest impact of this flaw is to availability, with some potential impact to confidentiality and integrity as well. CVE-2021-3477There's a flaw in OpenEXR's deep tile sample size calculations in versions before 3.0.0-beta. An attacker who is able to submit a crafted file to be processed by OpenEXR could trigger an integer overflow, subsequently leading to an out-of-bounds read. The greatest risk of this flaw is to application availability. CVE-2021-3475There is a flaw in OpenEXR in versions before 3.0.0-beta. An attacker who can submit a crafted file to be processed by OpenEXR could cause an integer overflow, potentially leading to problems with application availability. CVE-2021-34392Trusty TLK contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel where an integer overflow in the tz_map_shared_mem function can bypass boundary checks, which might lead to denial of service. CVE-2021-34391Trusty contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel function where a lack of checks allows the exploitation of an integer overflow through a specific SMC call that is triggered by the user, which may lead to denial of service. CVE-2021-34390Trusty contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel function where a lack of checks allows the exploitation of an integer overflow through a specific SMC call that is triggered by the user, which may lead to denial of service. CVE-2021-34386Trusty TLK contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel where an integer overflow in the calloc size calculation can cause the multiplication of count and size can overflow, which might lead to heap overflows. CVE-2021-34385Trusty TLK contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel where an integer overflow in the calculation of a length could lead to a heap overflow. CVE-2021-34382Trusty TLK contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel&#8217;s tz_map_shared_mem function where an integer overflow on the size parameter causes the request buffer and the logging buffer to overflow, allowing writes to arbitrary addresses within the kernel. CVE-2021-34381Trusty TLK contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel function where a lack of checks allows the exploitation of an integer overflow on the size parameter of the tz_map_shared_mem function, which might lead to denial of service, information disclosure, or data tampering. CVE-2021-34372Trusty (the trusted OS produced by NVIDIA for Jetson devices) driver contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA OTE protocol message parsing code where an integer overflow in a malloc() size calculation leads to a buffer overflow on the heap, which might result in information disclosure, escalation of privileges, and denial of service. CVE-2021-34270An integer overflow in the mintToken function of a smart contract implementation for Doftcoin Token, an Ethereum ERC20 token, allows the owner to cause unexpected financial losses. CVE-2021-3420A flaw was found in newlib in versions prior to 4.0.0. Improper overflow validation in the memory allocation functions mEMALIGn, pvALLOc, nano_memalign, nano_valloc, nano_pvalloc could case an integer overflow, leading to an allocation of a small buffer and then to a heap-based buffer overflow. CVE-2021-34185Miniaudio 0.10.35 has an integer-based buffer overflow caused by an out-of-bounds left shift in drwav_bytes_to_u32 in miniaudio.h CVE-2021-3402An integer overflow and several buffer overflow reads in libyara/modules/macho/macho.c in YARA v4.0.3 and earlier could allow an attacker to either cause denial of service or information disclosure via a malicious Mach-O file. Affects all versions before libyara 4.0.4 CVE-2021-33909fs/seq_file.c in the Linux kernel 3.16 through 5.13.x before 5.13.4 does not properly restrict seq buffer allocations, leading to an integer overflow, an Out-of-bounds Write, and escalation to root by an unprivileged user, aka CID-8cae8cd89f05. CVE-2021-33889OpenThread wpantund through 2021-07-02 has a stack-based Buffer Overflow because of an inconsistency in the integer data type for metric_len. CVE-2021-33403An integer overflow in the transfer function of a smart contract implementation for Lancer Token, an Ethereum ERC20 token, allows the owner to cause unexpected financial losses between two large accounts during a transaction. CVE-2021-3321Integer Underflow in Zephyr in IEEE 802154 Fragment Reassembly Header Removal. Zephyr versions >= >=2.4.0 contain Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow (CWE-680). For more information, see https://github.com/zephyrproject-rtos/zephyr/security/advisories/GHSA-w44j-66g7-xw99 CVE-2021-33106Integer overflow in the Safestring library maintained by Intel(R) may allow an authenticated user to potentially enable escalation of privilege via local access. CVE-2021-32765Hiredis is a minimalistic C client library for the Redis database. In affected versions Hiredis is vulnurable to integer overflow if provided maliciously crafted or corrupted `RESP` `mult-bulk` protocol data. When parsing `multi-bulk` (array-like) replies, hiredis fails to check if `count * sizeof(redisReply*)` can be represented in `SIZE_MAX`. If it can not, and the `calloc()` call doesn't itself make this check, it would result in a short allocation and subsequent buffer overflow. Users of hiredis who are unable to update may set the [maxelements](https://github.com/redis/hiredis#reader-max-array-elements) context option to a value small enough that no overflow is possible. CVE-2021-32762Redis is an open source, in-memory database that persists on disk. The redis-cli command line tool and redis-sentinel service may be vulnerable to integer overflow when parsing specially crafted large multi-bulk network replies. This is a result of a vulnerability in the underlying hiredis library which does not perform an overflow check before calling the calloc() heap allocation function. This issue only impacts systems with heap allocators that do not perform their own overflow checks. Most modern systems do and are therefore not likely to be affected. Furthermore, by default redis-sentinel uses the jemalloc allocator which is also not vulnerable. The problem is fixed in Redis versions 6.2.6, 6.0.16 and 5.0.14. CVE-2021-32761Redis is an in-memory database that persists on disk. A vulnerability involving out-of-bounds read and integer overflow to buffer overflow exists starting with version 2.2 and prior to versions 5.0.13, 6.0.15, and 6.2.5. On 32-bit systems, Redis `*BIT*` command are vulnerable to integer overflow that can potentially be exploited to corrupt the heap, leak arbitrary heap contents or trigger remote code execution. The vulnerability involves changing the default `proto-max-bulk-len` configuration parameter to a very large value and constructing specially crafted commands bit commands. This problem only affects Redis on 32-bit platforms, or compiled as a 32-bit binary. Redis versions 5.0.`3m 6.0.15, and 6.2.5 contain patches for this issue. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the `redis-server` executable is to prevent users from modifying the `proto-max-bulk-len` configuration parameter. This can be done using ACL to restrict unprivileged users from using the CONFIG SET command. CVE-2021-32714hyper is an HTTP library for Rust. In versions prior to 0.14.10, hyper's HTTP server and client code had a flaw that could trigger an integer overflow when decoding chunk sizes that are too big. This allows possible data loss, or if combined with an upstream HTTP proxy that allows chunk sizes larger than hyper does, can result in "request smuggling" or "desync attacks." The vulnerability is patched in version 0.14.10. Two possible workarounds exist. One may reject requests manually that contain a `Transfer-Encoding` header or ensure any upstream proxy rejects `Transfer-Encoding` chunk sizes greater than what fits in 64-bit unsigned integers. CVE-2021-32687Redis is an open source, in-memory database that persists on disk. An integer overflow bug affecting all versions of Redis can be exploited to corrupt the heap and potentially be used to leak arbitrary contents of the heap or trigger remote code execution. The vulnerability involves changing the default set-max-intset-entries configuration parameter to a very large value and constructing specially crafted commands to manipulate sets. The problem is fixed in Redis versions 6.2.6, 6.0.16 and 5.0.14. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to prevent users from modifying the set-max-intset-entries configuration parameter. This can be done using ACL to restrict unprivileged users from using the CONFIG SET command. CVE-2021-32628Redis is an open source, in-memory database that persists on disk. An integer overflow bug in the ziplist data structure used by all versions of Redis can be exploited to corrupt the heap and potentially result with remote code execution. The vulnerability involves modifying the default ziplist configuration parameters (hash-max-ziplist-entries, hash-max-ziplist-value, zset-max-ziplist-entries or zset-max-ziplist-value) to a very large value, and then constructing specially crafted commands to create very large ziplists. The problem is fixed in Redis versions 6.2.6, 6.0.16, 5.0.14. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to prevent users from modifying the above configuration parameters. This can be done using ACL to restrict unprivileged users from using the CONFIG SET command. CVE-2021-32627Redis is an open source, in-memory database that persists on disk. In affected versions an integer overflow bug in Redis can be exploited to corrupt the heap and potentially result with remote code execution. The vulnerability involves changing the default proto-max-bulk-len and client-query-buffer-limit configuration parameters to very large values and constructing specially crafted very large stream elements. The problem is fixed in Redis 6.2.6, 6.0.16 and 5.0.14. For users unable to upgrade an additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to prevent users from modifying the proto-max-bulk-len configuration parameter. This can be done using ACL to restrict unprivileged users from using the CONFIG SET command. CVE-2021-32625Redis is an open source (BSD licensed), in-memory data structure store, used as a database, cache, and message broker. An integer overflow bug in Redis version 6.0 or newer, could be exploited using the STRALGO LCS command to corrupt the heap and potentially result with remote code execution. This is a result of an incomplete fix by CVE-2021-29477. The problem is fixed in version 6.2.4 and 6.0.14. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to use ACL configuration to prevent clients from using the STRALGO LCS command. On 64 bit systems which have the fixes of CVE-2021-29477 (6.2.3 or 6.0.13), it is sufficient to make sure that the proto-max-bulk-len config parameter is smaller than 2GB (default is 512MB). CVE-2021-32559An integer overflow exists in pywin32 prior to version b301 when adding an access control entry (ACE) to an access control list (ACL) that would cause the size to be greater than 65535 bytes. An attacker who successfully exploited this vulnerability could crash the vulnerable process. CVE-2021-32491A flaw was found in djvulibre-3.5.28 and earlier. An integer overflow in function render() in tools/ddjvu via crafted djvu file may lead to application crash and other consequences. CVE-2021-32489An issue was discovered in the _send_secure_msg() function of Yubico yubihsm-shell through 2.0.3. The function does not correctly validate the embedded length field of an authenticated message received from the device because response_msg.st.len=8 can be accepted but triggers an integer overflow, which causes CRYPTO_cbc128_decrypt (in OpenSSL) to encounter an undersized buffer and experience a segmentation fault. The yubihsm-shell project is included in the YubiHSM 2 SDK product. CVE-2021-32461Trend Micro Password Manager (Consumer) version 5.0.0.1217 and below is vulnerable to an Integer Truncation Privilege Escalation vulnerability which could allow a local attacker to trigger a buffer overflow and escalate privileges on affected installations. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute low-privileged code on the target system in order to exploit this vulnerability. CVE-2021-31873An issue was discovered in klibc before 2.0.9. Additions in the malloc() function may result in an integer overflow and a subsequent heap buffer overflow. CVE-2021-31872An issue was discovered in klibc before 2.0.9. Multiple possible integer overflows in the cpio command on 32-bit systems may result in a buffer overflow or other security impact. CVE-2021-31871An issue was discovered in klibc before 2.0.9. An integer overflow in the cpio command may result in a NULL pointer dereference on 64-bit systems. CVE-2021-31870An issue was discovered in klibc before 2.0.9. Multiplication in the calloc() function may result in an integer overflow and a subsequent heap buffer overflow. CVE-2021-31807An issue was discovered in Squid before 4.15 and 5.x before 5.0.6. An integer overflow problem allows a remote server to achieve Denial of Service when delivering responses to HTTP Range requests. The issue trigger is a header that can be expected to exist in HTTP traffic without any malicious intent. CVE-2021-31642A denial of service condition exists after an integer overflow in several IoT devices from CHIYU Technology, including BIOSENSE, Webpass, and BF-630, BF-631, and SEMAC. The vulnerability can be explored by sending an unexpected integer (> 32 bits) on the page parameter that will crash the web portal and making it unavailable until a reboot of the device. CVE-2021-31572The kernel in Amazon Web Services FreeRTOS before 10.4.3 has an integer overflow in stream_buffer.c for a stream buffer. CVE-2021-31571The kernel in Amazon Web Services FreeRTOS before 10.4.3 has an integer overflow in queue.c for queue creation. CVE-2021-31426This vulnerability allows local attackers to escalate privileges on affected installations of Parallels Desktop 16.1.2-49151. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute low-privileged code on the target system in order to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the Parallels Tools component. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to escalate privileges and execute arbitrary code in the context of the kernel on the target guest system. Was ZDI-CAN-12791. CVE-2021-31425This vulnerability allows local attackers to escalate privileges on affected installations of Parallels Desktop 16.1.2-49151. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute low-privileged code on the target guest system in order to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the Parallels Tools component. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to escalate privileges and execute arbitrary code in the context of the kernel on the target guest system. Was ZDI-CAN-12790. CVE-2021-31401An issue was discovered in tcp_rcv() in nptcp.c in HCC embedded InterNiche 4.0.1. The TCP header processing code doesn't sanitize the value of the IP total length field (header length + data length). With a crafted IP packet, an integer overflow occurs whenever the value of the IP data length is calculated by subtracting the length of the header from the total length of the IP packet. CVE-2021-31319Telegram Android <7.1.0 (2090), Telegram iOS <7.1, and Telegram macOS <7.1 are affected by an Integer Overflow in the LOTGradient::populate function of their custom fork of the rlottie library. A remote attacker might be able to access heap memory out-of-bounds on a victim device via a malicious animated sticker. CVE-2021-31292An integer overflow in CrwMap::encode0x1810 of Exiv2 0.27.3 allows attackers to trigger a heap-based buffer overflow and cause a denial of service (DOS) via crafted metadata. CVE-2021-31227An issue was discovered in HCC embedded InterNiche 4.0.1. A potential heap buffer overflow exists in the code that parses the HTTP POST request, due to an incorrect signed integer comparison. This vulnerability requires the attacker to send a malformed HTTP packet with a negative Content-Length, which bypasses the size checks and results in a large heap overflow in the wbs_multidata buffer copy. CVE-2021-30907An integer overflow was addressed through improved input validation. This issue is fixed in iOS 15.1 and iPadOS 15.1, macOS Monterey 12.0.1, iOS 14.8.1 and iPadOS 14.8.1, tvOS 15.1, watchOS 8.1, Security Update 2021-007 Catalina, macOS Big Sur 11.6.1. A malicious application may be able to elevate privileges. CVE-2021-30860An integer overflow was addressed with improved input validation. This issue is fixed in Security Update 2021-005 Catalina, iOS 14.8 and iPadOS 14.8, macOS Big Sur 11.6, watchOS 7.6.2. Processing a maliciously crafted PDF may lead to arbitrary code execution. Apple is aware of a report that this issue may have been actively exploited. CVE-2021-30760An integer overflow was addressed through improved input validation. This issue is fixed in iOS 14.7, macOS Big Sur 11.5, watchOS 7.6, tvOS 14.7, Security Update 2021-005 Mojave, Security Update 2021-004 Catalina. Processing a maliciously crafted font file may lead to arbitrary code execution. CVE-2021-30663An integer overflow was addressed with improved input validation. This issue is fixed in iOS 14.5.1 and iPadOS 14.5.1, tvOS 14.6, iOS 12.5.3, Safari 14.1.1, macOS Big Sur 11.3.1. Processing maliciously crafted web content may lead to arbitrary code execution. CVE-2021-30354Amazon Kindle e-reader prior to and including version 5.13.4 contains an Integer Overflow that leads to a Heap-Based Buffer Overflow in function CJBig2Image::expand() and results in a memory corruption that leads to code execution when parsing a crafted PDF book. CVE-2021-30261Possible integer and heap overflow due to lack of input command size validation while handling beacon template update command from HLOS in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon IoT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables CVE-2021-30260Possible Integer overflow to buffer overflow issue can occur due to improper validation of input parameters when extscan hostlist configuration command is received in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer Electronics Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon IoT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking CVE-2021-30022There is a integer overflow in media_tools/av_parsers.c in the gf_avc_read_pps_bs_internal in GPAC 1.0.1. pps_id may be a negative number, so it will not return. However, avc->pps only has 255 unit, so there is an overflow, which results a crash. CVE-2021-30014There is a integer overflow in media_tools/av_parsers.c in the hevc_parse_slice_segment function in GPAC 1.0.1 which results in a crash. CVE-2021-29946Ports that were written as an integer overflow above the bounds of a 16-bit integer could have bypassed port blocking restrictions when used in the Alt-Svc header. This vulnerability affects Firefox ESR < 78.10, Thunderbird < 78.10, and Firefox < 88. CVE-2021-29644Hitachi JP1/IT Desktop Management 2 Agent 9 through 12 contains a remote code execution vulnerability because of an Integer Overflow. An attacker with network access to port 31016 may exploit this issue to execute code with unrestricted privileges on the underlying OS. CVE-2021-29605TensorFlow is an end-to-end open source platform for machine learning. The TFLite code for allocating `TFLiteIntArray`s is vulnerable to an integer overflow issue(https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/4ceffae632721e52bf3501b736e4fe9d1221cdfa/tensorflow/lite/c/common.c#L24-L27). An attacker can craft a model such that the `size` multiplier is so large that the return value overflows the `int` datatype and becomes negative. In turn, this results in invalid value being given to `malloc`(https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/4ceffae632721e52bf3501b736e4fe9d1221cdfa/tensorflow/lite/c/common.c#L47-L52). In this case, `ret->size` would dereference an invalid pointer. The fix will be included in TensorFlow 2.5.0. We will also cherrypick this commit on TensorFlow 2.4.2, TensorFlow 2.3.3, TensorFlow 2.2.3 and TensorFlow 2.1.4, as these are also affected and still in supported range. CVE-2021-29601TensorFlow is an end-to-end open source platform for machine learning. The TFLite implementation of concatenation is vulnerable to an integer overflow issue(https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/7b7352a724b690b11bfaae2cd54bc3907daf6285/tensorflow/lite/kernels/concatenation.cc#L70-L76). An attacker can craft a model such that the dimensions of one of the concatenation input overflow the values of `int`. TFLite uses `int` to represent tensor dimensions, whereas TF uses `int64`. Hence, valid TF models can trigger an integer overflow when converted to TFLite format. The fix will be included in TensorFlow 2.5.0. We will also cherrypick this commit on TensorFlow 2.4.2, TensorFlow 2.3.3, TensorFlow 2.2.3 and TensorFlow 2.1.4, as these are also affected and still in supported range. CVE-2021-29584TensorFlow is an end-to-end open source platform for machine learning. An attacker can trigger a denial of service via a `CHECK`-fail in caused by an integer overflow in constructing a new tensor shape. This is because the implementation(https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/0908c2f2397c099338b901b067f6495a5b96760b/tensorflow/core/kernels/sparse_split_op.cc#L66-L70) builds a dense shape without checking that the dimensions would not result in overflow. The `TensorShape` constructor(https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/6f9896890c4c703ae0a0845394086e2e1e523299/tensorflow/core/framework/tensor_shape.cc#L183-L188) uses a `CHECK` operation which triggers when `InitDims`(https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/6f9896890c4c703ae0a0845394086e2e1e523299/tensorflow/core/framework/tensor_shape.cc#L212-L296) returns a non-OK status. This is a legacy implementation of the constructor and operations should use `BuildTensorShapeBase` or `AddDimWithStatus` to prevent `CHECK`-failures in the presence of overflows. The fix will be included in TensorFlow 2.5.0. We will also cherrypick this commit on TensorFlow 2.4.2, TensorFlow 2.3.3, TensorFlow 2.2.3 and TensorFlow 2.1.4, as these are also affected and still in supported range. CVE-2021-29478Redis is an open source (BSD licensed), in-memory data structure store, used as a database, cache, and message broker. An integer overflow bug in Redis 6.2 before 6.2.3 could be exploited to corrupt the heap and potentially result with remote code execution. Redis 6.0 and earlier are not directly affected by this issue. The problem is fixed in version 6.2.3. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the `redis-server` executable is to prevent users from modifying the `set-max-intset-entries` configuration parameter. This can be done using ACL to restrict unprivileged users from using the `CONFIG SET` command. CVE-2021-29477Redis is an open source (BSD licensed), in-memory data structure store, used as a database, cache, and message broker. An integer overflow bug in Redis version 6.0 or newer could be exploited using the `STRALGO LCS` command to corrupt the heap and potentially result with remote code execution. The problem is fixed in version 6.2.3 and 6.0.13. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to use ACL configuration to prevent clients from using the `STRALGO LCS` command. CVE-2021-29338Integer Overflow in OpenJPEG v2.4.0 allows remote attackers to crash the application, causing a Denial of Service (DoS). This occurs when the attacker uses the command line option "-ImgDir" on a directory that contains 1048576 files. CVE-2021-29279There is a integer overflow in function filter_core/filter_props.c:gf_props_assign_value in GPAC 1.0.1. In which, the arg const GF_PropertyValue *value,maybe value->value.data.size is a negative number. In result, memcpy in gf_props_assign_value failed. CVE-2021-28879In the standard library in Rust before 1.52.0, the Zip implementation can report an incorrect size due to an integer overflow. This bug can lead to a buffer overflow when a consumed Zip iterator is used again. CVE-2021-28682An issue was discovered in Envoy through 1.71.1. There is a remotely exploitable integer overflow in which a very large grpc-timeout value leads to unexpected timeout calculations. CVE-2021-27665An unauthenticated remote user could exploit a potential integer overflow condition in the exacqVision Server with a specially crafted script and cause denial-of-service condition. CVE-2021-27259This vulnerability allows local attackers to escalate privileges on affected installations of Parallels Desktop 16.0.1-48919. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute low-privileged code on the target guest system in order to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the Toolgate component. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to escalate privileges and execute arbitrary code in the context of the hypervisor. Was ZDI-CAN-12021. CVE-2021-27243This vulnerability allows local attackers to escalate privileges on affected installations of Parallels Desktop 16.0.1-48919. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute low-privileged code on the target guest system in order to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the Toolgate component. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to escalate privileges and execute arbitrary code in the context of the hypervisor. Was ZDI-CAN-11924. CVE-2021-27219An issue was discovered in GNOME GLib before 2.66.6 and 2.67.x before 2.67.3. The function g_bytes_new has an integer overflow on 64-bit platforms due to an implicit cast from 64 bits to 32 bits. The overflow could potentially lead to memory corruption. CVE-2021-26945An integer overflow leading to a heap-buffer overflow was found in OpenEXR in versions before 3.0.1. An attacker could use this flaw to crash an application compiled with OpenEXR. CVE-2021-26825An integer overflow issue exists in Godot Engine up to v3.2 that can be triggered when loading specially crafted.TGA image files. The vulnerability exists in ImageLoaderTGA::load_image() function at line: const size_t buffer_size = (tga_header.image_width * tga_header.image_height) * pixel_size; The bug leads to Dynamic stack buffer overflow. Depending on the context of the application, attack vector can be local or remote, and can lead to code execution and/or system crash. CVE-2021-26329AMD System Management Unit (SMU) may experience an integer overflow when an invalid length is provided which may result in a potential loss of resources. CVE-2021-26260An integer overflow leading to a heap-buffer overflow was found in the DwaCompressor of OpenEXR in versions before 3.0.1. An attacker could use this flaw to crash an application compiled with OpenEXR. This is a different flaw from CVE-2021-23215. CVE-2021-24036Passing an attacker controlled size when creating an IOBuf could cause integer overflow, leading to an out of bounds write on the heap with the possibility of remote code execution. This issue affects versions of folly prior to v2021.07.22.00. This issue affects HHVM versions prior to 4.80.5, all versions between 4.81.0 and 4.102.1, all versions between 4.103.0 and 4.113.0, and versions 4.114.0, 4.115.0, 4.116.0, 4.117.0, 4.118.0 and 4.118.1. CVE-2021-24025Due to incorrect string size calculations inside the preg_quote function, a large input string passed to the function can trigger an integer overflow leading to a heap overflow. This issue affects HHVM versions prior to 4.56.3, all versions between 4.57.0 and 4.80.1, all versions between 4.81.0 and 4.93.1, and versions 4.94.0, 4.95.0, 4.96.0, 4.97.0, 4.98.0. CVE-2021-23840Calls to EVP_CipherUpdate, EVP_EncryptUpdate and EVP_DecryptUpdate may overflow the output length argument in some cases where the input length is close to the maximum permissable length for an integer on the platform. In such cases the return value from the function call will be 1 (indicating success), but the output length value will be negative. This could cause applications to behave incorrectly or crash. OpenSSL versions 1.1.1i and below are affected by this issue. Users of these versions should upgrade to OpenSSL 1.1.1j. OpenSSL versions 1.0.2x and below are affected by this issue. However OpenSSL 1.0.2 is out of support and no longer receiving public updates. Premium support customers of OpenSSL 1.0.2 should upgrade to 1.0.2y. Other users should upgrade to 1.1.1j. Fixed in OpenSSL 1.1.1j (Affected 1.1.1-1.1.1i). Fixed in OpenSSL 1.0.2y (Affected 1.0.2-1.0.2x). CVE-2021-23215An integer overflow leading to a heap-buffer overflow was found in the DwaCompressor of OpenEXR in versions before 3.0.1. An attacker could use this flaw to crash an application compiled with OpenEXR. CVE-2021-22679The affected product is vulnerable to an integer overflow while processing HTTP headers, which may allow an attacker to remotely execute code on the SimpleLink Wi-Fi (MSP432E4 SDK: v4.20.00.12 and prior, CC32XX SDK v4.30.00.06 and prior, CC13X0 SDK versions prior to v4.10.03, CC13X2 and CC26XX SDK versions prior to v4.40.00, CC3200 SDK v1.5.0 and prior, CC3100 SDK v1.3.0 and prior). CVE-2021-22677An integer overflow exists in the APIs of the host MCU while trying to connect to a WIFI network may lead to issues such as a denial-of-service condition or code execution on the SimpleLink Wi-Fi (MSP432E4 SDK: v4.20.00.12 and prior, CC32XX SDK v4.30.00.06 and prior, CC13X0 SDK versions prior to v4.10.03, CC13X2 and CC26XX SDK versions prior to v4.40.00, CC3200 SDK v1.5.0 and prior, CC3100 SDK v1.3.0 and prior). CVE-2021-22675The affected product is vulnerable to integer overflow while parsing malformed over-the-air firmware update files, which may allow an attacker to remotely execute code on SimpleLink Wi-Fi (MSP432E4 SDK: v4.20.00.12 and prior, CC32XX SDK v4.30.00.06 and prior, CC13X0 SDK versions prior to v4.10.03, CC13X2 and CC26XX SDK versions prior to v4.40.00, CC3200 SDK v1.5.0 and prior, CC3100 SDK v1.3.0 and prior). CVE-2021-22671Multiple integer overflow issues exist while processing long domain names, which may allow an attacker to remotely execute code on the SimpleLink Wi-Fi (MSP432E4 SDK: v4.20.00.12 and prior, CC32XX SDK v4.30.00.06 and prior, CC13X0 SDK versions prior to v4.10.03, CC13X2 and CC26XX SDK versions prior to v4.40.00, CC3200 SDK v1.5.0 and prior, CC3100 SDK v1.3.0 and prior). CVE-2021-22455A component of the HarmonyOS has a Integer Overflow or Wraparound vulnerability. Local attackers may exploit this vulnerability to cause the memory which is not released. CVE-2021-22451A component of the HarmonyOS has a Integer Overflow or Wraparound vulnerability. Local attackers may exploit this vulnerability to cause memory overwriting. CVE-2021-22423A component of the HarmonyOS has a Out-of-bounds Write Vulnerability. Local attackers may exploit this vulnerability to cause integer overflow. CVE-2021-22422A component of the HarmonyOS has a Integer Overflow or Wraparound vulnerability. Local attackers may exploit this vulnerability to cause memory overwriting. CVE-2021-22418A component of the HarmonyOS has a Integer Overflow or Wraparound vulnerability. Local attackers may exploit this vulnerability to cause memory overwriting. CVE-2021-22413There is an Integer Overflow Vulnerability in Huawei Smartphone.Successful exploitation of this vulnerability may cause the system to reset. CVE-2021-22412There is an Integer Overflow Vulnerability in Huawei Smartphone.Successful exploitation of this vulnerability may cause random kernel address access. CVE-2021-22388There is an Integer Overflow Vulnerability in Huawei Smartphone.Successful exploitation of this vulnerability may cause certain codes to be executed. CVE-2021-22323There is an Integer Overflow Vulnerability in Huawei Smartphone. Successful exploitation of these vulnerabilities may escalate the permission to that of the root user. CVE-2021-22156An integer overflow vulnerability in the calloc() function of the C runtime library of affected versions of BlackBerry® QNX Software Development Platform (SDP) version(s) 6.5.0SP1 and earlier, QNX OS for Medical 1.1 and earlier, and QNX OS for Safety 1.0.1 and earlier that could allow an attacker to potentially perform a denial of service or execute arbitrary code. CVE-2021-21862Multiple exploitable integer truncation vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an improper memory allocation resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption The implementation of the parser used for the &#8220;Xtra&#8221; FOURCC code is handled. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21861An exploitable integer truncation vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. When processing the 'hdlr' FOURCC code, a specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an improper memory allocation resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21860An exploitable integer truncation vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an improper memory allocation resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. The FOURCC code, 'trik', is parsed by the function within the library. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21858Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked addition arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21857Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked addition arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21856Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked addition arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21855Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked addition arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21854Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked addition arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21853Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked addition arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21852Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input at &#8220;stss&#8221; decoder can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21851Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input at &#8220;csgp&#8221; decoder sample group description indices can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21850An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow when the library encounters an atom using the &#8220;trun&#8221; FOURCC code due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21849An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow when the library encounters an atom using the &#8220;tfra&#8221; FOURCC code due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21848An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. The library will actually reuse the parser for atoms with the &#8220;stsz&#8221; FOURCC code when parsing atoms that use the &#8220;stz2&#8221; FOURCC code and can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21847Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input in &#8220;stts&#8221; decoder can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21846Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input in &#8220;stsz&#8221; decoder can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21845Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input in &#8220;stsc&#8221; decoder can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21844Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input when encountering an atom using the &#8220;stco&#8221; FOURCC code, can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21843Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. After validating the number of ranges, at [41] the library will multiply the count by the size of the GF_SubsegmentRangeInfo structure. On a 32-bit platform, this multiplication can result in an integer overflow causing the space of the array being allocated to be less than expected. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21842An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow when processing an atom using the 'ssix' FOURCC code, due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21841An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input when reading an atom using the 'sbgp' FOURCC code can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21840An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input used to process an atom using the &#8220;saio&#8221; FOURCC code cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21839Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21838Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21837Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21836An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input using the &#8220;ctts&#8221; FOURCC code can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21835An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input when decoding the atom associated with the &#8220;csgp&#8221; FOURCC can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21834An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input when decoding the atom for the &#8220;co64&#8221; FOURCC can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21807An integer overflow vulnerability exists in the DICOM parse_dicom_meta_info functionality of Accusoft ImageGear 19.9. A specially crafted malformed file can lead to a stack-based buffer overflow. An attacker can provide a malicious file to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21795A heap-based buffer overflow vulnerability exists in the PSD read_icc_icCurve_data functionality of Accusoft ImageGear 19.9. A specially crafted malformed file can lead to an integer overflow that, in turn, leads to a heap buffer overflow. An attacker can provide a malicious file to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21309Redis is an open-source, in-memory database that persists on disk. In affected versions of Redis an integer overflow bug in 32-bit Redis version 4.0 or newer could be exploited to corrupt the heap and potentially result with remote code execution. Redis 4.0 or newer uses a configurable limit for the maximum supported bulk input size. By default, it is 512MB which is a safe value for all platforms. If the limit is significantly increased, receiving a large request from a client may trigger several integer overflow scenarios, which would result with buffer overflow and heap corruption. We believe this could in certain conditions be exploited for remote code execution. By default, authenticated Redis users have access to all configuration parameters and can therefore use the &#8220;CONFIG SET proto-max-bulk-len&#8221; to change the safe default, making the system vulnerable. **This problem only affects 32-bit Redis (on a 32-bit system, or as a 32-bit executable running on a 64-bit system).** The problem is fixed in version 6.2, and the fix is back ported to 6.0.11 and 5.0.11. Make sure you use one of these versions if you are running 32-bit Redis. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to prevent clients from directly executing `CONFIG SET`: Using Redis 6.0 or newer, ACL configuration can be used to block the command. Using older versions, the `rename-command` configuration directive can be used to rename the command to a random string unknown to users, rendering it inaccessible. Please note that this workaround may have an additional impact on users or operational systems that expect `CONFIG SET` to behave in certain ways. CVE-2021-21223Integer overflow in Mojo in Google Chrome prior to 90.0.4430.85 allowed a remote attacker who had compromised the renderer process to potentially perform a sandbox escape via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2021-21036Acrobat Reader DC versions versions 2020.013.20074 (and earlier), 2020.001.30018 (and earlier) and 2017.011.30188 (and earlier) are affected by an Integer Overflow vulnerability. An unauthenticated attacker could leverage this vulnerability to achieve arbitrary code execution in the context of the current user. Exploitation of this issue requires user interaction in that a victim must open a malicious file. CVE-2021-20312A flaw was found in ImageMagick in versions 7.0.11, where an integer overflow in WriteTHUMBNAILImage of coders/thumbnail.c may trigger undefined behavior via a crafted image file that is submitted by an attacker and processed by an application using ImageMagick. The highest threat from this vulnerability is to system availability. CVE-2021-20308Integer overflow in the htmldoc 1.9.11 and before may allow attackers to execute arbitrary code and cause a denial of service that is similar to CVE-2017-9181. CVE-2021-20203An integer overflow issue was found in the vmxnet3 NIC emulator of the QEMU for versions up to v5.2.0. It may occur if a guest was to supply invalid values for rx/tx queue size or other NIC parameters. A privileged guest user may use this flaw to crash the QEMU process on the host resulting in DoS scenario. CVE-2021-20110Due to Manage Engine Asset Explorer Agent 1.0.34 not validating HTTPS certificates, an attacker on the network can statically configure their IP address to match the Asset Explorer's Server IP address. This will allow an attacker to send a NEWSCAN request to a listening agent on the network as well as receive the agent's HTTP request verifying its authtoken. In httphandler.cpp, the agent reaching out over HTTP is vulnerable to an Integer Overflow, which can be turned into a Heap Overflow allowing for remote code execution as NT AUTHORITY/SYSTEM on the agent machine. The Integer Overflow occurs when receiving POST response from the Manage Engine server, and the agent calling "HttpQueryInfoW" in order to get the "Content-Length" size from the incoming POST request. This size is taken, but multiplied to a larger amount. If an attacker specifies a Content-Length size of 1073741823 or larger, this integer arithmetic will wrap the value back around to smaller integer, then calls "calloc" with this size to allocate memory. The following API "InternetReadFile" will copy the POST data into this buffer, which will be too small for the contents, and cause heap overflow. CVE-2021-1949Possible integer overflow due to improper check of batch count value while sanitizer is enabled in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables CVE-2021-1913Possible integer overflow due to improper length check while updating grace period and count record in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking CVE-2021-1912Possible integer overflow can occur due to improper length check while calculating count and grace period in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile CVE-2021-1895Possible integer overflow due to improper length check while flashing an image in Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Voice & Music CVE-2021-1878An integer overflow was addressed with improved input validation. This issue is fixed in macOS Big Sur 11.3, Security Update 2021-002 Catalina, Security Update 2021-003 Mojave. An attacker in a privileged network position may be able to leak sensitive user information. CVE-2021-1059NVIDIA vGPU manager contains a vulnerability in the vGPU plugin, in which an input index is not validated, which may lead to integer overflow, which in turn may cause tampering of data, information disclosure, or denial of service. This affects vGPU version 8.x (prior to 8.6) and version 11.0 (prior to 11.3). CVE-2021-0627In OMA DRM, there is a possible memory corruption due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Patch ID: ALPS05722434; Issue ID: ALPS05722434. CVE-2021-0623In asf extractor, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Patch ID: ALPS05489178; Issue ID: ALPS05585817. CVE-2021-0621In asf extractor, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Patch ID: ALPS05489178; Issue ID: ALPS05561383. CVE-2021-0615In flv extractor, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Patch ID: ALPS05561369; Issue ID: ALPS05561369. CVE-2021-0610In memory management driver, there is a possible memory corruption due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Patch ID: ALPS05403499; Issue ID: ALPS05411456. CVE-2021-0557In setRange of ABuffer.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-179046129 CVE-2021-0543In phNxpNciHal_process_ext_rsp of phNxpNciHal_ext.cc, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-169258743 CVE-2021-0510In decrypt_1_2 of CryptoPlugin.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-9 Android-10 Android-11 Android-8.1Android ID: A-176444622 CVE-2021-0494In memory management driver, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android SoCAndroid ID: A-183461318 CVE-2021-0471In decrypt_1_2 of CryptoPlugin.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-9 Android-10 Android-11 Android-8.1Android ID: A-176444786 CVE-2021-0460In the FingerTipS touch screen driver, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android kernelAndroid ID: A-156739245 CVE-2021-0458In the FingerTipS touch screen driver, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android kernelAndroid ID: A-157156744 CVE-2021-0436In CryptoPlugin::decrypt of CryptoPlugin.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds read due to integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-8.1 Android-9 Android-10 Android-11Android ID: A-176496160 CVE-2021-0411In flv extractor, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Patch ID: ALPS05561362; Issue ID: ALPS05561362. CVE-2021-0393In Scanner::LiteralBuffer::NewCapacity of scanner.cc, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution if an attacker can supply a malicious PAC file, with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11 Android-8.1 Android-9 Android-10Android ID: A-168041375 CVE-2021-0355In kisd, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Product: Android; Versions: Android-11; Patch ID: ALPS05425581. CVE-2021-0354In ged, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Product: Android; Versions: Android-8.1, Android-9, Android-10, Android-11; Patch ID: ALPS05431161. CVE-2021-0312In WAVSource::read of WAVExtractor.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: Android; Versions: Android-8.1, Android-9, Android-10, Android-11, Android-8.0; Android ID: A-170583712. CVE-2020-9875An integer overflow was addressed through improved input validation. This issue is fixed in iOS 13.6 and iPadOS 13.6, macOS Catalina 10.15.6, tvOS 13.4.8, watchOS 6.2.8, iTunes 12.10.8 for Windows, iCloud for Windows 11.3, iCloud for Windows 7.20. Processing a maliciously crafted image may lead to arbitrary code execution. CVE-2020-9852An integer overflow was addressed through improved input validation. This issue is fixed in iOS 13.5 and iPadOS 13.5, macOS Catalina 10.15.5, tvOS 13.4.5, watchOS 6.2.5. A malicious application may be able to execute arbitrary code with kernel privileges. CVE-2020-9841An integer overflow was addressed through improved input validation. This issue is fixed in macOS Catalina 10.15.5. An application may be able to execute arbitrary code with kernel privileges. CVE-2020-9095HUAWEI P30 Pro smartphone with Versions earlier than 10.1.0.160(C00E160R2P8) has an integer overflow vulnerability. Some functions are lack of verification when they process some messages sent from other module. Attackers can exploit this vulnerability by send malicious message to cause integer overflow. This can compromise normal service. CVE-2020-8874This vulnerability allows local attackers to escalate privileges on affected installations of Parallels Desktop 15.1.2-47123. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute high-privileged code on the target guest system in order to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the xHCI component. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to escalate privileges and execute code in the context of the hypervisor. Was ZDI-CAN-10032. CVE-2020-8844This vulnerability allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code on affected installations of Foxit Reader 9.6.0.25114. User interaction is required to exploit this vulnerability in that the target must visit a malicious page or open a malicious file. The specific flaw exists within the parsing of JPEG files within CovertToPDF. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before writing to memory. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to execute code in the context of the current process. Was ZDI-CAN-9102. CVE-2020-8760Integer overflow in subsystem for Intel(R) AMT versions before 11.8.80, 11.12.80, 11.22.80, 12.0.70, 14.0.45 may allow a privileged user to potentially enable escalation of privilege via local access. CVE-2020-8746Integer overflow in subsystem for Intel(R) AMT versions before 11.8.80, 11.12.80, 11.22.80, 12.0.70 and 14.0.45 may allow an unauthenticated user to potentially enable denial of service via adjacent access. CVE-2020-7872DaviewIndy v8.98.7.0 and earlier versions have a Integer overflow vulnerability, triggered when the user opens a malformed format file that is mishandled by DaviewIndy. Attackers could exploit this and arbitrary code execution. CVE-2020-7860UnEGG v0.5 and eariler versions have a Integer overflow vulnerability, triggered when the user opens a malformed specific file that is mishandled by UnEGG. Attackers could exploit this and arbitrary code execution. This issue affects: Estsoft UnEGG 0.5 versions prior to 1.0 on linux. CVE-2020-6569Integer overflow in WebUSB in Google Chrome prior to 85.0.4183.83 allowed a remote attacker who had compromised the renderer process to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2020-6381Integer overflow in JavaScript in Google Chrome on ChromeOS and Android prior to 80.0.3987.87 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2020-6113An exploitable vulnerability exists in the object stream parsing functionality of Nitro Software, Inc.&#8217;s Nitro Pro 13.13.2.242 when updating its cross-reference table. When processing an object stream from a PDF document, the application will perform a calculation in order to allocate memory for the list of indirect objects. Due to an error when calculating this size, an integer overflow may occur which can result in an undersized buffer being allocated. Later when initializing this buffer, the application can write outside its bounds which can cause a memory corruption that can lead to code execution. A specially crafted document can be delivered to a victim in order to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2020-6092An exploitable code execution vulnerability exists in the way Nitro Pro 13.9.1.155 parses Pattern objects. A specially crafted PDF file can trigger an integer overflow that can lead to arbitrary code execution. In order to trigger this vulnerability, victim must open a malicious file. CVE-2020-6073An exploitable denial-of-service vulnerability exists in the TXT record-parsing functionality of Videolabs libmicrodns 0.1.0. When parsing the RDATA section in a TXT record in mDNS messages, multiple integer overflows can be triggered, leading to a denial of service. An attacker can send an mDNS message to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2020-5310libImaging/TiffDecode.c in Pillow before 6.2.2 has a TIFF decoding integer overflow, related to realloc. CVE-2020-4030In FreeRDP before version 2.1.2, there is an out of bounds read in TrioParse. Logging might bypass string length checks due to an integer overflow. This is fixed in version 2.1.2. CVE-2020-3990VMware Workstation (15.x) and Horizon Client for Windows (5.x before 5.4.4) contain an information disclosure vulnerability due to an integer overflow issue in Cortado ThinPrint component. A malicious actor with normal access to a virtual machine may be able to exploit this issue to leak memory from TPView process running on the system where Workstation or Horizon Client for Windows is installed. Exploitation is only possible if virtual printing has been enabled. This feature is not enabled by default on Workstation but it is enabled by default on Horizon Client. CVE-2020-36430libass 0.15.x before 0.15.1 has a heap-based buffer overflow in decode_chars (called from decode_font and process_text) because the wrong integer data type is used for subtraction. CVE-2020-3641Integer overflow may occur if atom size is less than atom offset as there is improper validation of atom size in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables in APQ8009, APQ8053, APQ8096AU, APQ8098, Kamorta, MDM9206, MDM9207C, MDM9607, MSM8905, MSM8909W, MSM8917, MSM8953, MSM8996AU, MSM8998, QCA6574AU, QCM2150, QCS405, QCS605, QM215, Rennell, SA6155P, Saipan, SDA660, SDM429, SDM429W, SDM439, SDM450, SDM630, SDM632, SDM636, SDM660, SDM845, SDX20, SM6150, SM7150, SM8150, SM8250, SXR2130 CVE-2020-36242In the cryptography package before 3.3.2 for Python, certain sequences of update calls to symmetrically encrypt multi-GB values could result in an integer overflow and buffer overflow, as demonstrated by the Fernet class. CVE-2020-3624u'A potential buffer overflow exists due to integer overflow when parsing handler options due to wrong data type usage in operation' in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer Electronics Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking in APQ8009, APQ8017, APQ8053, APQ8096AU, APQ8098, Kamorta, MDM9150, MDM9205, MDM9206, MDM9207C, MDM9607, MDM9615, MDM9625, MDM9635M, MDM9640, MDM9645, MDM9650, MDM9655, MSM8905, MSM8909, MSM8909W, MSM8917, MSM8920, MSM8937, MSM8940, MSM8953, MSM8996AU, MSM8998, Nicobar, QCM2150, QCN7605, QCS605, QCS610, QM215, Rennell, SA415M, SA515M, Saipan, SC7180, SC8180X, SDA660, SDA845, SDM429, SDM429W, SDM439, SDM450, SDM630, SDM632, SDM636, SDM660, SDM670, SDM710, SDM845, SDM850, SDX20, SDX24, SDX55, SM6150, SM7150, SM8150, SXR1130 CVE-2020-3620CVE-2020-35738WavPack 5.3.0 has an out-of-bounds write in WavpackPackSamples in pack_utils.c because of an integer overflow in a malloc argument. NOTE: some third-parties claim that there are later "unofficial" releases through 5.3.2, which are also affected. CVE-2020-35523An integer overflow flaw was found in libtiff that exists in the tif_getimage.c file. This flaw allows an attacker to inject and execute arbitrary code when a user opens a crafted TIFF file. The highest threat from this vulnerability is to confidentiality, integrity, as well as system availability. CVE-2020-35457** DISPUTED ** GNOME GLib before 2.65.3 has an integer overflow, that might lead to an out-of-bounds write, in g_option_group_add_entries. NOTE: the vendor's position is "Realistically this is not a security issue. The standard pattern is for callers to provide a static list of option entries in a fixed number of calls to g_option_group_add_entries()." The researcher states that this pattern is undocumented. CVE-2020-35230Multiple integer overflow parameters were found in the web administration panel on NETGEAR JGS516PE/GS116Ev2 v2.6.0.43 devices. Most of the integer parameters sent through the web server can be abused to cause a denial of service attack. CVE-2020-35198An issue was discovered in Wind River VxWorks 7. The memory allocator has a possible integer overflow in calculating a memory block's size to be allocated by calloc(). As a result, the actual memory allocated is smaller than the buffer size specified by the arguments, leading to memory corruption. CVE-2020-29384An issue was discovered in PNGOUT 2020-01-15. When compressing a crafted PNG file, it encounters an integer overflow. CVE-2020-29361An issue was discovered in p11-kit 0.21.1 through 0.23.21. Multiple integer overflows have been discovered in the array allocations in the p11-kit library and the p11-kit list command, where overflow checks are missing before calling realloc or calloc. CVE-2020-29238An integer buffer overflow in the Nginx webserver of ExpressVPN Router version 1 allows remote attackers to obtain sensitive information when the server running as reverse proxy via specially crafted request. CVE-2020-28371** UNSUPPORTED WHEN ASSIGNED ** An issue was discovered in ReadyTalk Avian 1.2.0 before 2020-10-27. The FileOutputStream.write() method in FileOutputStream.java has a boundary check to prevent out-of-bounds memory read/write operations. However, an integer overflow leads to bypassing this check and achieving the out-of-bounds access. NOTE: This vulnerability only affects products that are no longer supported by the maintainer. CVE-2020-28248An integer overflow in the PngImg::InitStorage_() function of png-img before 3.1.0 leads to an under-allocation of heap memory and subsequently an exploitable heap-based buffer overflow when loading a crafted PNG file. CVE-2020-28020Exim 4 before 4.92 allows Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow, in which an unauthenticated remote attacker can execute arbitrary code by leveraging the mishandling of continuation lines during header-length restriction. CVE-2020-28017Exim 4 before 4.94.2 allows Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow in receive_add_recipient via an e-mail message with fifty million recipients. NOTE: remote exploitation may be difficult because of resource consumption. CVE-2020-28009Exim 4 before 4.94.2 allows Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow because get_stdinput allows unbounded reads that are accompanied by unbounded increases in a certain size variable. NOTE: exploitation may be impractical because of the execution time needed to overflow (multiple days). CVE-2020-27945An integer overflow was addressed with improved input validation. This issue is fixed in macOS Big Sur 11.2, Security Update 2021-001 Catalina, Security Update 2021-001 Mojave, macOS Big Sur 11.0.1. Processing maliciously crafted web content may lead to arbitrary code execution. CVE-2020-27911An integer overflow was addressed through improved input validation. This issue is fixed in macOS Big Sur 11.0.1, watchOS 7.1, iOS 14.2 and iPadOS 14.2, iCloud for Windows 11.5, tvOS 14.2, iTunes 12.11 for Windows. A remote attacker may be able to cause unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution. CVE-2020-27906Multiple integer overflows were addressed with improved input validation. This issue is fixed in macOS Big Sur 11.0.1. A remote attacker may be able to cause unexpected application termination or heap corruption. CVE-2020-27813An integer overflow vulnerability exists with the length of websocket frames received via a websocket connection. An attacker would use this flaw to cause a denial of service attack on an HTTP Server allowing websocket connections. CVE-2020-27484Garmin Forerunner 235 before 8.20 is affected by: Integer Overflow. The component is: ConnectIQ TVM. The attack vector is: To exploit the vulnerability, the attacker must upload a malicious ConnectIQ application to the ConnectIQ store. The ConnectIQ program interpreter fails to check for overflow when allocating the array for the NEWA instruction. This a constrained read/write primitive across the entire MAX32630 address space. A successful exploit would allow a ConnectIQ app store application to escape and perform activities outside the restricted application execution environment. CVE-2020-27350APT had several integer overflows and underflows while parsing .deb packages, aka GHSL-2020-168 GHSL-2020-169, in files apt-pkg/contrib/extracttar.cc, apt-pkg/deb/debfile.cc, and apt-pkg/contrib/arfile.cc. This issue affects: apt 1.2.32ubuntu0 versions prior to 1.2.32ubuntu0.2; 1.6.12ubuntu0 versions prior to 1.6.12ubuntu0.2; 2.0.2ubuntu0 versions prior to 2.0.2ubuntu0.2; 2.1.10ubuntu0 versions prior to 2.1.10ubuntu0.1; CVE-2020-27051In NFA_RwI93WriteMultipleBlocks of nfa_rw_api.cc, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-157650338 CVE-2020-26682In libass 0.14.0, the `ass_outline_construct`'s call to `outline_stroke` causes a signed integer overflow. CVE-2020-25693A flaw was found in CImg in versions prior to 2.9.3. Integer overflows leading to heap buffer overflows in load_pnm() can be triggered by a specially crafted input file processed by CImg, which can lead to an impact to application availability or data integrity. CVE-2020-25676In CatromWeights(), MeshInterpolate(), InterpolatePixelChannel(), InterpolatePixelChannels(), and InterpolatePixelInfo(), which are all functions in /MagickCore/pixel.c, there were multiple unconstrained pixel offset calculations which were being used with the floor() function. These calculations produced undefined behavior in the form of out-of-range and integer overflows, as identified by UndefinedBehaviorSanitizer. These instances of undefined behavior could be triggered by an attacker who is able to supply a crafted input file to be processed by ImageMagick. These issues could impact application availability or potentially cause other problems related to undefined behavior. This flaw affects ImageMagick versions prior to 7.0.9-0. CVE-2020-25675In the CropImage() and CropImageToTiles() routines of MagickCore/transform.c, rounding calculations performed on unconstrained pixel offsets was causing undefined behavior in the form of integer overflow and out-of-range values as reported by UndefinedBehaviorSanitizer. Such issues could cause a negative impact to application availability or other problems related to undefined behavior, in cases where ImageMagick processes untrusted input data. The upstream patch introduces functionality to constrain the pixel offsets and prevent these issues. This flaw affects ImageMagick versions prior to 7.0.9-0. CVE-2020-25666There are 4 places in HistogramCompare() in MagickCore/histogram.c where an integer overflow is possible during simple math calculations. This occurs in the rgb values and `count` value for a color. The patch uses casts to `ssize_t` type for these calculations, instead of `int`. This flaw could impact application reliability in the event that ImageMagick processes a crafted input file. This flaw affects ImageMagick versions prior to 7.0.9-0. CVE-2020-25574An issue was discovered in the http crate before 0.1.20 for Rust. An integer overflow in HeaderMap::reserve() could result in denial of service (e.g., an infinite loop). CVE-2020-24838An integer overflow has been found in the the latest version of Issuer. The total issuedCount can be zero if the parameter is overly large. An attacker can obtain the private key of the owner issued with a certain 'amount', and the issuedCount can be zero if there is an overflow. CVE-2020-24397An issue was discovered in the client side of Zoho ManageEngine Desktop Central 10.0.0.SP-534. An attacker-controlled server can trigger an integer overflow in InternetSendRequestEx and InternetSendRequestByBitrate that leads to a heap-based buffer overflow and Remote Code Execution with SYSTEM privileges. CVE-2020-24213An integer overflow was discovered in YGOPro ygocore v13.51. Attackers can use it to leak the game server thread's memory. CVE-2020-22875Integer overflow vulnerability in function Jsi_ObjSetLength in jsish before 3.0.6, allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code. CVE-2020-22874Integer overflow vulnerability in function Jsi_ObjArraySizer in jsish before 3.0.8, allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code. CVE-2020-20898Integer Overflow vulnerability in function filter16_prewitt in libavfilter/vf_convolution.c in Ffmpeg 4.2.1, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or other unspecified impacts. CVE-2020-19497Integer overflow vulnerability in Mat_VarReadNextInfo5 in mat5.c in tbeu matio (aka MAT File I/O Library) 1.5.17, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or possibly other unspecified impacts. CVE-2020-19490tinyexr 0.9.5 has a integer overflow over-write in tinyexr::DecodePixelData in tinyexr.h, related to OpenEXR code. CVE-2020-1916An incorrect size calculation in ldap_escape may lead to an integer overflow when overly long input is passed in, resulting in an out-of-bounds write. This issue affects HHVM prior to 4.56.2, all versions between 4.57.0 and 4.78.0, 4.79.0, 4.80.0, 4.81.0, 4.82.0, 4.83.0. CVE-2020-18684Floodlight through 1.2 has an integer overflow in checkFlow in StaticFlowEntryPusherResource.java via priority or port number. CVE-2020-17752Integer overflow vulnerability in payable function of a smart contract implementation for an Ethereum token, as demonstrated by the smart contract implemented at address 0xB49E984A83d7A638E7F2889fc8328952BA951AbE, an implementation for MillionCoin (MON). CVE-2020-17396This vulnerability allows local attackers to escalate privileges on affected installations of Parallels Desktop 15.1.4. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute low-privileged code on the target system in order to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the prl_hypervisor module. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to escalate privileges and execute code in the context of the kernel. Was ZDI-CAN-11217. CVE-2020-17360** UNSUPPORTED WHEN ASSIGNED ** An issue was discovered in ReadyTalk Avian 1.2.0. The vm::arrayCopy method defined in classpath-common.h contains multiple boundary checks that are performed to prevent out-of-bounds memory read/write. However, two of these boundary checks contain an integer overflow that leads to a bypass of these checks, and out-of-bounds read/write. NOTE: This vulnerability only affects products that are no longer supported by the maintainer. CVE-2020-16124Integer Overflow or Wraparound vulnerability in the XML RPC library of OpenRobotics ros_comm communications packages allows unauthenticated network traffic to cause unexpected behavior. This issue affects: OpenRobotics ros_comm communications packages Noetic and prior versions. Fixed in https://github.com/ros/ros_comm/pull/2065. CVE-2020-15986Integer overflow in media in Google Chrome prior to 86.0.4240.75 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2020-15975Integer overflow in SwiftShader in Google Chrome prior to 86.0.4240.75 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2020-15974Integer overflow in Blink in Google Chrome prior to 86.0.4240.75 allowed a remote attacker to bypass site isolation via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2020-15707Integer overflows were discovered in the functions grub_cmd_initrd and grub_initrd_init in the efilinux component of GRUB2, as shipped in Debian, Red Hat, and Ubuntu (the functionality is not included in GRUB2 upstream), leading to a heap-based buffer overflow. These could be triggered by an extremely large number of arguments to the initrd command on 32-bit architectures, or a crafted filesystem with very large files on any architecture. An attacker could use this to execute arbitrary code and bypass UEFI Secure Boot restrictions. This issue affects GRUB2 version 2.04 and prior versions. CVE-2020-15588An issue was discovered in the client side of Zoho ManageEngine Desktop Central 10.0.552.W. An attacker-controlled server can trigger an integer overflow in InternetSendRequestEx and InternetSendRequestByBitrate that leads to a heap-based buffer overflow and Remote Code Execution with SYSTEM privileges. This issue will occur only when untrusted communication is initiated with server. In cloud, Agent will always connect with trusted communication. CVE-2020-15202In Tensorflow before versions 1.15.4, 2.0.3, 2.1.2, 2.2.1 and 2.3.1, the `Shard` API in TensorFlow expects the last argument to be a function taking two `int64` (i.e., `long long`) arguments. However, there are several places in TensorFlow where a lambda taking `int` or `int32` arguments is being used. In these cases, if the amount of work to be parallelized is large enough, integer truncation occurs. Depending on how the two arguments of the lambda are used, this can result in segfaults, read/write outside of heap allocated arrays, stack overflows, or data corruption. The issue is patched in commits 27b417360cbd671ef55915e4bb6bb06af8b8a832 and ca8c013b5e97b1373b3bb1c97ea655e69f31a575, and is released in TensorFlow versions 1.15.4, 2.0.3, 2.1.2, 2.2.1, or 2.3.1. CVE-2020-15158In libIEC61850 before version 1.4.3, when a message with COTP message length field with value < 4 is received an integer underflow will happen leading to heap buffer overflow. This can cause an application crash or on some platforms even the execution of remote code. If your application is used in open networks or there are untrusted nodes in the network it is highly recommend to apply the patch. This was patched with commit 033ab5b. Users of version 1.4.x should upgrade to version 1.4.3 when available. As a workaround changes of commit 033ab5b can be applied to older versions. CVE-2020-15137All versions of HoRNDIS are affected by an integer overflow in the RNDIS packet parsing routines. A malicious USB device can trigger disclosure of unrelated kernel memory to userspace applications on the host, or can cause the kernel to crash. Kernel memory disclosure is especially likely on 32-bit kernels; 64-bit kernels are more likely to crash on attempted exploitation. It is not believed that kernel memory corruption is possible, or that unattended kernel memory disclosure without the collaboration of a userspace program running on the host is possible. The vulnerability is in `HoRNDIS::receivePacket`. `msg_len`, `data_ofs`, and `data_len` can be controlled by an attached USB device, and a negative value of `data_ofs` can bypass the check for `(data_ofs + data_len + 8) > msg_len`, and subsequently can cause a wild pointer copy in the `mbuf_copyback` call. The software is not maintained and no patches are planned. Users of multi-tenant systems with HoRNDIS installed should only connect trusted USB devices to their system. CVE-2020-15103In FreeRDP less than or equal to 2.1.2, an integer overflow exists due to missing input sanitation in rdpegfx channel. All FreeRDP clients are affected. The input rectangles from the server are not checked against local surface coordinates and blindly accepted. A malicious server can send data that will crash the client later on (invalid length arguments to a `memcpy`) This has been fixed in 2.2.0. As a workaround, stop using command line arguments /gfx, /gfx-h264 and /network:auto CVE-2020-14966An issue was discovered in the jsrsasign package through 8.0.18 for Node.js. It allows a malleability in ECDSA signatures by not checking overflows in the length of a sequence and '0' characters appended or prepended to an integer. The modified signatures are verified as valid. This could have a security-relevant impact if an application relied on a single canonical signature. CVE-2020-14409SDL (Simple DirectMedia Layer) through 2.0.12 has an Integer Overflow (and resultant SDL_memcpy heap corruption) in SDL_BlitCopy in video/SDL_blit_copy.c via a crafted .BMP file. CVE-2020-14401An issue was discovered in LibVNCServer before 0.9.13. libvncserver/scale.c has a pixel_value integer overflow. CVE-2020-14363An integer overflow vulnerability leading to a double-free was found in libX11. This flaw allows a local privileged attacker to cause an application compiled with libX11 to crash, or in some cases, result in arbitrary code execution. The highest threat from this flaw is to confidentiality, integrity as well as system availability. CVE-2020-14362A flaw was found in X.Org Server before xorg-x11-server 1.20.9. An Integer underflow leading to heap-buffer overflow may lead to a privilege escalation vulnerability. The highest threat from this vulnerability is to data confidentiality and integrity as well as system availability. CVE-2020-14361A flaw was found in X.Org Server before xorg-x11-server 1.20.9. An Integer underflow leading to heap-buffer overflow may lead to a privilege escalation vulnerability. The highest threat from this vulnerability is to data confidentiality and integrity as well as system availability. CVE-2020-14344An integer overflow leading to a heap-buffer overflow was found in The X Input Method (XIM) client was implemented in libX11 before version 1.6.10. As per upstream this is security relevant when setuid programs call XIM client functions while running with elevated privileges. No such programs are shipped with Red Hat Enterprise Linux. CVE-2020-14155libpcre in PCRE before 8.44 allows an integer overflow via a large number after a (?C substring. CVE-2020-14147An integer overflow in the getnum function in lua_struct.c in Redis before 6.0.3 allows context-dependent attackers with permission to run Lua code in a Redis session to cause a denial of service (memory corruption and application crash) or possibly bypass intended sandbox restrictions via a large number, which triggers a stack-based buffer overflow. NOTE: this issue exists because of a CVE-2015-8080 regression. CVE-2020-13999ScaleViewPortExtEx in libemf.cpp in libEMF (aka ECMA-234 Metafile Library) 1.0.12 allows an integer overflow and denial of service via a crafted EMF file. CVE-2020-13995U.S. Air Force Sensor Data Management System extract75 has a buffer overflow that leads to code execution. An overflow in a global variable (sBuffer) leads to a Write-What-Where outcome. Writing beyond sBuffer will clobber most global variables until reaching a pointer such as DES_info or image_info. By controlling that pointer, one achieves an arbitrary write when its fields are assigned. The data written is from a potentially untrusted NITF file in the form of an integer. The attacker can gain control of the instruction pointer. CVE-2020-13988An issue was discovered in Contiki through 3.0. An Integer Overflow exists in the uIP TCP/IP Stack component when parsing TCP MSS options of IPv4 network packets in uip_process in net/ipv4/uip.c. CVE-2020-13974An issue was discovered in the Linux kernel 4.4 through 5.7.1. drivers/tty/vt/keyboard.c has an integer overflow if k_ascii is called several times in a row, aka CID-b86dab054059. NOTE: Members in the community argue that the integer overflow does not lead to a security issue in this case. CVE-2020-13822The Elliptic package 6.5.2 for Node.js allows ECDSA signature malleability via variations in encoding, leading '\0' bytes, or integer overflows. This could conceivably have a security-relevant impact if an application relied on a single canonical signature. CVE-2020-13603Integer Overflow in memory allocating functions. Zephyr versions >= 1.14.2, >= 2.4.0 contain Integer Overflow or Wraparound (CWE-190). For more information, see https://github.com/zephyrproject-rtos/zephyr/security/advisories/GHSA-94vp-8gc2-rm45 CVE-2020-13579An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists in the PlanMaker document parsing functionality of SoftMaker Office 2021&#8217;s PlanMaker application. A specially crafted document can cause the document parser perform arithmetic that may overflow which can result in an undersized heap allocation. Later when copying data from the file into this allocation, a heap-based buffer overflow will occur which can corrupt memory. These types of memory corruptions can allow for code execution under the context of the application. An attacker can entice the victim to open a document to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2020-13434SQLite through 3.32.0 has an integer overflow in sqlite3_str_vappendf in printf.c. CVE-2020-12887Memory leaks were discovered in the CoAP library in Arm Mbed OS 5.15.3 when using the Arm mbed-coap library 5.1.5. The CoAP parser is responsible for parsing received CoAP packets. The function sn_coap_parser_options_parse() parses the CoAP option number field of all options present in the input packet. Each option number is calculated as a sum of the previous option number and a delta of the current option. The delta and the previous option number are expressed as unsigned 16-bit integers. Due to lack of overflow detection, it is possible to craft a packet that wraps the option number around and results in the same option number being processed again in a single packet. Certain options allocate memory by calling a memory allocation function. In the cases of COAP_OPTION_URI_QUERY, COAP_OPTION_URI_PATH, COAP_OPTION_LOCATION_QUERY, and COAP_OPTION_ETAG, there is no check on whether memory has already been allocated, which in conjunction with the option number integer overflow may lead to multiple assignments of allocated memory to a single pointer. This has been demonstrated to lead to memory leak by buffer orphaning. As a result, the memory is never freed. CVE-2020-12829In QEMU through 5.0.0, an integer overflow was found in the SM501 display driver implementation. This flaw occurs in the COPY_AREA macro while handling MMIO write operations through the sm501_2d_engine_write() callback. A local attacker could abuse this flaw to crash the QEMU process in sm501_2d_operation() in hw/display/sm501.c on the host, resulting in a denial of service. CVE-2020-12826A signal access-control issue was discovered in the Linux kernel before 5.6.5, aka CID-7395ea4e65c2. Because exec_id in include/linux/sched.h is only 32 bits, an integer overflow can interfere with a do_notify_parent protection mechanism. A child process can send an arbitrary signal to a parent process in a different security domain. Exploitation limitations include the amount of elapsed time before an integer overflow occurs, and the lack of scenarios where signals to a parent process present a substantial operational threat. CVE-2020-12762json-c through 0.14 has an integer overflow and out-of-bounds write via a large JSON file, as demonstrated by printbuf_memappend. CVE-2020-12761modules/loaders/loader_ico.c in imlib2 1.6.0 has an integer overflow (with resultant invalid memory allocations and out-of-bounds reads) via an icon with many colors in its color map. CVE-2020-12651SecureCRT before 8.7.2 allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code via an Integer Overflow and a Buffer Overflow because a banner can trigger a line number to CSI functions that exceeds INT_MAX. CVE-2020-12368Integer overflow in some Intel(R) Graphics Drivers before version 26.20.100.8141 may allow a privileged user to potentially enable an escalation of privilege via local access. CVE-2020-12367Integer overflow in some Intel(R) Graphics Drivers before version 26.20.100.8476 may allow a privileged user to potentially enable an escalation of privilege via local access. CVE-2020-12362Integer overflow in the firmware for some Intel(R) Graphics Drivers for Windows * before version 26.20.100.7212 and before Linux kernel version 5.5 may allow a privileged user to potentially enable an escalation of privilege via local access. CVE-2020-12135bson before 0.8 incorrectly uses int rather than size_t for many variables, parameters, and return values. In particular, the bson_ensure_space() parameter bytesNeeded could have an integer overflow via properly constructed bson input. CVE-2020-11945An issue was discovered in Squid before 5.0.2. A remote attacker can replay a sniffed Digest Authentication nonce to gain access to resources that are otherwise forbidden. This occurs because the attacker can overflow the nonce reference counter (a short integer). Remote code execution may occur if the pooled token credentials are freed (instead of replayed as valid credentials). CVE-2020-11939In nDPI through 3.2 Stable, the SSH protocol dissector has multiple KEXINIT integer overflows that result in a controlled remote heap overflow in concat_hash_string in ssh.c. Due to the granular nature of the overflow primitive and the ability to control both the contents and layout of the nDPI library's heap memory through remote input, this vulnerability may be abused to achieve full Remote Code Execution against any network inspection stack that is linked against nDPI and uses it to perform network traffic analysis. CVE-2020-11904The Treck TCP/IP stack before 6.0.1.66 has an Integer Overflow during Memory Allocation that causes an Out-of-Bounds Write. CVE-2020-11869An integer overflow was found in QEMU 4.0.1 through 4.2.0 in the way it implemented ATI VGA emulation. This flaw occurs in the ati_2d_blt() routine in hw/display/ati-2d.c while handling MMIO write operations through the ati_mm_write() callback. A malicious guest could abuse this flaw to crash the QEMU process, resulting in a denial of service. CVE-2020-11759An issue was discovered in OpenEXR before 2.4.1. Because of integer overflows in CompositeDeepScanLine::Data::handleDeepFrameBuffer and readSampleCountForLineBlock, an attacker can write to an out-of-bounds pointer. CVE-2020-11523libfreerdp/gdi/region.c in FreeRDP versions > 1.0 through 2.0.0-rc4 has an Integer Overflow. CVE-2020-11306Possible integer overflow in RPMB counter due to lack of length check on user provided data in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking CVE-2020-11305Integer overflow in boot due to improper length check on arguments received in Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Voice & Music CVE-2020-11205u'Possible integer overflow to heap overflow while processing command due to lack of check of packet length received' in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Mobile in QSM8350, SA6145P, SA6150P, SA6155, SA6155P, SA8150P, SA8155P, SA8195P, SDX55M, SM8250, SM8350, SM8350P, SXR2130, SXR2130P CVE-2020-11197Possible integer overflow can occur when stream info update is called when total number of streams detected are zero while parsing TS clip with invalid data in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables CVE-2020-11169u'Buffer over-read while processing received L2CAP packet due to lack of integer overflow check' in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer Electronics Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking in APQ8009, APQ8053, QCA6390, QCN7605, QCN7606, SA415M, SA515M, SA6155P, SA8155P, SC8180X, SDX55 CVE-2020-11137Integer multiplication overflow resulting in lower buffer size allocation than expected causes memory access out of bounds resulting in possible device instability in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon IoT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking CVE-2020-11131u'Possible buffer overflow in WMA message processing due to integer overflow occurs when processing command received from user space' in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music in APQ8009, APQ8053, APQ8096AU, MDM9206, MDM9250, MDM9628, MDM9640, MDM9650, MSM8996AU, QCS405, SDA845, SDX20, SDX20M, WCD9330 CVE-2020-11039In FreeRDP less than or equal to 2.0.0, when using a manipulated server with USB redirection enabled (nearly) arbitrary memory can be read and written due to integer overflows in length checks. This has been patched in 2.1.0. CVE-2020-11038In FreeRDP less than or equal to 2.0.0, an Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow exists. When using /video redirection, a manipulated server can instruct the client to allocate a buffer with a smaller size than requested due to an integer overflow in size calculation. With later messages, the server can manipulate the client to write data out of bound to the previously allocated buffer. This has been patched in 2.1.0. CVE-2020-10938GraphicsMagick before 1.3.35 has an integer overflow and resultant heap-based buffer overflow in HuffmanDecodeImage in magick/compress.c. CVE-2020-10929This vulnerability allows network-adjacent attackers to execute arbitrary code on affected installations of NETGEAR R6700 V1.0.4.84_10.0.58 routers. Authentication is not required to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the handling of string table file uploads. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to execute code in the context of the admin user. Was ZDI-CAN-9768. CVE-2020-10878Perl before 5.30.3 has an integer overflow related to mishandling of a "PL_regkind[OP(n)] == NOTHING" situation. A crafted regular expression could lead to malformed bytecode with a possibility of instruction injection. CVE-2020-10722A vulnerability was found in DPDK versions 18.05 and above. A missing check for an integer overflow in vhost_user_set_log_base() could result in a smaller memory map than requested, possibly allowing memory corruption. CVE-2020-10543Perl before 5.30.3 on 32-bit platforms allows a heap-based buffer overflow because nested regular expression quantifiers have an integer overflow. CVE-2020-10531An issue was discovered in International Components for Unicode (ICU) for C/C++ through 66.1. An integer overflow, leading to a heap-based buffer overflow, exists in the UnicodeString::doAppend() function in common/unistr.cpp. CVE-2020-10067A malicious userspace application can cause a integer overflow and bypass security checks performed by system call handlers. The impact would depend on the underlying system call and can range from denial of service to information leak to memory corruption resulting in code execution within the kernel. See NCC-ZEP-005 This issue affects: zephyrproject-rtos zephyr version 1.14.1 and later versions. version 2.1.0 and later versions. CVE-2020-0545Integer overflow in subsystem for Intel(R) CSME versions before 11.8.77, 11.12.77, 11.22.77 and Intel(R) TXE versions before 3.1.75, 4.0.25 and Intel(R) Server Platform Services (SPS) versions before SPS_E5_04.01.04.380.0, SPS_SoC-X_04.00.04.128.0, SPS_SoC-A_04.00.04.211.0, SPS_E3_04.01.04.109.0, SPS_E3_04.08.04.070.0 may allow a privileged user to potentially enable denial of service via local access. CVE-2020-0495In decode_Huffman of JBig2_SddProc.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-155473137 CVE-2020-0458In SPDIFEncoder::writeBurstBufferBytes and related methods of SPDIFEncoder.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-9 Android-10 Android-8.0 Android-8.1Android ID: A-160265164 CVE-2020-0452In exif_entry_get_value of exif-entry.c, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution if a third party app used this library to process remote image data with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-8.1 Android-9 Android-10 Android-11 Android-8.0Android ID: A-159625731 CVE-2020-0432In skb_to_mamac of networking.c, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android kernelAndroid ID: A-143560807 CVE-2020-0409In create of FileMap.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10 Android-8.0 Android-8.1 Android-9Android ID: A-156997193 CVE-2020-0408In remove of String16.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11 Android-8.0 Android-8.1 Android-9 Android-10Android ID: A-156999009 CVE-2020-0381In Parse_wave of eas_mdls.c, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote information disclosure in a highly constrained process with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-8.0 Android-8.1 Android-9 Android-10 Android-11Android ID: A-150159669 CVE-2020-0369In libavb, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-130231426 CVE-2020-0346In Mediaserver, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege if integer sanitization were not enabled (which it is by default), with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-147002762 CVE-2020-0328In the camera, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-150156131 CVE-2020-0309In the Bluetooth server, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with System privileges and a Firmware compromise needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-147227320 CVE-2020-0264In libstagefright, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-116718596 CVE-2020-0240In NewFixedDoubleArray of factory.cc, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-150706594 CVE-2020-0216In phNciNfc_RecvMfResp of phNxpExtns_MifareStd.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-126204073 CVE-2020-0198In exif_data_load_data_content of exif-data.c, there is a possible UBSAN abort due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote denial of service with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-146428941 CVE-2020-0194In ihevcd_parse_slice_header of ihevcd_parse_slice_header.c, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-143826590 CVE-2020-0181In exif_data_load_data_thumbnail of exif-data.c, there is a possible denial of service due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote denial of service with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-145075076 CVE-2020-0167In load of ResourceTypes.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-129475100 CVE-2020-0139In NDEF_MsgValidate of ndef_utils.c, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure if a malformed NFC tag is provided by the firmware. System execution privileges are needed and user interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-145520471 CVE-2020-0136In multiple locations of Parcel.cpp, there is a possible out-of-bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege in the system server with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-120078455 CVE-2020-0128In addPacket of AMPEG4ElementaryAssembler, there is an out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote information disclosure with no additional execution privileges required. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-123940919 CVE-2020-0117In aes_cmac of aes_cmac.cc, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution in the bluetooth server with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-8.1 Android-9 Android-10 Android-8.0Android ID: A-151155194 CVE-2020-0086In readCString of Parcel.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to arbitrary code execution if IntSan were not enabled, which it is by default. No additional execution privileges are required. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Product: Android Versions: Android-10 Android ID: A-131859347 CVE-2020-0068In crus_afe_get_param of msm-cirrus-playback.c, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: Android. Versions: Android kernel. Android ID: A-139354541 CVE-2019-9959The JPXStream::init function in Poppler 0.78.0 and earlier doesn't check for negative values of stream length, leading to an Integer Overflow, thereby making it possible to allocate a large memory chunk on the heap, with a size controlled by an attacker, as demonstrated by pdftocairo. CVE-2019-9930Various Lexmark products have an Integer Overflow. CVE-2019-9865When RPC is enabled in Wind River VxWorks 6.9 prior to 6.9.1, a specially crafted RPC request can trigger an integer overflow leading to an out-of-bounds memory copy. It may allow remote attackers to cause a denial of service (crash) or possibly execute arbitrary code. CVE-2019-9755An integer underflow issue exists in ntfs-3g 2017.3.23. A local attacker could potentially exploit this by running /bin/ntfs-3g with specially crafted arguments from a specially crafted directory to cause a heap buffer overflow, resulting in a crash or the ability to execute arbitrary code. In installations where /bin/ntfs-3g is a setuid-root binary, this could lead to a local escalation of privileges. CVE-2019-9421In libandroidfw, there is a possible OOB read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-111215250 CVE-2019-9420In libhevc, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote denial of service with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-111272481 CVE-2019-9405In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112890225 CVE-2019-9357In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112662995 CVE-2019-9311In Bluetooth, there is a possible crash due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote denial of service on incoming calls with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-79431031 CVE-2019-9310In libFDK, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112891546 CVE-2019-9308In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661742 CVE-2019-9307In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661893 CVE-2019-9306In libMpegTPDec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661348 CVE-2019-9305In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661835 CVE-2019-9304In libMpegTPDec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112662270 CVE-2019-9303In libFDK, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661057 CVE-2019-9302In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661356 CVE-2019-9301In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112663384 CVE-2019-9300In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661610 CVE-2019-9299In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112663886 CVE-2019-9298In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112892194 CVE-2019-9297In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112890242 CVE-2019-9278In libexif, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote escalation of privilege in the media content provider with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112537774 CVE-2019-9262In MPEG4Extractor, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution in the media extractor with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-111792351 CVE-2019-9257In Bluetooth, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-113572342 CVE-2019-9256In libmediaextractor there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-111921829 CVE-2019-9210In AdvanceCOMP 2.1, png_compress in pngex.cc in advpng has an integer overflow upon encountering an invalid PNG size, which results in an attempted memcpy to write into a buffer that is too small. (There is also a heap-based buffer over-read.) CVE-2019-9183An issue was discovered in Contiki-NG through 4.3 and Contiki through 3.0. A buffer overflow is present due to an integer underflow during 6LoWPAN fragment processing in the face of truncated fragments in os/net/ipv6/sicslowpan.c. This results in accesses of unmapped memory, crashing the application. An attacker can cause a denial-of-service via a crafted 6LoWPAN frame. CVE-2019-9139DaviewIndy 8.98.7 and earlier versions have a Integer overflow vulnerability, triggered when the user opens a malformed PDF file that is mishandled by Daview.exe. Attackers could exploit this and arbitrary code execution. CVE-2019-9138DaviewIndy 8.98.7 and earlier versions have a Integer overflow vulnerability, triggered when the user opens a malformed PhotoShop file that is mishandled by Daview.exe. Attackers could exploit this and arbitrary code execution. CVE-2019-9137DaviewIndy 8.98.7 and earlier versions have a Integer overflow vulnerability, triggered when the user opens a malformed Image file that is mishandled by Daview.exe. Attackers could exploit this and arbitrary code execution. CVE-2019-9112The msm gpu driver for custom Linux kernels on the Xiaomi perseus-p-oss MIX 3 device through 2018-11-26 has an integer overflow and OOPS because of missing checks of the count argument in _sde_debugfs_conn_cmd_tx_write in drivers/gpu/drm/msm/sde/sde_connector.c. This is exploitable for a device crash via a syscall by a crafted application on a rooted device. CVE-2019-9111The msm gpu driver for custom Linux kernels on the Xiaomi perseus-p-oss MIX 3 device through 2018-11-26 has an integer overflow and OOPS because of missing checks of the count argument in sde_evtlog_filter_write in drivers/gpu/drm/msm/sde_dbg.c. This is exploitable for a device crash via a syscall by a crafted application on a rooted device. CVE-2019-9098An issue was discovered on Moxa MGate MB3170 and MB3270 devices before 4.1, MB3280 and MB3480 devices before 3.1, MB3660 devices before 2.3, and MB3180 devices before 2.1. An Integer overflow in the built-in web server allows remote attackers to initiate DoS. CVE-2019-8355An issue was discovered in SoX 14.4.2. In xmalloc.h, there is an integer overflow on the result of multiplication fed into the lsx_valloc macro that wraps malloc. When the buffer is allocated, it is smaller than expected, leading to a heap-based buffer overflow in channels_start in remix.c. CVE-2019-8354An issue was discovered in SoX 14.4.2. lsx_make_lpf in effect_i_dsp.c has an integer overflow on the result of multiplication fed into malloc. When the buffer is allocated, it is smaller than expected, leading to a heap-based buffer overflow. CVE-2019-8101Adobe Acrobat and Reader versions 2019.012.20035 and earlier, 2019.012.20035 and earlier, 2017.011.30142 and earlier, 2017.011.30143 and earlier, 2015.006.30497 and earlier, and 2015.006.30498 and earlier have an integer overflow vulnerability. Successful exploitation could lead to information disclosure. CVE-2019-8099Adobe Acrobat and Reader versions 2019.012.20035 and earlier, 2019.012.20035 and earlier, 2017.011.30142 and earlier, 2017.011.30143 and earlier, 2015.006.30497 and earlier, and 2015.006.30498 and earlier have an integer overflow vulnerability. Successful exploitation could lead to information disclosure. CVE-2019-7733In Live555 0.95, there is a buffer overflow via a large integer in a Content-Length HTTP header because handleRequestBytes has an unrestricted memmove. CVE-2019-7030Adobe Acrobat and Reader versions 2019.010.20069 and earlier, 2019.010.20069 and earlier, 2017.011.30113 and earlier version, and 2015.006.30464 and earlier have an integer overflow vulnerability. Successful exploitation could lead to information disclosure. CVE-2019-6983An issue was discovered in Foxit 3D Plugin Beta before 9.4.0.16807 for Foxit Reader and PhantomPDF. The application could encounter an Integer Overflow and crash during the handling of certain PDF files that embed specifically crafted 3D content, because of a free of valid memory. CVE-2019-6753This vulnerability allows remote attackers to disclose sensitive information on vulnerable installations of Foxit Reader 9.3.0.10826. User interaction is required to exploit this vulnerability in that the target must visit a malicious page or open a malicious file. The specific flaw exists within the handling of the Stuff method. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before writing to memory. An attacker can leverage this in conjunction with other vulnerabilities to execute code in the context of the current process. Was ZDI-CAN-7561. CVE-2019-6250A pointer overflow, with code execution, was discovered in ZeroMQ libzmq (aka 0MQ) 4.2.x and 4.3.x before 4.3.1. A v2_decoder.cpp zmq::v2_decoder_t::size_ready integer overflow allows an authenticated attacker to overwrite an arbitrary amount of bytes beyond the bounds of a buffer, which can be leveraged to run arbitrary code on the target system. The memory layout allows the attacker to inject OS commands into a data structure located immediately after the problematic buffer (i.e., it is not necessary to use a typical buffer-overflow exploitation technique that changes the flow of control). CVE-2019-6114An issue was discovered in Corel PaintShop Pro 2019 21.0.0.119. An integer overflow in the jp2 parsing library allows an attacker to overwrite memory and to execute arbitrary code. CVE-2019-6010Integer overflow vulnerability in LINE(Android) from 4.4.0 to the version before 9.15.1 allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (DoS) condition or execute arbitrary code via a specially crafted image. CVE-2019-6007Integer overflow vulnerability in apng-drawable 1.0.0 to 1.6.0 allows an attacker to cause a denial of service (DoS) condition or execute arbitrary code via unspecified vectors. CVE-2019-5855Integer overflow in PDFium in Google Chrome prior to 76.0.3809.87 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted PDF file. CVE-2019-5854Integer overflow in PDFium in Google Chrome prior to 76.0.3809.87 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted PDF file. CVE-2019-5829Integer overflow in download manager in Google Chrome prior to 75.0.3770.80 allowed a remote attacker to potentially perform out of bounds memory access via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2019-5827Integer overflow in SQLite via WebSQL in Google Chrome prior to 74.0.3729.131 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2019-5821Integer overflow in PDFium in Google Chrome prior to 74.0.3729.108 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted PDF file. CVE-2019-5820Integer overflow in PDFium in Google Chrome prior to 74.0.3729.108 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted PDF file. CVE-2019-5806Integer overflow in ANGLE in Google Chrome on Windows prior to 74.0.3729.108 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2019-5795Integer overflow in PDFium in Google Chrome prior to 73.0.3683.75 allowed a remote attacker to potentially perform out of bounds memory access via a crafted PDF file. CVE-2019-5792Integer overflow in PDFium in Google Chrome prior to 73.0.3683.75 allowed a remote attacker to potentially perform out of bounds memory access via a crafted PDF file. CVE-2019-5790An integer overflow leading to an incorrect capacity of a buffer in JavaScript in Google Chrome prior to 73.0.3683.75 allowed a remote attacker to execute arbitrary code inside a sandbox via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2019-5789An integer overflow that leads to a use-after-free in WebMIDI in Google Chrome on Windows prior to 73.0.3683.75 allowed a remote attacker who had compromised the renderer process to execute arbitrary code via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2019-5788An integer overflow that leads to a use-after-free in Blink Storage in Google Chrome on Linux prior to 73.0.3683.75 allowed a remote attacker who had compromised the renderer process to execute arbitrary code via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2019-5435An integer overflow in curl's URL API results in a buffer overflow in libcurl 7.62.0 to and including 7.64.1. CVE-2019-5288P30 smart phones with versions earlier than ELLE-AL00B 9.1.0.193(C00E190R2P1) have an integer overflow vulnerability due to insufficient check on specific parameters. An attacker tricks the user into installing a malicious application, obtains the root permission and constructs specific parameters to the camera program to exploit this vulnerability. Successful exploit could cause the program to break down or allow for arbitrary code execution. CVE-2019-5287P30 smart phones with versions earlier than ELLE-AL00B 9.1.0.193(C00E190R2P1) have an integer overflow vulnerability due to insufficient check on specific parameters. An attacker tricks the user into installing a malicious application, obtains the root permission and constructs specific parameters to the camera program to exploit this vulnerability. Successful exploit could cause the program to break down or allow for arbitrary code execution. CVE-2019-5100An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists in the BMP header parsing functionality of LEADTOOLS 20. A specially crafted BMP image file can cause an integer overflow, potentially resulting in code execution. An attacker can specially craft a BMP image to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5093An exploitable code execution vulnerability exists in the DICOM network response functionality of LEADTOOLS libltdic.so version 20.0.2019.3.15. A specially crafted packet can cause an integer overflow, resulting in heap corruption. An attacker can send a packet to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5087An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists in the flattenIncrementally function in the xcf2png and xcf2pnm binaries of xcftools 1.0.7. An integer overflow can occur while calculating the row's allocation size, that could be exploited to corrupt memory and eventually execute arbitrary code. In order to trigger this vulnerability, a victim would need to open a specially crafted XCF file. CVE-2019-5086An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists in the flattenIncrementally function in the xcf2png and xcf2pnm binaries of xcftools, version 1.0.7. An integer overflow can occur while walking through tiles that could be exploited to corrupt memory and execute arbitrary code. In order to trigger this vulnerability, a victim would need to open a specially crafted XCF file. CVE-2019-5085An exploitable code execution vulnerability exists in the DICOM packet-parsing functionality of LEADTOOLS libltdic.so, version 20.0.2019.3.15. A specially crafted packet can cause an integer overflow, resulting in heap corruption. An attacker can send a packet to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5060An exploitable code execution vulnerability exists in the XPM image rendering function of SDL2_image 2.0.4. A specially crafted XPM image can cause an integer overflow in the colorhash function, allocating too small of a buffer. This buffer can then be written out of bounds, resulting in a heap overflow, ultimately ending in code execution. An attacker can display a specially crafted image to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5059An exploitable code execution vulnerability exists in the XPM image rendering functionality of SDL2_image 2.0.4. A specially crafted XPM image can cause an integer overflow, allocating too small of a buffer. This buffer can then be written out of bounds resulting in a heap overflow, ultimately ending in code execution. An attacker can display a specially crafted image to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5052An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists when loading a PCX file in SDL2_image 2.0.4. A specially crafted file can cause an integer overflow, resulting in too little memory being allocated, which can lead to a buffer overflow and potential code execution. An attacker can provide a specially crafted image file to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5040An exploitable information disclosure vulnerability exists in the Weave MessageLayer parsing of Openweave-core version 4.0.2 and Nest Cam IQ Indoor version 4620002. A specially crafted weave packet can cause an integer overflow to occur, resulting in PacketBuffer data reuse. An attacker can send a packet to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5037An exploitable denial-of-service vulnerability exists in the Weave certificate loading functionality of Nest Cam IQ Indoor camera, version 4620002. A specially crafted weave packet can cause an integer overflow and an out-of-bounds read on unmapped memory to occur, resulting in a denial of service. An attacker can send a specially crafted packet to trigger. CVE-2019-3946Fuji Electric V-Server before 6.0.33.0 is vulnerable to denial of service via a crafted UDP message sent to port 8005. An unauthenticated, remote attacker can crash vserver.exe due to an integer overflow in the UDP message handling logic. CVE-2019-3857An integer overflow flaw which could lead to an out of bounds write was discovered in libssh2 before 1.8.1 in the way SSH_MSG_CHANNEL_REQUEST packets with an exit signal are parsed. A remote attacker who compromises a SSH server may be able to execute code on the client system when a user connects to the server. CVE-2019-3856An integer overflow flaw, which could lead to an out of bounds write, was discovered in libssh2 before 1.8.1 in the way keyboard prompt requests are parsed. A remote attacker who compromises a SSH server may be able to execute code on the client system when a user connects to the server. CVE-2019-3855An integer overflow flaw which could lead to an out of bounds write was discovered in libssh2 before 1.8.1 in the way packets are read from the server. A remote attacker who compromises a SSH server may be able to execute code on the client system when a user connects to the server. CVE-2019-25039** DISPUTED ** Unbound before 1.9.5 allows an integer overflow in a size calculation in respip/respip.c. NOTE: The vendor disputes that this is a vulnerability. Although the code may be vulnerable, a running Unbound installation cannot be remotely or locally exploited. CVE-2019-25038** DISPUTED ** Unbound before 1.9.5 allows an integer overflow in a size calculation in dnscrypt/dnscrypt.c. NOTE: The vendor disputes that this is a vulnerability. Although the code may be vulnerable, a running Unbound installation cannot be remotely or locally exploited. CVE-2019-25034** DISPUTED ** Unbound before 1.9.5 allows an integer overflow in sldns_str2wire_dname_buf_origin, leading to an out-of-bounds write. NOTE: The vendor disputes that this is a vulnerability. Although the code may be vulnerable, a running Unbound installation cannot be remotely or locally exploited. CVE-2019-25033** DISPUTED ** Unbound before 1.9.5 allows an integer overflow in the regional allocator via the ALIGN_UP macro. NOTE: The vendor disputes that this is a vulnerability. Although the code may be vulnerable, a running Unbound installation cannot be remotely or locally exploited. CVE-2019-25032** DISPUTED ** Unbound before 1.9.5 allows an integer overflow in the regional allocator via regional_alloc. NOTE: The vendor disputes that this is a vulnerability. Although the code may be vulnerable, a running Unbound installation cannot be remotely or locally exploited. CVE-2019-2331Possible Integer overflow because of subtracting two integers without checking if the result would overflow or not in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon IoT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables in MDM9150, MDM9206, MDM9607, MDM9615, MDM9640, MDM9650, MSM8909W, MSM8996AU, QCS405, QCS605, Qualcomm 215, SD 210/SD 212/SD 205, SD 425, SD 427, SD 430, SD 435, SD 439 / SD 429, SD 450, SD 600, SD 615/16/SD 415, SD 625, SD 632, SD 636, SD 665, SD 675, SD 712 / SD 710 / SD 670, SD 730, SD 820, SD 820A, SD 835, SD 845 / SD 850, SD 855, SDA660, SDM439, SDM630, SDM660, SDX20, SDX24 CVE-2019-2309While storing calibrated data from firmware in cache, An integer overflow may occur since data length received may exceed real data length. in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Consumer Electronics Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music in MDM9150, MDM9206, MDM9607, MDM9640, MDM9650, MSM8996AU, QCA6174A, QCA6574AU, QCA9377, QCA9379, SD 210/SD 212/SD 205, SD 425, SD 625, SD 636, SD 712 / SD 710 / SD 670, SD 820A, SD 845 / SD 850, SDM660, SDX20 CVE-2019-2304Integer overflow to buffer overflow due to lack of validation of event arguments received from firmware. in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Consumer Electronics Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking in IPQ4019, IPQ8064, IPQ8074, MDM9607, MSM8917, MSM8920, MSM8937, MSM8940, QCN7605, QCS405, QCS605, SDA845, SDM660, SDM845, SDX24, SDX55, SM6150, SM7150, SM8150, SXR1130 CVE-2019-2302
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

How It

How do games consoles work? Whats inside a haul truck?

ENTERTAINMENT

DOMESTIC

COMPUTING

GADGETS

INVENTIONS

Does a roller coaster defy gravity?

How does a pistol work? Can an eco bulb save energy?

What are motion sensors?

TM

BOOK OF

Whats inside a DSLR?

TECHNOLOGY
The science of bladeless technology How do lighthouses save lives? Whats behind a touch screen?

Everything you need to know about the worlds best tech

8,500
Whats in a laser beam?

INSIDE:

AMAZING FACTS

TM

BOOK OF

TECHNOLOGY
Everything you need to know about the worlds best tech

TM

Technology
Imagine Publishing Ltd Richmond House 33 Richmond Hill Bournemouth Dorset BH2 6EZ % +44 (0) 1202 586200 Website: www.imagine-publishing.co.uk

Amazing
Book of
Editor in Chief Dave Harfield Production Editor Helen Laidlaw Design Danielle Dixon, Duncan Crooke

Photo Studio Studio equipment courtesy of Lastolite (www.lastolite.co.uk) Printed by William Gibbons, 26 Planetary Road, Willenhall, West Midlands, WV13 3XT Distributed in the UK & Eire by Imagine Publishing Ltd, www.imagineshop.co.uk. Tel 01202 586200 Distributed in Australia by Gordon & Gotch, Equinox Centre, 18 Rodborough Road, Frenchs Forest, NSW 2086. Tel + 61 2 9972 8800 Distributed in the Rest of the World by Marketforce, Blue Fin Building, 110 Southwark Street, London, SE1 0SU Disclaimer The publisher cannot accept responsibility for any unsolicited material lost or damaged in the post. All text and layout is the copyright of Imagine Publishing Ltd. Nothing in this magazine may be reproduced in whole or part without the written permission of the publisher. All copyrights are recognised and used specifically for the purpose of criticism and review. Although the magazine has endeavoured to ensure all information is correct at time of print, prices and availability may change. This bookazine is fully independent and not affiliated in any way with the companies mentioned herein. HIW Book of Amazing Technology 2011 Imagine Publishing Ltd ISBN 978-1-908222 0 84

nology Works Book Of Amazing Tech The How It


74 PlayStation 3 Internet television

Engineering
10 Massive mining machines explained
Extraction on a grand scale

76

Domestic
82 Dyson Airblade
Discover the tech that means you can dry your hands in seconds

16 18 18 19

MRI scanner Elevators/lifts Circular saws Pile drivers

84 Hairdryers 84 Yale locks 85 Power drills 86 Pressure cookers 86 Water lters 86 Can openers 87 Pianos 88 Flexfoot Cheetah 89 Powercube transformers 89 Touch-sensitive lamps 90 Kettles 90 Eco-friendly bulbs
How do they differ from normal bulbs?

20 Roller coasters 24 Offshore oil rigs 26 Rail guns 27 28 32 Cranes Renewable energy
Alternatives to fossil fuels

Coal mining

34 Bullet proof glass 34 Milking machines 35 36 38 38 39 Side winder missiles Hydro electric dams Bowling alleys Manufacturing optical bre Lighthouses

91 92

Fire extinguishers Dyson Air Multiplier

94 Cigarette lighters 94 Weighing scales 95 Refrigerators 96 Burglar alarms 96 Electric toothbrushes 97 Clock mechanisms 98 Online groceries 99 Water coolers 99 Batteries 100 Vacuum asks
How to keep hot things hot

40 Nuclear power 44 Semiautomatic pistols 46 Megastructures

Entertainment
52 Motion-control gaming
How motion sensors are changing the way we play games

58 Apple TV 60 OLEDs 61 Pinball machines 62 Nintendo DS 64 Slot machines 65 Electric guitars 66 Xbox 360 68 Audio reproduction 72 72 73 006 Auto tuning software
Cant sing. No problem!

103 Water sprinklers 192 weaponry Wild West


History

Space

100 Cycle helmets 101 Sky player 102 Aerosol sprays 102 Double glazing 103 Sprinklers 103 Ball cocks 104 Pencils 104 Central heating 105 Air conditioning 105 Beer widgets

IMAX cinemas Green screen

132 How the worlds fastest


computers work

164 Skype 164 Optical zooms 165 Remote control helicopters 166 Camera lenses 168 Motorola smartphones 170 Noise-cancelling headphones
How to listen to music in peace

170 Infrared watches 171 Phone chargers 171 Nasa detectors Metal 172 Apple smartphones

Inventions
178 Mark I tanks
A common sight on the WWII battlefield

180 Guillotines 180 Typewriters 181 Wright Flyer 181 V2 Rocket 182 Blast furnaces 182 Ancient earthquake detectors 183 First razors 184 Model T Ford 105 Staplers 106 Toasters 106 Smoke alarms 107 Barcodes 107 Washing machines 107 Pet ID tags 108 Sewage treatments 132 Superfast computers 136 PayPal 137 Web hosting 138 Social networks
The birth of mass production cars?

186 First television 186 First telephone 187 First computer 188 Anderson shelters 188 Floppy disks 189 Windmills 190 First mechanical calculator 190 Early ploughs 190 Self-heating food cans 191 1804 steam locomotive
The power of steam in practice

Gadgets
144 Tablet computers
What goes on beneath the touch screen?

Computing
112 Spotify
Music download systems explained

148 Radar 148 Digital sound 148 Geiger counters 149 DVD burning 149 Night vision 150 eBook readers 152 Blu-ray
How does a Blu-ray disc work?

114 Superfast broadband 118 QR codes 118 Electronic ink 119 Firewalls 119 IBM Roadrunner 120 MacBook Pros 122 Wi-Fi 122 USB drives 123 App creation 124 Mobile internet
The next-generation of mobile networks explained and explored

192 Weapons of the wild west 194 Gramophones 194 Dynamo generators 195 Tesla coil 196 Bicycles 197 The wheel 198 Concorde 200 Astrolabes
Ancient astronomy

152 Holograms 153 DSLR cameras 154 Electronic hearing aids 154 Bluetooth 155 Connected GPS 156 BlackBerry smartphones 158 Clockwork radios 158 Microphones 159 Electric cigarettes 159 Polygraph tests 160 3D digital cameras
Achieving real 3D on your camera

200 Ancient wells 201 Looms 201 Cannons 202 Sea mines 202 Mechanical music boxes 203 Atari 26 204 Man of War 007

128 Data centres 130 Fibre optic internet 130 Phishing 131 Facial recognition 131 USB 3.0

ERIng gInE En
world changed the thats credible tech In

How water can generate power

36

10

Learn how these behemoths work

Massive mining machines explained

coasters explained

20 Roller

16

MRI scanner

he medical wonders that T can get inside your head

18

Elevators/lifts

hat goes up must come W down, and we see how!

18

Circular saws

Behind the blade that can cut down a tree

26

Rail guns
xplaining how these E machines can be used

19

Pile drivers

riving down into the D ground with ease

27

Cranes
Reaching heights man cant quite get to

34

The incredible material that can save a persons life

Bullet proof glass

20

Roller coasters
he science behind these T exhilarating rides

24
008

he life and T technology behind these essential rigs

Offshore oil rigs

28
32

Renewable energy

34 35 36

Milking machines
he tech that gets it from cow to T kitchen table

iscover the ways D were trying to save the planet

Side winder missiles


he deadly missiles that can T track and trace

Coal mining
oing underground in G search of coal

Hydroelectric dams
earn how to generate L electricity using water

ENGINEERING

39about Learn
lighthouses

38 Go behind a bowling alley

40 A look at

nuclear power

Inside an MRI scanner

16

38
38 39

Bowling alleys

See how the pins fall down and get back up again

40
44 46

Nuclear power

The controversial technology explained

Manufacturing optical bre


This minute tech that has changed the world

Semiautomatic pistols
Learn how these guns shoot a bullet

Lighthouses
Showing you your way when youre out at sea

Megastructures
Explaining giant construction

24 Life on an oil rig


009

ENGINEERING

MASSIVE mining machines

Massive mining machines

Bucyrus International Inc.

The world is still primarily reliant on fossil fuels for energy generation. With billions of people across the globe, this means the demands that are placed on the mining industry are huge. Extracting these fossil fuels as efciently as humanly possible is of utmost importance, and for best efciency and ability to meet this demand, you need scale. And the ve machines featured across the next six pages denitely t the bill scale. This is hugescale engineering that you can barely get your head

around. Its difcult to get your head around just how vast these massive tools are not to mention the sheer amount of fossil fuels they extract each and every day, around the clock. They may cost tens of millions of pounds, and last for decades, but when it comes down to it they are still controlled by a human being. The principles they use will be familiar to those who have driven past roadworks or looked closely at a building site. Its just that they are enlarged to dimensions to take your breath away. Read on to nd out how they work.

010

DID YOU KNOW? The RH400 is the worlds largest hydraulic excavator

The mining industry is all about scale. And when we say these machines are big, we mean BIG!

BIGGEST DRAGLINE
Bucyrus 8750
This massive dragline can clear football pitch-sized spaces right before your eyes
The Bucyrus Dragline 8750 will run 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and excavate up to 116m3 per scoop thats the equivalent of 58,000 two-litre water bottles. It will do this for an average of 40 years, which is why its used in surface mining operations worldwide. There are 45 different specications of dragline, each with its very own on-staff application engineer. The 8750 series has multiple bucket capacities, and a boom length of up to 132.5m. It can reach depths of up to 79.8m. It is among the largest of all mobile equipment in the world; but when we say mobile, we do not mean fast! Moving a dragline is not the work of a moment, particularly the Bucyrus. It has a rated suspended load of up to 344,736kg and its approximate working weight is more than 7.5 tons. It is powered by Siemens AC drives throughout. The 8750 series comes in various guises, with the rangetopper being the 8750D3. This uses gearless AC direct drive for hoist and drag the advantages here are in efciency. It allows fast bucket lls, and the lack of hoist and drag gearing also reduces maintenance. Power is provided to the AC drives by utility lines the enormous power consumption means that connection directly to the electrical grid is often the most efcient solution.

Just in case you have trouble getting your head around just how massive this machine is

How big?!
On the grid
Most draglines are connected direct to the electrical grid because of the sheer hunger they have for power.

AC ace

The AC drives in the Bucyrus are 86 per cent efficient, compared to 74 per cent efficiency for DC drives.

Cutting-edge drive

The cutting-edge D3 direct drive technology is even more efficient, with an 89 per cent efficiency stat.

How a dragline excavator works


1. Hoist the bucket
A bucket is suspended on a hoist coupler from the draglines boom arm by strong hoist wires. The hoist rope drops down from the top point of the boom arm; connected to it is the dragline bucket.

2. Boom arm

The Statistics
Bucyrus 8750
Built by: Bucyrus Overall length: 140m Width: 39m Overall height: 80m

3. Drag the bucket

The bucket is dragged across the surface by a drag rope, collecting material.

The dragline can swing out to one side, and bucket contents dumped by releasing the wire rope.

4. Swing out and dump

011

ENGINEERING
Massive mining machines

The T282C has up to 20 cylinders and a 95.4-litre capacity. Maximum power is 4,023bhp

BIGGEST HAUL TRUCK


Liebherr T282C
On-board troubleshooter
Support is available on various levels and is based around electronic communications through an online troubleshooting system.

This supertruck is the biggest of its kind in the world a monster mining truck no mine can defeat
When empty, the weight distribution is 54 per cent rear-biased. This changes to 67 per cent rear bias when fully laden.

Shifting weight distribution

The Statistics
Liebherr T282C
Built by: Liebherr Length: 15.7m Width: 8.7m Height: 8.3m Weight: 266 tons Total vehicle weight: 666 tons (fully loaded) Payload: 400 tons

Focus on service
Two service doors and better airflow to the engine and electronics mean best possible reliability and reduced servicing needs.

Brake stop unless operator says start

Electronic brakes include an antirollback feature this means the ultratruck cannot move backwards on an incline unless instructed.

The word supertruck is not enough to describe the ultratruck behemoth that is the Liebherr T282C, which is used in mining operations worldwide. Its sheer scale can be judged by its empty weight of 266 tons or more than 150 Ford Focus hatchbacks piled together. Not only that, but its also capable of carrying a 400 ton payload on top of this, giving it a weight of over 600 tons when full! Powering it is a diesel engine that comes in either fuel-optimised or emissions-optimised setup. As with passenger cars, achieving lowest-possible exhaust emissions carries a fuel usage penalty. It has up to 20 cylinders and a 95.4-litre capacity; maximum power is 4,023bhp! The engine alone weighs 12 tons. It delivers energy to an alternator, which powers a liquid-cooled control box this converts it into three-phase AC current. It is moved by an AC electronic drive system called IGBT insulated gate bipolar transistor. This uses in-wheel induction motors to move the monster truck. They allow the diesel to run independently of travel speed, therefore generating drive in the most efcient way possible. This gives better fuel economy.

The IGBT drive system can also slow the big truck down instead of using the back-up disc brakes. This regenerates electrical energy, which is used to power the trucks auxiliary systems it is hybrid-style ecological awareness! Road construction dumper truck drivers will nd the cabin of this beast fairly familiar: it has a traditional steering wheel and pedals, and the left-hand-drive set-up includes a 30cm colour touch screen for diagnostics. Its top speed is 64km/h (40mph) and the clever drive system even aids handling. In corners, drive to the outside rear wheels is increased and eased off on the inside wheels, helping it turn in better. The T282C is constructed using a vertical integration process. On the cast truck frame sits the massive dump body, superstructure and drivetrain. Liebherr has optimised it using computer aided design, so reinforcements are only added in high stress areas. This has cut weight and also improved the maximum payload. The dump system is controlled using a joystick and completes a lift cycle in under 50 seconds. Fully lifted, the dump body stands nearly 15m high.

Multi-purpose digger

The LeTourneau can be used to load rock, coal and iron ore. It can lift up to 72,574kg.

LeTourneau

On the fast cycle

The entire load cycle takes just 25 seconds 16 seconds for hoist, three seconds for dump and a six-second float.

012

5 TOP FACTS TYPES OF


MINING

Open-cast mining
In open-cast mining the minerals that lie on the surface of the earth or very near the surface are scooped and scratched out from the surface by machines like these.

Open-pit mining
Open-pit mining consists of recovery of materials from an open pit in the ground, quarrying or gathering building materials from an open-pit mine.

Strip mining
Similar in many ways to openpit mining, this consists of stripping surface layers off to reveal the ore and seams that lie underneath.

Mountaintop removal
Commonly associated with coal mining, this involves taking the top of a mountain off to reach deposits at depth.

Sub-surface mining
Digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits. Ore for processing, and waste rock for disposal are brought to the surface through the tunnels.

DID YOU KNOW? The T282C has a payload of up to 400 tons


Its murder to park but you could t 400 tons of groceries in it

Diesel generates electricity

A large diesel engine drives a generator, producing the electrical energy to drive the in-wheel motors. It is cooled by massive radiators.

Hydraulic rams lift the haul dump deck that has been previously loaded by another ultra-machine.

Hydraulic ram lifter

Anatomy of a haul truck Get under


Alex Pang

the hood of a Terex Titan

Liebherr

Four in-wheel motors convert AC power into forward drive, moving the haul truck at up to 64km/h.

AC into forward drive

Liebherr

The Statistics
LeTourneau L-2350
Built by: LeTourneau Length: 20.9m Width: 7.6m Height: 6.4m cabin height, bucket max lift 13.9m

The wheel motors also slow the haul truck, and in doing so, also regenerates electrical energy.

Multi-purpose wheel motors

BIGGEST WHEEL LOADER L-2350 LeTourneau


To clear large spaces fast, you need a LeTourneau L-2350. Its the worlds biggest wheel loader, and is more than 20m long. The wheelbase alone is the length of two large executive cars, and the bucket is so big it is nearly a metre wider than the wheel loader truck itself. It is driven by a choice of several diesel engines, depending on the type of material to be excavated it is highly exible but used mainly in coal mining. The largest engine is 45 litres and puts out 2,300hp. Maximum speed is 17km/h (10.5mph), both forwards and backwards; an AC-DC traction drive uses four traction motors with innitely variable speed. Braking is electronic and the

These worker ants are often seen on building sites but its not often you see one on this scale!
L-2350 is steered by a joystick. Excavation operations use an electrohydraulic hoist and bucket; the best-match truck capacity is 400 tons and larger! As it operates in mines, all air is ltered and supplied to the engine, drive system cooling and also a pressurised cabin. Operators have a colour-coded warning light system that alerts them to engine, hydraulic, electrical and electronic problems. The operating payload is vast, up to 72,574kg in standard form, and only slightly reduced at 68,039kg in high-light form. As standard, it has a reach of 3.18m, with the high-lift increasing this to 3.49m (and a total height of 13.89m).

Bucket size is varied according to material density: less dense surfaces have larger buckets.

Variety bucket

013

ENGINEERING
Massive mining machines

The RH400 has a bucket capacity of 50m3

BIGGEST HYDRAULIC LOADERS


Terex (now Bucyrus) RH400
Everything about the Bucyrus hydraulic excavator is huge as youd imagine of something that weighs nearly 1,000 tons!
In front of you is the worlds largest hydraulic excavator an $11m machine that stands a full ten metres (33 feet) high and 8.6 metres wide. The record-breaking Bucyrus is used for many mining operations, including coal, copper, iron ore and oil sands; it is commonly found in Canada, but also has an underground coalmining specication. The RH400 weighs an incredible 980 tons and is powered by two turbodiesel engines with a maximum output of 4,500bhp at 1,900rpm. Each is 60.2 litres in capacity and has 16 cylinders; they use two-stage turbocharging, aftercooling and intercooling. The engines power hydraulic pumps, which generate very high pressure oil for driving the track motors and moving the excavator rams. There are eight main pumps and six swing pumps. Forward drive is via axial piston motors on each side; each track is two metres wide and three metres high. The total hydraulic oil volume is 13,000 litres; an electronic Pump Managing System oversees the hydraulics and incorporates ow-on-demand control. Excavators are built of two distinct constructions the undercarriage and the house, where the operator cab and boom reside. They t to the undercarriage using a centre pin, meaning they can rotate 360 degrees. A torsion-resistant 9.5m-long boom and 56m-long stick provides the excavation shovelling duties; the bucket is attached on the end. The RH400 has a bucket capacity of 50m3, and various specications are available, depending on shovelling duties: iron ore, heavy rock, oil sand and standard rock congurations are offered. Up to 3,300kN of digging force can be generated. It achieves considerable bucket load without signicant counterweights at the rear. This means it is relatively compact, which is an important consideration for use in space-restricted areas. The operator also has a comfy cabin with pneumatic seat and ergonomic joystick control system. The windscreen is armour plated and a safety switch is embedded inside the seat: when it senses it is unoccupied, all the hydraulic controls are automatically neutralised.
The maximum speed of the RH400 is 2.2km/h (1.37mph); it can, however, generate a maximum tractive force of 4,140kN

Low speed, high power

The Statistics
Terex RH400
Built by: Bucyrus Length: 10.98m Width: 8.6m Height: 9.99m

Eco engines

The diesel engines pass US EPA emissions laws; they are fed by a 15,100-litre diesel fuel tank.

014

DID YOU KNOW? A rope shovel is used for digging out surfaces such as vertical coal faces
More of a bungalow-load than a shed-load

BIGGEST ROPE SHOVEL


P&H 4100XPC
Even the largest rock faces in the world should fear this huge rope shovel
clear, it swings to one side and can be Rope shovels are the heavy-duty attackers of released into a dumper truck. P&H has cut the mining industry and none eat away seconds from this entire cycle with its ultra the earth faster than the P&H 4100XPC. This shovel. How? Through speeding up the hoist is the supercharged high-performance cycle by extending the shovels speed range. pinnacle of the rope shovel world! This has come at no penalty to capacity or A rope shovel is used for digging out payload, though. The nominal payload is 115 surfaces such as vertical coal faces. They tons, and it can cut up to 16.8m high, consist of a rotating deck where the driver through a radius of 23.9m. This is why the cabin lies, along with the engine and a operator sits a full ten metres off the ground; heavy counterweight. To the front of the the rope shovel itself is 14.7m high, and 15m deck a boom is attached, which carries a long. The wire hoist rope swing arm and a bucket. alone is 73mm thick! The bucket is controlled There are two hoist motors, by a series of ropes. When rated at a peak 3,990hp, three facing a surface to be P&H 4100XPC swing motors, two propel excavated, the wire ropes Built by: P&H motors and a single crowd are dug into the surface Length: 32m motor. The operator controls using a crowd arm, then Width: 14.4m it via an armrest-mounted pulled up through lling it Height: 21m pistol-grip joystick. with material. Once raised

Comes in a range of colours, including this fetching burgundy

The Statistics

Low on service

Bucyrus has fitted a xenon working light. It is ultra-bright for working around the clock. Servicing is minimal and oil change intervals are 1,000 hours.

On-board loo

The operators cabin is so large, it can even have an optional lavatory room! There are also two work counters for appliances.

Bucyrus International Inc. PH Mining Equipment

A big thanks goes to Paul Moore, editor of Mining Magazine, for his help researching this article. www.miningmagazine.com

Monster truck for monster shovel


P&H specifies an optimum truck size payload; this is a monumental 400 tons: even the trucks are monster trucks!

The dipper capacity is 76.5m3, and the maximum suspended load is 215 tons.

Stock the suspender

015

ENGINEERING
Inside an MRI scanner
Planning from the detail

Physicists and engineers use and manipulate the basic laws of physics
An MRI scan on a skull

Using magnets produces highquality images at virtually no risk to the patient.

Best of both worlds

The detail provided by MRI scanners enables doctors of all specialties to plan their treatment. When footballers damage their knees, an MRI scan will tell if the ligaments are ruptured. Knee surgeons can then reconstruct the damage, often via keyhole incisions (arthroscopically). MRI scans are used to characterise a variety of tumours, such as those of the rectum (the lowest part of the colon) and within the brain. MRI gives enough detail to determine the size and stage of the tumour. This helps specialist surgeons plan whether the tumour is resectable, and also how to perform the operation. MRIs key lies in its ability to differentiate soft tissues it can even tell the difference between infected and normal tissues. Infections within bones are best identied using MRI, and then surgeons can plan whether to treat with antibiotics, an operation, or, if the infection is spread too far, an amputation.

Inside an MRI scanner


When doctors need the highest quality images possible they turn to MRI scanners, but how do they work?
Doctors often plan treatments based on imaging. X-rays, ultrasound and CT scans provide useful pictures, but when the highest quality images are needed, they turn to MRI scanners. While CT scanners use x-rays and therefore expose the patient to radiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses powerful magnets and is virtually risk free. MRI scans are obtained for many medical conditions, although since they are expensive and complicated to interpret, they certainly arent as easy as taking a chest x-ray. Examples for which they are used include planning surgery for rectal cancers, assessing bones for infection (osteomyelitis), looking at the bile ducts in detail for trapped gallstones, assessing ligamental damage in the knee joints and assessing the spinal cord for infections, tumours or trapped nerves. Physicists and engineers use and manipulate the basic laws of physics to develop these incredible scanners for doctors to use. MRI scans provide such details because they work at a submolecular level; they work on the protons within hydrogen atoms. By changing the position of these protons using magnetic elds, extremely detailed pictures of the different types of particles are obtained. Since these pictures rely on the tiny movements of these tiny particles, you need to lie very still during the scan.

Slice by slice images


Specially wound coils, known as gradient coils, allow for the detailed depth imaging which creates the slice-by-slice pictures. While the main superconducting magnet creates a very stable magnetic eld, these gradient coils create variable magnetic elds during the scan. These elds mean that the magnetic strength within the patient can be altered in specic areas. Since the protons realign at different rates in different tissue

types, the relationship between the strength of the eld and the frequency of the emitted photons is different for various tissues. Detecting these differences allows for very detailed images. Powerful computers outside the main machine then reconstitute all of this data to produce slice-by-slice imaging. Depending on whats being scanned, 3D reconstructions can then be created, such as for brain tumours.

016

Science Photo Library

5 TOP FACTS MRI

Careful
Due to the powerful magnets, any metal objects left in the room can be pulled towards the magnet and can harm patients. Examples have included oxygen cylinders and chairs.

Pacemakers
Pacemakers were absolute contraindications to MRI scans. However, modern pacemakers and implantable debrillators are being designed to be MRI safe.

The most modern


MRI scans can be combined with PET scans. These PET-MRI scans produce anatomical and functional images, such as assessing for extent of tumour growth and tumour activity.

Now thats cold


The coils of the superconducting magnets are cooled to lower their resistance. Liquid helium cools them to near absolute zero around -270C.

Mobile MRI
Mobile MRI scanners can go to where the patients are. They are based in big articulated lorries and can be stationed outside hospitals to provide extra scanning capacity.

SCANNERS

DID YOU KNOW? Around ten per cent of patients are too claustrophobic for conventional MRI scanners
Radiofrequency transmission

A radiofrequency transmission causes the protons to flip around, and then turning this off causes the protons to re-align. This movement releases energy which is detected by the scanner to create pictures.

The MRI scanner


Its a big, hi-tech machine and there are different varieties all around the world, found in hospitals, medical research centres and even zoos, but they all work on common principles of manipulating the laws of physics
Superconducting magnets
These powerful magnets create very stable magnetic fields, which align protons within the bodys hydrogen atoms. The magnets are cooled to near absolute zero and so are well insulated from the patient.

MRI atoms

Its a matter of reading the alignment

Enhancement

Contrast agents are used in addition to enhance the contrast between tissue types. For looking at joints such as the shoulder or knee, contrast can be injected directly into the joint prior to the scan. For the blood vessels, an intravenous contrast is injected during the scan.

Bang bang!

The gradient coils are switched on and off rapidly and alter the magnetic field in specific tissue areas. As they switch on and off, the coils contract and expand by tiny amounts this produces a loud noise which is heard as a series of loud bangs.

Line up please

Looking for tumours

Since the protons in different tissue types return to their normal state at different rates, they give off different frequencies of energy and so contrast between different types of tissues can be seen. This allows identification of a brain tumour from normal cells.

The tunnel in which the patient lies is very narrow; some patients dont fit. There are small lights and a radio with headphones to keep you comfortable. Once the changes in energy have been detected within the scanner, they are transmitted to powerful computers outside the scanner, which transform the data into useful images.

The tunnel

Hydrogen atoms contain just one proton and emit tiny magnetic fields. When placed in a stronger magnetic field (the one produced by the magnets), these protons line up in the direction of the field.

The computer

Flip and spin

Gradient coils

These coils produce much weaker, variable magnetic fields compared to the superconductors. These gradient fields are specifically targeted to certain tissues, allowing for depth and detailed tissue type differentiation.

The scanner emits a radiofrequency through the patient, which flips the spinning direction of these aligned protons. The frequency is at just the right pitch, producing a resonance energy (hence magnetic resonance).

Philip s Achie va 3.0T

TX imag es

courtes y of Phil ips

The patient lies down on a narrow plastic table outside the machine, which is then advanced slowly into the tunnel.

Lie here

Flip back
Youll need to be an expert to interpret the imagery

S cien ce P hot o Li bra ry

Once the radiofrequency is removed, the protons degrade back to their original positions. As they do so, they release tiny amounts of radiowave energy in the form of photons. It is these changes that build the detailed pictures.

Coronal

The transverse plane is a horizontal plane which divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts.

Transverse

Which direction?

Converting to pictures

The coronal plane divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) halves.

The sagittal plane moves down the midline of the body and divides it into left and right.

Sagittal

Medical teams need to communicate using the same terms so they are clear what they are looking at. The cross-sectional images produced by MRI scanners are extremely complex, but this is why they are so useful. The terms to the left are the imaginary lines that provide cross-sections. The planes can be moved across the body to look at whole organs or areas.

Different magnetic strengths produce different frequencies in the protons, which are also affected by the different type of body tissues. The resultant energy given off by re-aligning the protons is interpreted by a computer to produce detailed images.

017

ENGINEERING
Elevators / Circular saws

Lift/elevator mechanics

The lift was a world-changing invention because it enabled the creation of todays stunning skyscrapers, not to mention saving an incredible amount of time and effort! Imagine a world with just stairs

How circular saws work


Circular saws rely on providing a large torque in the centre of a hole in the blade. As a force is applied to one side of the hole, a torque force is created much like when using a spanner on a nut, although signicantly faster. When cutting through an object such as wood, the circular saw is placed at with the saw pointing down. The wood is clamped in place. By slowly moving the blade through the wood it will produce a clean cut.

Using a torque force, these clever cutting tools make light work of wood
There are several types of circular saw, most spinning at up to 3,500 rotations per minute (rpm) to make a clean cut through an object. Some connect the motor directly to the saw for a one-to-one speed ratio. Others use a combination of large and small cogs to alter the revolution of the saw and ultimately the speed. For example, by attaching a large gear cog to a smaller one on the blade, usually at a ratio of two to one, a motor turning at 1,750 rpm will actually move the blade at 3,500 rpm.

Most modern lifts use a cable system. The lift car runs up and down rails within a shaft, and at the top of the shaft is an electric motor that turns a large wheel, or sheave. Cables run over this, one end of which is attached to the car, the other end to a counterweight. The counterweight weighs the same as the car plus a typical half load, which means that the two structures balance each other out, so the motor doesnt need to work very hard to move the lift; it just needs to overcome the friction within the system. Of course, the motor must be strong enough to cope with the lift being fully loaded, but this only happens occasionally. A number of cables are used as back-up in the rare event of one failing. In addition, an automatic brake activates if the lift falls too fast. So those horror-movie scenes of plummeting lifts and ailing cables can never become reality.

Double gear drive


Gullet
The teeth are designed to remove any material shed from the object it is cutting. This allows for a clean cut with no rough edges.

For each revolution, the saw will cut further and more swiftly into an object if there are more teeth.

Teeth

Inside a lift shaft


Electric motor
This drives the ropes that are looped around the sheave, which is a grooved pulley system.

In cable-based lifts, the car is raised and lowered by traction steel ropes. Most lifts have between four and eight cables.

Cables

Although most saws use a round hole, some use a diamond shaped hole for a higher torque force.

Blade hole

Double gear

In this double gear system, a large cog is powering the smaller cog by applying a large torque force, which increases the number of revolutions.

Carbide is a compound of carbon and iron, which is sometimes used to make the teeth. It is stronger and longer lasting than steel.

Tip

Counterweight weight

A collection of metal weights that help conserve energy by adding accelerating power when the lift is ascending but have a braking effect when the lift is descending.

These run the length of the shaft to keep the car and counterweight from swaying when in motion. Rollers attached to the car also keep transit smooth.

Guide rails

Upper guard

Height adjustment

Movable lower guard lever

Motor

Braking system

Some lifts have electromagnetic brakes that are activated automatically if the lift loses power.

If the brakes fail and the car falls, a piston mounted in an oil-lled cylinder can save lives as a last resort.

Shock absorber

Blade lock bolt

Cut-width control

Blade tilting lever

018

Pile drivers
How do these mechanical monsters puncture holes in the Earth?
A pile driver being used for bridge building in California Most pile drivers are mounted on trucks

Once released, the piston, which is also a massive weight, free-falls within the cylinder compressing air and fuel added by a fuel pump within.

Piston

The cylinder both acts as a guide for the piston and also sports the systems exhaust vents, releasing fumes and smoke post-contact.

Cylinder

The compressed air within the cylinder exerts massive force on the impact block, which in turn holds the drive cap against the pile top.

Impact block

As the piston reaches the impact block the compressed fuel and air is atomised on contact and ignited, driving the pile into the ground.

Pile

A pile driver is a mechanical device used to drive piles deep-lying structural foundations into the Earth. Traditionally, pile drivers worked by suspending a large heavy object above the pile needing to be driven into the Earth within a guidance frame, which was then released to freefall upon it before being winched back up for another freefall. Modern pile drivers, however, have evolved and come in three types: diesel hammer, hydraulic hammer and vibratory hammers. Diesel pile drivers operate by utilising a piston in conjunction with a cylinder to compress air and fuel on top of an impact block. Due to the resulting contained explosion once ignited, this has the dual effect of driving the below pile into the ground and projecting the above piston back to the top of its housing, ready to fall again under gravity for another drive cycle. This type of pile driver is the most common worldwide as it is relatively cheap to operate

and features a deceptively simple design. It is, however, the most noisy and polluting, and for every cycle, smoke and exhaust fumes are released into the atmosphere post-drive. Hydraulic drivers are newer than diesel variants and employ cylinders stocked with hydraulic uid where traditionally compressed air and fuel would be used to generate the systems driving force. These systems are often preferred now in construction as they mitigate the effects of vibration on the pile and surrounding areas, something especially important in built-up areas where other structures may potentially be compromised. Typically, hydraulic pile drivers work within 70 decibels too, which also makes them considerably quieter in operation than diesel or vibration drivers. Vibration pile drivers work differently to diesel and hydraulic variants, utilising a series of hydraulically powered, counter-rotating eccentric weights designed

Often a large two-stroke machine, the diesel engine lifts the piston/weight to the top of the support structure.

Engine

to cancel out generated horizontal vibrations, but transmit vertical ones into the below pile, hammering it into the ground. Due to the reduced need for vertical piston clearance on this type of driver they are often used in situations when space is at a premium for example when adding additional supports to an existing bridge. Depending on the hardness of the Earth, various hammers can be tted to these pile drivers, ranging from those that perform 1,200 vibrations per minute, all the way up to 2,400.

019

ENGINEERING
Roller coasters
Oblivion is one of Alton Towers main attractions

1. Corkscrew

The corkscrew is among the most famous roller coaster elements. Trains enter the corkscrew and are twisted through 360 and emerge travelling in a different direction.

6. Train

Two or more cars linked up are called a train. The position of the car in a train dictates the effects on the riders.

5. Brake run

These are sections of track, usually at the end, that incorporate a braking device to slow the roller coaster. These can be skids, a fin on the car or, more recently, magnetic eddy current brakes.

Roller coasters
Some of the worlds most forward-looking engineering is actually in operation right now, in the unexpected setting of the worlds theme parks. From the pioneering 18th Century Russian Mountains, people have been hooked on the frightful thrill of a roller coaster and ever since, the challenge has been to make an even bigger, even better, even more terrifying one.

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

3. Zero-gravity roll

Riders experience zero G. Gravity is cancelled out by opposing forces so there is a feeling of weightlessness. It is often felt on uphill 360 twists.

They strike fear into many, but we still love them! Here, we detail the engineering achievement that is the roller coaster
Today, they incorporate solutions that are at the leading edge of scientic development. This means they are able to accelerate as fast as a drag racer and let passengers experience G-forces way in excess of a Formula 1 race car. They do all this in complete safety, having passed the very strictest engineering standards. People travel for miles to ride on the latest roller coaster theyll even cross continents just to experience the latest thrill. But why? Here, we explain all

7. Dive loop

A dive loop is a type of roller coaster inversion where the track twists upwards and to the side, and then dives toward the ground in a halfvertical loop

020

5 TOP FACTS

Ferrari World, Abu Dhabi


Opened in 2010, Ferrari World is home to the worlds fastest roller coaster. Formula Rossa has a top speed of nearly 240km/h (150mph) and riders have to wear safety goggles.

Kingda Ka, New Jersey


This Strata coaster is not only the tallest (139m/456ft), it also has the biggest drop (127m/418ft), and before Formula Rossa opened it was also the fastest in operation.

Steel Dragon 2000, Nagashima, Japan


For sheer length of thrill, this one tops the lot with a running length of 2,479m (8,133ft). Hopefully you wont decide you hate it after the rst twist.

Colossus, Thorpe Park, UK


A combination of loop, double corkscrew, heartline roll, cobra roll and quad heartline roll hand this ride has a record number of inversions.

Ring Racer, Nurburgring, Germany


Running parallel to the famed German racetrack, this goes from 0-217km/h (0-135mph) in 2.5 seconds! Thats way beyond any road car.

MOST THRILLING ROLLER COASTERS

DID YOU KNOW? American LaMarcus Adna Thompson is considered the father of the roller coaster
4. Lift hill

The lift hill is the first rising section of track containing the drive mechanism to raise the roller coaster to the summit.

Smile for the camera

Alex Pang

2. Headchopper

Designers build the layout tightly so they appear to risk chopping passengers heads off as they approach! The reality is theres ample clearance, but its a big part of the thrill.

Roller coaster trains are unpowered. They rely on an initial application of acceleration force, then combine stored potential energy and gravitational forces to continue along the track. This is why they rise and fall as they twist and turn. There are various methods of launching a roller coaster. Traditionally, a lift hill is used the train is pulled up a steep section of track. It is released at the top, where gravity transfers potential energy into kinetic energy, accelerating the train. Launches can be via a chain lift that locks onto the underneath of the train, or a motorised drive tyre system, or a simple cable lift. There is also the catapult launch lift: the train is accelerated very fast by an engine or a dropped weight. Newer roller coasters use motors for launching. These generate intense acceleration on a at section of track. Linear induction motors use electromagnetic force to pull the train along the track. They are very controllable with modern electronics. Some rides now have induction motors at points along the track, negating the need to store all the energy at the lift hill giving designers more opportunities to create new sensations. Hydraulic launch systems are also starting to become more popular. Careful calculation means a roller coaster releases roughly enough energy to complete the course. At the end, a brake run halts the train this compensates for different velocities caused by varying forces due to changing passenger loads.

How roller coasters roll

The Stealth ride at Thorpe Park isnt for the faint-hearted

Roller coasters comprise many elements, each with its own specic physical characteristics. Designers give a ride character by applying an understanding of physics to build up a sequence of thrills. These are all interrelated and mean the experience of every ride is exciting and unique.

Computer models can analyse the forces that will be produced by each twist and turn, ensuring they are kept within specic boundaries. Roller coasters may look like a random snake of track, but the reality is years of scientic calculations to provide just the right effects.

021

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

Anatomy of a roller coaster

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

ENGINEERING
Roller coasters
Acceleration force

The physics of the ride


The science that gets roller coasters going
All roller coasters begin with an acceleration force. This is to overcome inertia the resistance to change in velocity. It is quantied by the mass of the train, which depends on the individual load. Full trains will have more inertia than unladen ones. However, by applying more force during acceleration, they also store more potential energy to offset this. Designers work to reduce other sources of inertia such as friction-reducing low rolling resistance wheels. The aim of acceleration is to store sufcient potential energy at the top of the crest for transferral into driving kinetic energy to take the train to the next ascent. Because of frictional and other losses, each subsequent incline will be shorter than the one before not all the kinetic energy can be recovered into potential energy. Gravity is fundamental to roller coasters. Designers manipulate the effect of attraction between two masses to subject strong forces on the body. Weightlessness, for example, is caused by centrifugal forces cancelling out gravity forces. Centrifugal force feels like an outward force away from the centre of rotation when turning a corner. Its as if the body is being pressed down into the train, but is actually the reverse: an external force is being supplied by the train towards the centre of rotation.

Gravity (weight)

Pure acceleration is a change in velocity over time represented by Newtons famous formula F=ma. Rate of acceleration is therefore dependent on both the weight of the train and the force applied.

Apparent weight

Acceleration force

Apparent weight

Applying acceleration or gravity forces changes our sensation of weight. It is different to actual weight. Less apparent weight makes our bodies feel lighter.

Gravity (weight)

Weight is a measurement of the force exerted on a body by gravity towards the centre of the Earth. 2g means equivalent to twice the force of gravity.

Need for speed

The roller coaster is accelerated to the ground faster than gravity this causes negative G-force that presses you back into the seat.

G makes it great
The aim of a roller coaster is to subject forces on the body people do not normally experience. These have to be within safe medical limits, and to do this designers consider physiology. The body is more capable of tolerating vertical forces than horizontal ones. This is particularly the case for compression forces. Many roller coasters therefore compress passengers rmly into their seats, with forces up to +6g, but wont let them oat out too severely the effects of a negative 2g force will still be strongly felt!

An intolerance of side forces is why many roller coaster corners are banked. This reduces the Gforces on passengers to around 1.5g, helping protect necks. It is unable to deal with high side forces so careful consideration must be given here to not injure people. Overall, though, a roller coaster is the only thing this side of a race car or space shuttle where you can feel what such incredible forces are like. Are your body and your constitution up to it?

Summit approach

The approach to a summit appears to be about to launch you into the air as no track is visible in front!

Loop
2010 Merlin Entertainments Group 2010 Merlin Entertainments Group 2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

Serious G-force is felt during the loop, along with disorientation as the track disappears over your head.

022

THE STATS

ROLLER COASTERS

240km/h TALLEST 139m LONGEST2,479m BIGGEST DROP 127m MOST INVERSIONS 10 DROP ANGLE 97
FASTEST

DID YOU KNOW? A human intolerance to side forces is why many corners and bends are banked

Keeping you on the right track

Train to retain
Roller coaster trains themselves are quite simple they are not powered so do not have to account for drive mechanisms. They do, however, have to incorporate a method of picking up drive from the roller coaster itself either through connection to a launch track or chain lift, or via power from induction motors. There is much redundancy built into the connection between train and track. There are a series of wheels which run on the sides and underneath of the track as well as the usual top-running wheels. Side wheels drive it and wheels below stop it moving up off the track. The top wheels carry the load of the passengers. In combination, the wheels lock the train securely on the track. Train carriages are connected by a exible joint that securely attaches despite the extreme angles, twists and turns that can occur between the two trains. Carriages themselves are usually steel structures, with classic roller coasters using wooden trains.

Side wheels

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

Wheels to the side and wheels below prevent the train from being derailed.

Learn more
The Roller Coaster Database is a great source of top stats (http:// rcdb.com/). Fan sites include Ultimate Roller Coaster (http:// www.ultimateroller coaster. com/) and ThrillNetwork (http:// www.thrillnetwork.com/). Discovery also airs special programmes on roller coasters and has a great roller coaster builder resource on its website (http://dsc.discovery.com/ games/coasters/interactive. html). The industry bodys IAAPA (http://www.iaapa.org/) and BlooLoop (http://www.blooloop. com/index.aspx) provide news for the theme park industry.

Top wheels

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

The wheels above the track support the weight of the passengers.

Feeling hot?

The twists of Thorpe Parks Nemesis Inferno demand over-theshoulder restraints.

Belts for the fans


Two types of restraint are common lap bars and over-shoulder restraints. Older roller coasters use lap bars oor-mounted padded bars that swing down above the passengers legs and lock at either side of the carriage. This double locking means if one side fails, the other will still restrain people. Roller coaster connoisseurs like them for the greater freedom but they are not as safe. Most roller coasters now use over-shoulder bars. These are Ushaped padded bars that swing down to lock over the passengers shoulders. They hold securely and also mean occupants cannot y out of their seat: an essential for inversion rides. Secondary strap

belts are often tted too for redundancy, and for measurement: theyre sized to t the largest possible person, no larger!

Hold on tight

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

Colossus is the UKs only quadruple corkscrew.

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

023

Cranes

ENGINEERING
Oil platforms

Offshore rigs have multiple cranes that are continually used for lifting containers, drill equipment and sections of piping to the top of the derrick.

Derrick
The derrick usually towers over the rest of the rig and is used to house the drill machinery and feed in new pipe as the drill descends.

Drilling for oil offshore


The world produces over 82 million barrels of oil every day, much of it in harsh conditions, miles from shore and safety in the event of an emergency. So how is it done?
Oil has been around for millions of years, located deep below the land or sea where it became trapped under layers of permeable rocks, or slowly seeping to the surface. Although examples of oil drilling were documented in 4th Century China, the rst modern oil-gathering structure was built in 1897, and by 1928 mobile rigs consisting of a simple barge with a drill mounted on top had set the scene for a revolution that fuelled Western industrial dominance for the next century. Over 82 million barrels of oil are produced every single day, a process that usually starts with a range of surveys. These include geographical and geomagnetic surveys and the deep echo sounding or seismic reection surveys that pinpoint the likely location of a substantial deposit. Only then and after the necessary permits have been obtained can the rigs move in. These multi million-pound structures are positioned by teams of professionals who make the well safe and drill down to its precious commodity. Today, there are over 40,000 oil elds around the world, with most offshore drilling undertaken in the Continental shelf the sunken perimeter of a continents original glacial shape. From the $100 million monsters that plumb the deepest waters in the Gulf of

How a platform works


A structure unlike anything else on Earth

Legs
Platforms required to drill thousands of feet below sea level rest on concrete or steel legs, securely anchored to the seabed and particularly hard to remove after use.

Mexico, to the smaller North Sea structures that nevertheless have to withstand 90-knot winds and 20m waves. Mobile rigs are usually reserved for exploratory work, owned by private contractors and leased to the oil companies who then have limited time to nd, tap and process their precious bounty. Larger manned platforms and spars can service up to 30 wellheads, tapping into multiple wells up to 8km from the platform itself.

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DID YOU KNOW? As North Sea reserves run dry, the estimated cost of removing the structures would exceed 621 billion

Life on a platform
Required to work for up to six months a year, oil workers are well compensated for the undeniably hazardous conditions in which they work. Wages are typically higher than in similar engineering disciplines and the larger platforms and spars come complete with facilities more appropriate to a cruise ship than a oating factory. These can include private rooms for the 100+ crew, cinemas, 24-hour restaurants and even gyms. Supplies are usually brought in by helicopter or ship, making oil platforms better stocked than most workplaces and signicantly more important to the local economies in which they reside. It is estimated that every offshore worker supports up to ten more in local industries such as food, transport or maintenance. However, the dangers are constant and largely unpredictable. Offshore drilling involves not only dealing with highly ammable oil and gas with the added danger of this being pumped out at exceptionally high pressures but also extreme wind and sea conditions. When danger strikes, support is often miles away by helicopter or ship, and despite the high levels of training and increasingly safe equipment, offshore fatality rates have been on the rise in recent years. In addition to this, workers are often prone to alcoholism or drug abuse to overcome the isolation and gruelling 12-hour shifts.

THE RIGHT RIG FOR THE JOB


Drill Ships
Designed for speculative or deep-water mining, these vessels are converted to include a drilling platform in the centre. Drill ships use sophisticated sensors and satellite tracking to keep them moving while lined up to the well.
Above: Accommodation decks of a North Sea oil platform Below: A worker checks the drilling head on a tower

Semi-submersibles
Made up of oating pontoons and columns able to sink in the water where they are anchored to the sea oor or kept in place by steerable thrusters. Effective at drill depths of up to 1,800m, theyre designed for quick deployment.

Jack-up
Mobile platforms can be raised above the sea on extendable steel legs. Designed for depths of 500m or less, they are useful for small to midsized deposits and typically only support smaller crews.

Deck
The working space on board an offshore platform where drilling rigs, production facilities and crew quarters are located. Larger platforms may use nearby flotels for crew quarters.

Oil rig teamwork


A small selection of the different roles on a rig
Offshore installation manager
Also known as the Man in Charge (MIC) the installation manager makes all key production decisions, both before, during and after drilling. He has usually worked his way through the other drill team roles. working roughnecks responsible for guiding the pipe into the drill as well as operating mud pumps and other such machinery.

Rig
An immovable structure of concrete and steel that rests on the seabed with deck space for multiple rigs, crew quarters and production facilities. Their design and expense makes them appropriate for larger offshore deposits.

Jacket
Jackets are usually vertical steel sections piled into the seabed, protecting the central drill shaft against damage or interference.

Roughneck
The grunts of the oil business, roughnecks work in teams of three and are mainly responsible for manual work both during and after drilling. They can also be called on to operate other equipment such as mud shakers.

DK Images

Driller
A highly specialist discipline, the drillers are those who operate the drilling equipment, including making the initial hole in the seabed. The driller is effectively in charge of everything that happens on the rig oor.

Spar
Perfect for major oil elds, such as the North Sea, spars are drilling platforms xed to giant, hollow hulls that can descend up to 250m, still above the ocean oor and secured by cables.

Wells
With each platform required to service up to 30 wells at different depths and positions, flow lines and umbilical connections are needed to connect them all to the main rig.

Tool pusher
On an offshore rig, tool pushers tend to be department heads in charge of drilling or other essential functions such as engineering or operations. They may also assist with administrative work, such as payroll or benets.

Derrickman
So called because of their position at the top of the derrick, derrickmen are usually

025

ENGINEERING
Railguns

It could still be years before we see railguns used in combat

The re power of a railgun


Electricity is the secret behind high-tech railguns
For many centuries gunpowder was the explosive propellant of choice in warfare, partly because there was little else to actually choose from. However, inevitably modern technology has evolved, and so too did the gun and its ammunition. Careful experiments in the early-20th Century made way for anti-aircraft cannons that harnessed the intense power of electricity, and soon after the railgun was born. A railgun consists of two conductive rails (also known as bars), electrical current, and a projectile, such as a rocket or missile. The two rails sandwich the conductive projectile, which is itself encased inside a shell to make for a complete electrical circuit. Apart from nearly overheating and melting due to the immense amount of friction inside the gun created every time its red, a railgun is a truly groundbreaking step from its former ally: gunpowder. Ammunition in a railgun is propelled with the help of magnetism. As the electrical current ows through one of the rails, it passes through the projectile and onto the opposite rail. One of the rails becomes positively charged and the other becomes negatively charged. This rapidly heating mechanism naturally creates an electromagnetic eld. This swirls around both rails holding the projectile, forming an overwhelming power. As the two rails are carrying electrical current in opposite directions the projectile is eventually forced away from the ends of the rails and out of the barrel. The speed all depends on how much current is used and the length of both rails, but can be up to ten times faster than a weapon using gunpowder. The materials for a railgun have to be highly heat resistant, and they are built to withstand extreme opposing forces made when the projectile is red. Its also worth considering that the cost of electricity used to power a single railgun is colossal but could be greatly offset as the cost of otherwise-lost bullets is reduced.

The US Navy have test-red a railgun that red a projectile at 2,520mps

Firing the railgun


Driving current Magnetic eld

The source of the electricity is mounted with the railgun to pump current.

4. Electricity

The missile hides in a casing (armature) that allows electricity to pass through, ring the missile.

3. Missile

Projectile

Armature current

1. Positive rail

The positive electrically charged rail holds one side of the missile, creating an electromagnetic eld.

The other side of the missile is secured by a negative, electrically charged rail.

2. Negative rail

026

5 TOP FACTS
CRANES

Mobile crane
The most versatile crane for both small and large jobs is simply a telescoping hydraulic boom attached to the bed of a heavy-duty construction vehicle.

Overhead crane
Shaped like an upside down U, this small but powerful crane rolls along tracks on factory oors to lift car engines and other heavy parts into place.

Self-erecting cranes
This crane rolls onto the work site as a compact, foldable unit only 13.6m long. The crane rises and extends its jib 32m out with a holding capacity of 4,000kg.

Lufng tower crane


The jib arm of this tower crane which can still carry 35 tons can be raised from a at horizontal position to an 85-degree angle using a special jib cable and motor.

Hammerhead tower crane


The classic T-shaped tower crane with a xed horizontal jib and counterweight arm. The hammerhead lacks freedom of movement, but can carry more weight.

Tower cranes are designed DID YOU KNOW? XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX to withstand wind gusts up to 150km/h

Load and stability


Hold a 10kg weight close to your body. Now try to extend your arms without tipping over. Tough, isnt it? Tower cranes have the same problem. A large tower crane can handle loads up to 16 tons, but thats only at a horizontal distance thats very close to the tower. At 80 metres out on the jib, the most that the same crane can carry is 3.9 tons. Tower cranes are preloaded with multiple slabs of concrete counterweights to maintain the overall equilibrium of the arm. A crane that carries heavy loads at 80 metres from the tower requires 31 tons of counterweight.

The horizontal arm of a tower crane can extend 85m outwards. The arm has three sides forming an isosceles triangle with a trolley track running along the bottom section.

Jib arm

The trolley and hook are connected by cables to a trolley motor mounted on the upper side of the jib arm. The operator can roll the trolley back and forth with hand controls.

Trolley

On hammerhead tower cranes, the cat head tower reinforces the jib arm and counterweight jib using thick steel cables called pendants.

Cat head tower

Operators cab

How tower cranes work


These big birds of sky-high construction are engineering marvels
Tower cranes ock to money. During the economic boom years, high-rise construction cranes migrated from Beijing to Shanghai to Dubai, where it was estimated in 2006 that there was one tower crane for every 44 residents of the desert boom-opolis. Tower cranes are feats of structural engineering that often outshine their creations. They are designed to stand 80 metres tall and reach 80 metres out supported only by a narrow steel-frame mast, a concrete foundation and several counterweights. The engineering principle that keeps the twiggy tower crane from tipping over is something called a moment. If you hang a weight from the cranes jib arm, it exerts a rotational force or torque where the arm connects to the top of the mast. The magnitude and direction of this force (clockwise or anticlockwise) is called the moment. If the weight is hung close to the mast, the magnitude of the moment is lower than if the weight is hung far out on the jib. To keep the crane upright, counterweights are used to create a moment of equal magnitude in the opposite direction, balancing out the rotational forces. Once a tower crane meets its maximum unsupported height, it can be tethered to the building itself and continue to grow with the rising skyscraper. The tower cranes that rose with the construction of the record-breaking Burj Khalifa skyscraper in Dubai reached a truly dizzying height of 750 metres.

Its a long climb to the cab, where the crane operator has a birds-eye view of the construction site through oor-toceiling windows.

The power to raise and lower the load line is supplied by a huge winch located along the counterweight jib or machinery arm.

Machinery arm

The tower

Also known as the mast, each 2.8-metre tower section has four sides, each with vertical, horizontal and diagonal trusses that give them full structural integrity.

Multiple concrete slabs each weighing several tons are hung or piled on the very back end of the counterweight jib to overcompensate for the cranes lifting capacity.

Counterweights

Slewing unit

This motorised pivot allows the jib arm to rotate nearly 360 degrees to lift and drop materials all across the construction site.

Self-assembling crane
One of the most remarkable engineering feats of tower cranes is that they can literally build themselves. With help from a large mobile crane, construction workers secure the base sections of the tower and assemble the top unit of the crane the slewing unit, jib and machinery arm. But before the top section of the crane is attached, workers slide a hydraulic climbing unit around the base of the tower. Once everything is in place, the hydraulic climbing unit lifts the entire top section of the crane (including the horizontal jib and operators cab) just enough to slide in a new section of tower beneath. Once the new section is secured, the hydraulic unit continues to climb up, section by section, as the crane slowly builds itself higher.

The hydraulic unit attaches to the outside of the tower. A powerful hydraulic arm lifts the entire top section of the crane just enough for the crane to insert a new section beneath.

Hydraulic climbing section

Nebrot 08

Large tower cranes get their core stability by burying the bottom of the tower in several metres of concrete weighing 185 tons.

Concrete foundation

027

ENGINEERING
Renewable energy
Mirrors
Curved mirrors focus the Suns power on the central processing tower. Amazingly, behind the parabolic reector mirror, people are working.

Ofce

The Suns rays are focused here onto a dark-coated, 3,800C furnace.

Furnace

Renewable energy
An operational Pelamis Wave Energy Converter is buffeted by ocean waves

Science Photo Library

With the Earths supply of fossil fuels perpetually declining, new and exciting energy systems are being designed to exploit sustainable resources
Each year the global population is increasing at an exponential rate, creating a ravenous demand for energy. Fossil fuels cannot sustain this and it is forcing governments across the globe to re-evaluate how they are going to provide power for future generations. Luckily, right now numerous systems are being designed and developed worldwide to address this issue, demonstrating novel and creative methods of exploiting the renewable resources with which Earth is privileged. Harnessing the power of sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat, these technologies are slowly repositioning the balance of power away from nite resources and towards sustainable ones, mitigating long-held fears over a world post-oil and delivering power generation on a domestic as well as industrial level. Take a closer look at some of the most promising technologies.

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Pelamis

5 TOP FACTS RENEWABLE


ENERGY
Hydraulic ram

Megawatt
The worlds largest wind turbine is the Enercon E-126, which has a rotor diameter of 126m. The E-126 turbine is rated at a particularly whopping six megawatts.

Investment
Worldwide investment in renewable energy has risen exponentially year-on-year, increasing from $104 billion in 2007 to a staggering $150 billion in 2009.

African
Kenya is the current world leader in the number of domestic solar power systems installed per capita, with over 300,000 12-30 watt systems sold each year.

Greenest
The current world leader in renewable energy production is China, which in 2009 produced 682 TWh of electricity through water, wind, biomass and solar.

Future
Recent estimates by scientists forecast the world will run out of the majority of fossil fuels by 2070, with natural gas being the rst to go, followed quickly by oil and coal.

DID YOU KNOW? The largest solar power station in the world is situated in Californias Mojave Desert
The hydraulic rams resist the motion of the waves, which in turn pump high-pressure hydraulic uid into the units hydraulic motors.

Heave hinged joint

The position for the sections horizontal axis joint.

The vertical axis is connected here to the Converters other sections.

Sway hinged joint

Platform

Taking energy out of a owing water current generates a major thrust reaction (around 100 tons per MW). Because of this, the monopole tower is drilled deep into the bedrock of the seabed for stability.

Tubular tower

Solar furnace
The Odeillo-Font-Romeu solar power station in the Eastern Pyrenees, France. Positioned in front of the reector (out of view here) is an array of 63 at orientating mirrors that automatically track the motion of the Sun, reecting incident radiation onto the parabolic reector mirror. The reector comprises 9,500 mirrors that concentrate the Suns rays onto a darkcoated furnace at its focus (central tower). The system is capable of producing thermal power of 1,000 kilowatts, and achieving a temperature of 3,800 degrees Celsius within the furnace.

The tubular steel monopole tower is submerged at the heart of Strangford Lough and provides a solid structure for the rotors to protrude from.

Generating power from sunlight

Generators

Housed within the SeaGen tower, the generators turn the rotational movement of the rotor blades into electricity.

Motor/generator set

The hydraulic motor converts the hydraulic uid pumped into it by the rams into torque and rotation in order to drive the units generators.

High-pressure accumulators

This allows the Pelamiss pump mechanism to be a manageable size and also to operate quicker, allowing it to moderate demand and smooth out the waves pulsations.

Pelamis Wave Energy Converter


The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter from Pelamis Wave Power is a system designed to generate renewable electricity from ocean waves. The system consists of a semi-submerged, articulated structure (180 metres long and four metres in diameter) comprising cylindrical sections linked by joints. These joints, under the pressure of wave-induced motion, move and are resisted by hydraulic rams, which

Twin-axial rotors

pump high-pressure uid through hydraulic motors to drive electrical generators and produce electricity. This energy is then fed from each joint down an umbilical and then carried back to shore in a single large seabed feed. Each Pelamis Converter is rated at 750kW and on average a unit will produce 25-40 per cent of that rating annually, which is the annual electricity demand for roughly 500 homes.

SeaGen tidal generator


The SeaGen tidal generator from Marine Current Systems is an operational tidal system based in Strangford Narrows in Northern Ireland. The system consists of twin submerged axial-ow rotors measuring 16 metres in diameter which are attached to a central machine and control tower that is xed to the seabed. Both rotors on the SeaGen sport a unique feature that allows the blades to be pitched through 180 degrees, allowing them to operate in both tidal directions. Appearing like an upside-down submerged windmill, SeaGen works by converting high-velocity currents into SeaGen is capable of raising its rotors out of the water usable electricity throughout for ease of maintenance the tidal cycle much as a windmill utilises the power of the wind to rotate its sails. Indeed, its large-scale rotors aided by the 400 million gallons of water that ow past it twice a day can develop a rated power of 1.2 MW at a current velocity of 2.4m every second. This gives SeaGen the ability to deliver about 10 MW per tide, which annually amounts to 6,000 MWh of energy.
Fundy

A second-generation Pelamis Wave Energy Converter at the European Marine Energy Centre, Orkney

Pelamis

Science Photo Library

Measuring 16 metres in diameter, SeaGens rotors are huge and sport a patented system that allows their blades to be pitched through 180 degrees.

029

ENGINEERING
Renewable energy
A wind farm 28km off the shore of Belgiums part of the North Sea

The Roscoe Wind Farm in Texas has an epic 627 turbines

Wind turbines
Taking the power-generating capabilities of windmills to the next level
Among the worlds most developed renewable energy systems, wind turbines take the mechanics of a traditional windmill and upscale them dramatically in order to obtain energy from wind which can be converted into electricity. The most common wind turbine in production is the horizontal axis variety. These consist of a main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a large, tapered, cylindrical tower. This type of turbine allows the wind to rotate its three xed blades in order to generate mechanical, rotational energy, which is then in turn converted into electrical energy by the installed electrical generator. The slow-to-fast rotation of the rotor and blades is aided by an installed gearbox, which allows for a smooth transition in speeds depending of wind strength. Wind turbines are often installed en masse in highly windy areas, such as coastal regions, in massive wind farms. The largest windfarm in the world is the Roscoe Wind Farm in Texas, which has an epic 627 turbines and total installed capacity of 781.5 MW.
An Enercon E-126, the largest wind turbine in the world, situated in Germany

Operation

The turbines generator, gearbox and yaw-control mechanism are housed here.

Generator

The turbines generator converts the rotors rotational energy into electrical energy to be sent to the grid or storage device.

Helps initiate the rotors movement and then aids its velocity dependent on wind speed to maximise energy conversion.

Gearbox

Inside a turbine
Tower

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DK Images

The turbines tall tower is a crucial element of its design. In areas with high wind shear, the overall wind speed can increase by 20 per cent and the power output by 34 per cent for every 100 metres of elevation.

Nacelle

The direction of the nacelle is dictated by a yaw-control mechanism and it is designed to be a streamlined as possible in order to reduce turbulence behind the turbine.

The turbines rotor blades are often adjustable, allowing for their angle of attack to be adjusted dependent on wind direction. This allows the turbine to collect the maximum amount of wind energy for the day or season.

Blades

Eirbyte

RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

DID YOU KNOW? Two solar updraft towers have been approved for construction so far, one in Namibia and the other in Spain

Geothermal power plants


Pump house Production well
Geothermal energy is power extracted from heat stored inside the Earth. The heat is generated from radioactive decay, volcanic activity, core convection and solar energy absorbed at the Earths surface. Geothermal power plants pump water down a borehole into hotspots a few kilometres beneath the Earth, then force it out of a second borehole into a steam turbine to produce electricity.

Reservoir Heat exchanger Turbine hall

Interview
How It Works spoke to Kamil Shar from Sanyo Solar about the exciting new sustainable systems becoming available for home use
How It Works: Energy efciency is crucial for solar cells, how efcient are Sanyo Solars modules? Kamil Shar: The energy conversion efciency for modules is essentially the barometer for quality and this is really the core feature of our product, offering a lot of value for the end users on a domestic level. It is the residential market that we are focusing on primarily and the reason for this is that due to the modules high efciency we are able to offer more value in a limited space installation area. So your average terraced house can only get up to a 2kW system size, and if they are trying to achieve that with lower-quality modules they wouldnt have enough space to make that installation. With our new HIT modules we can achieve a record energy conversion efciency of 23 per cent at the R&D level; on a domestic level 21.1 per cent. HIW: How has the conversion efciency for solar panels been progressing, has it been developing incrementally? KS: It has been incremental. Previous to that it was around 20 per cent and before that the number rose fast only in the last ve to ten years. That is mainly due to the amount of investment we are putting into our R&D, as the market has grown massively over the past couple of years in Europe. HIW: What level of power is one of your modules going to provide the average domestic consumer and how is created energy used? KS: The way that the system works in the UK [as of 1 April 2010] is we have a subsidiary system called the feed-in tariff and how that works is that if you have a solar installation on your roof it will be connected to the national energy grid. So any electricity you are generating and not using will be fed back into the grid. The dynamics of the feed-in system benet self generation as the government has set a tariff of 40 pence for every kW hour of electricity generated and that amount is paid to the system owner whether they use the electricity or not. HIW: So the user isnt generating electricity that can only be used in their own home, it can be fed into the grid and used anywhere? KS: That is correct. However, if there is an electricity demand in the house when the electricity is being generated then it will be used to power that household. But if there is no one in at the time or no energy is required it will be fed into the grid. So what we are suggesting to people who invest in our systems is that they should alter their energy habits to generate electricity and use it during the daytime, as it is free and also grants you the tariff all at the same time. HIW: In Britain it is not particularly sunny, would that jeopardise the 21.1 per cent conversion efciency? KS: The gures are generally measured based on industry criteria so all module manufacturers would have to conform to certain criteria when they are measuring cell conversion efciency, that way everyone is on an even playing eld and were not promoting statistics from Spain in the UK. So yes, dependent on conditions there will be uctuations but they are impossible to quantify, as we wouldnt know how much light there was one day to the next. HIW: How efcient can silicon solar cells actually become? It is currently 21.1 per cent but is there a theoretical cap or barrier that cannot be overcome? KS: Currently, 29 per cent is the theoretical maximum for these crystalline-based technology. HIW: When do you think that gure is going to be hit? KS: Its very hard to predict as the closer you get to 29 per cent the harder it is to achieve it. It will be achieved, but it will be dependent on technological advancement and R&D investment. However, with even a current solar setup now, such as our module and system, users would see a positive return on the initial outlay after eight to ten years and then for the next ten to 12 years, because the feed-in tariff is xed for 20, theyd be generating income of roughly ten per cent the initial outlay, all the while beneting from free electricity.

A. Injection well B. Hot water to district heating C. Porous sediments D. Observation well E. Crystalline bedrock 1. Tower
The central tower acts as a ue to draw hot air through the turbines, as well as housing the plants machinery and generator.

0m 1,00 500-

During the day the Suns rays heat air under the collector membrane to high levels. At night heat radiated from the ground is better contained under the collector.

2. Thermal storage

4. Turbines

Fisch

A diagram of a geothermal power plant showing the drilling of a borehole to a depth of 5km. At this depth, a layer of water has formed from rainwater draining through the ground (blue arrows). The water is heated by magma, and the borehole enables the energy of the heated water to be extracted.

D
tier/Sie mens

X/Ytrot

The updraft tower is tted with multiple turbines at its base that suck the hot air inwards from under the collector membrane to generate electricity.

Day

3. Collector membrane

This is made from clear plastic and while allowing a large proportion of the Suns rays to pass through it without reection, almost completely traps the heated air beneath it, adding an accumulative effect.

Night

Solar updraft towers


An elegant proposed system to exploit solar energy, the solar updraft tower works by combining the chimney effect where cold air is drawn upwards by reduced local pressure the greenhouse effect and a wind turbine. The power plant works by trapping air heated by the Sun under a large

greenhouse-like circular membrane that, through convection and the chimney effect, causes the hot air to be sucked in towards and up the central tower. As the hot air travels up the tower the airow drives a selection of turbines that in turn produce electricity. Denitely one to watch in the future

Heidas

Sju

Head to Head DOMESTIC

MOST EXPENSIVE

1. Solar

MOST INTRUSIVE

Solar panels offer an established form of energy generation on a domestic level. However, they can be expensive and are only useful when the weather is ne.

2. Wind

MOST CONSISTENT

Small wind turbines can be bought and attached to the tops of buildings to supply a small amount of electricity each year. They are cheap but currently inefcient.

3. Water

If you are lucky enough to live by a stream or river, small water turbine generators allow you to exploit its gentle amble for a small and ensured power return.

00m 4,000-6,0
m 00 1,0 0-

One of Sanyo Solars 21.1 per cent efcient HIT modules

031

ENGINEERING

The main tools are dynamite and dragline excavators


Headframe Vertical shaft

Coal mining
Coal miners literally move mountains to feed our insatiable appetite for cheap energy
Theres something brutally simple about coal mining. Take away the monstrous new machinery and ecofriendly marketing jargon and its the same dirty, dangerous job its always been: nd the black stuff and dig it up. The two major schools of coal mining are surface mining and underground mining. To qualify for surface mining, the coal seam must lie within 60 metres of the surface. The miners job is to remove all of the overburden the cubic tons of rock, soil and trees above the coal seam and expose the coal layer for extraction. The main tools of the trade are dynamite and dragline excavators, 2,000-ton behemoths that can move 450 tons of material with one swoop of their massive buckets. Perhaps the most dramatic and controversial surface mining technique is Mountaintop Removal (MTR), in which miners use explosives and heavy machinery to literally knock the top off a mountain up to 200 metres below the peak to get at the rich coal beds beneath. Underground mining is decidedly more difcult and dangerous. In smaller mines, workers still use conventional methods, blasting and
Another day at the ofce for Short Round

Coal mining

Winding shaft

Coal seam

Mining companies go to great expense to reach these long horizontal fields of coal that range in thickness from a mere 50 centimetres to over four metres in height.

Cross cuts

Horizontal passageways are tunnelled through the ore bed to provide critical ventilation and to allow motorised access to coal seams via flat rail cars, commonly known as mantrips.

Top road

Winzes, manways, chutes and drifts

Chute

A well-worked mine is a labyrinth of vertical, horizontal and sloped shafts carved through the coal by continuous mining machinery.

digging out large rooms supported by thick pillars of untouched coal. But that wont cut it for modern mining operations that regularly remove over 100 megatons (1 million tons) of raw coal each year. The go-to machine of the highvolume coal mine is a continuous miner. This long, low-slung machine rips through coal faces with a wide rotating drum armed with hundreds of drill bits. Each bit is sprayed with a ne mist of water, cooling the cutting surface and neutralising coal dust emissions. Using built-in conveyors, the machine rolls the coal off its back, where its transported to the surface by haulers or conveyor belts.

Ore pass

Manway

Bottom road Landing Sump

Winze Face

032

5 TOP FACTS

Worldwide production
Back in 2008, the worlds coal mines produced 5,845 megatons of black coal and 951 megatons of brown coal. Makes you wonder how long its going to last, doesnt it?

The coal king


China is by far the largest coal producer in the world with a staggering 18,557 mines. To compare, the United States has 1,458 mines and the UK has just 46.

Old friend steel


The steel industry is one of the heaviest consumers of coal. Worldwide steel plants burned 1,327Mt of coal in its puried form called coke in 2008.

Let there be light


Over 40 per cent of the worlds electricity is provided by coal. China burns coal for 81 per cent of its electricity, while the US uses coal for 49 per cent of its electricity.

Super scrapers
A continuous mining machine can extract eight tons of coal per minute. Some quick maths will tell you thats 480 tons an hour, 11,520 tons a day and 4.2 million tons a year.

COAL MINING

DID YOU KNOW? Coal provides over 23 per cent of the worlds energy needs

Types of coal mine


Winding tower
Also called a headframe, the winding tower uses powerful drum hoists and thick steel cables to pull men, machines and coal from the deepest reaches of the main shaft. Preparation plant Drift tunnel Conveyor Main shaft Aft shaft Preparation plant Coal

A closer look at the numerous different methods and mines that are often used to extract coal

DEEPEST AND MOST PRODUCTIVE COAL MINES ON EARTH


BIGGEST

Head to Head THE BIGGEST,

Room and pillar

In conventional coal extraction, miners use explosives to carve out large caverns in the coal seam, leaving a thick pillar of undisturbed coal for roof support.

Coal

1. El Cerrejn

Shaft mine
Miners and equipment are transported down vertical shafts hundreds or thousands of metres deep to access fertile coal seams.
Air shaft

Drift mine
The simplest method of underground mining, the coal seam is accessed by digging horizontally into the side of a hill.

The largest surface mine in the world, this 69,000 hectare pit in Northern Columbia produces over 31Mt of bituminous coal per year, transporting it to the coast for export on its own 150km railroad.

DEEPEST

Preparation plant Dragline

Levels and decks

Slope tunnel

Extraction starts with the coal seam closest to the surface, then miners descend through a thick section of rock or deck to reach the next workable level.

2. Cumberland Mine
Coal Coal

Slope mine
For a shallow underground coal seam, miners dig a slanted or sloped shaft and remove the coal via long conveyor belts.

Surface mine
In a surface mine (or strip mine), miners remove a horizontal layer of soil and rock called the overburden to expose a coal seam.

Closed in 1958 after an earthquake-triggered collapse killed 74 miners, this Nova Scotia mine had sloped shafts over 4,200 metres deep, the deepest coal operation on record.

Panel

MOST PRODUCTIVE

Image Gebr. Eickhoff Maschinenfabrik und Eisengieerei

In longwall mining, miners carve four tunnels around a rectangular chunk of rock called the panel hundreds of metres wide and thousands of metres long. The panel is then harvested from floor to ceiling with automated machinery called shearers.

Continuous miner

A large rotating steel drum equipped with tungsten carbide teeth scrapes coal from the seam.

3. Shandong Mine

The most productive mine in the world, this Chinese operation dug up 117.8Mt of raw coal in 2008. Thats over ten per cent of the total annual coal production of the United States.

Inside a coalamine Take trip into the


claustrophobic depths of the mine

Learn more
For more information about coal mines head on over to www.bbc.co.uk/ nationonlm/topics/coalmining/ where you can take a trip through the coal mines of north-east England from the Thirties to the Nineties.

Room and pillar


Operating in a room and pillar system it can mine as much as five tons of coal a minute.

033

ENGINEERING
Mouthpiece chamber

The polycarbonate layer behind it forces the glass to shatter internally rather than outwards

Bulletproof glass / Milking machines


Cluster unit
Consisting of four teat cups, a claw, a long milk hose and a long pulse pipe, the cluster unit draws milk from the cow into the main pipe system. Mouthpiece

3. Milk phase
Science Photo Library

When air is drawn out of the pulsation chamber inside the teat cup, a vacuum (suction) is created around the teat. The pressure difference opens the teat canal and draws the milk out.

When air is pumped into the pulsation chamber inside the teat cup, the lining collapses, massaging the teat and closing the teat canal.

4. Rest phase

Bulletproof glass explained


Shattering the science behind what makes the breakable unbreakable
Bullet-resistant glass works by absorbing a bullets kinetic (movement) energy and dissipating it across a larger area. Multiple layers of toughened glass are reinforced with alternated layers of polycarbonate a tough but exible transparent plastic which retains the see-through properties of glass. As a bullet strikes the rst glass layer, the polycarbonate layer behind it forces the glass to shatter internally rather than outwards. This process absorbs some of the bullets kinetic energy. The high velocity impact also attens the bullets head. Imagine trying to pierce through a sheet of cotton with the top end of a pencil. It would be very difcult compared to using the sharp pointed end. The same principle applies here. The at-headed bullet struggles to penetrate the layer of polycarbonate. As the bullet travels through each layer of glass and polycarbonate, the process is repeated until it no longer has the speed and shape to exit the nal layer.

Teat cup lining

Pulsation chamber Short milk pipe


A short milk hose connected to the teat cup directs milk away from the cow to the claw where its transported together with the milk from other cows to the main milking pipeline.

1. Teat cups

Outer teat cup

Each cluster consists of four teat cups themselves each made up of a metal shell, a rubber lining and a short milk pipe.

5. Long milk pipe

6. Claw

Beneath the teat cups is the claw, which connects the short pulse pipe and milk pipes to the main systems long air pipes and long milk pipes. Here air is added to the milk to help it ow through the system.

Milk receiver

Milking station Vacuum line

2. Pulsator (not shown)

The pulsator is the valve on a pipe thats connected to the claw and adjusts the air pressure in the pulsation chamber. The pulsator is attached to a main air pipeline that feeds into the claw.

7. Milk pump

k oa . en w re w m) f G td (w .co o k sy t L .u te en k u r m oa Co uip reen q g E

The layers of bulletproof glass


Anti-scratch coating Polyester Polyvinyl butyral Glass Polyurethane Polycarbonate Polyurethane Glass Polyvinyl butyral Ceramic paint (dot matrix) Glass

A motor-driven milk pump removes the collected milk from the main pipeline and transports it to the receiver tank for chilling and processing.

Cooling tank

Portable milking unit

Milk line Vacuum pump

Milking machines
Discover how to get milk from a cow
The milk is extracted using a vacuum applied to the cows teats. Milk stored in the udder is drawn into a system of pipes leading to a receiver tank where the milk is collected before being passed to the cooling tank. A cluster of four teat cups each consisting of a stainless steel shell, a exible rubber lining and a short pulse pipe are attached to the teats. Between the outer shell and lining is a pulsation chamber that collapses with the addition of air from a pulsator. When the chamber is devoid of air (milk phase) a vacuum is created, which gently draws milk from the teat. When the chamber is lled with air (rest phase) the lining of the teat cup collapses and massages the teat. Continued repetition of these phases not only aids milk production by mimicking the action of a suckling calf, it also promotes blood circulation. To help the milk ow away through the pipeline, once out of the cow the milk is mixed with air added by a claw, the claw connects the teat cups to the milk and pulse tubes.

DID YOU KNOW?


One-way bullet-resistant glass is often used in military situations. While protecting against incoming bullets, shots can still be returned unaffected.

034

THE STATS
AIM-9

Mach 2.5 LENGTH 3.0m WARHEAD 9.5kg WEIGHT 85kg RANGE 17.7km COST $85,000
TOP SPEED

DID YOU KNOW? XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX target at speeds of 3,060km/h (1,900mph) DID YOU KNOW? The missile ies towards its

Missiles in action: AIM-9 Sidewinder


This air-to-air missile mercilessly seeks out its prey theres little chance of escape!
Hangers
Attach the missile to the launcher under the aircraft

ON THE

MAP

Warhead

9kg of explosives wrapped in lethal titanium rods

Deployment

Optical target detector

Rocket motor
Creates minimal smoke to avoid detection

Tail control ns

Laser beams bounce off the target and back to sensors

Adjustable, to steer the missile to its target

Front ns
All Images Raytheon

The infrared eye of the missile, with its control system just behind

Seeker

Provide lift and stability to keep the missile in ight

It is estimated that Sidewinder missiles have killed around 270 people worldwide over the last 50plus years. Over 110,000 missiles have been produced for 28 countries and just one per cent of them have been used in combat. Here are just some of the war zones where the missile has seen action:

1. Second Taiwan Strait crisis Precision


Named after a venomous snake that is sensitive to infrared and so can sense the heat of its prey, the deadly Sidewinder missile does much the same. First tested in 1953, the Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range air-to-air missile used by ghter aircraft. Once launched, it will y towards a hot target usually the engines of an aircraft or another missile. The key to the system is hidden in the nose of the missile. The seeker consists of an array of sensors that react to infrared light; similar in principle to the CCD sensor in a digital camera but simpler in that it only judges its surroundings as
The deadly weapon can hit a target 17km away Date: 1958 Location: Taiwan Strait, Taiwan

very hot or not very hot. In other words it can see heat. The sensors, plus its assembly of mirrors and lenses, spin offcentre so that they can scan a wide vista and also work out where the heat is in relation to the missile. For instance, if the target is over to the right, the sensors will detect more infrared when they are aimed in that direction. The sensors feed information to the guidance control system that, in turn, move the ns at the back of the missile to steer the Sidewinder towards the target. Or rather, aim it at a point slightly ahead of the target to ensure that it doesnt end up chasing it and never catching it. This is called proportional navigation and

effectively anticipates where the target will be at the point of impact. In fact, the Sidewinder doesnt actually impact with its target, but is designed to explode just before it hits it, to ensure maximum damage. Lasers positioned behind the forward ns emit light, and when the missile is close to the target, the light bounces off it and back to sensors on the missile, telling the systems to trigger the warhead. The Sidewinder is launched from an aircraft and is initially propelled by a rocket motor that hurls it forward at a speed of Mach 2.5 (about 3,060km/h). Once the fuel has been used, the missile glides the rest of the way to its target.

2. Vietnam war
Date: 1959-1975 Location: North Vietnam

3. Falklands conict
Date: 1982 Location: Falkland Islands

4. Lebanese civil war


Date: 1975-1990 Location: Bekaa Valley, Lebanon

5. Gulf war
Date: 1990-1991 Location: Persian Gulf

6. SovietAfghan war
Date: 1979-1989 Location: Afghanistan

The warhead
The front mid-section of the Sidewinder is packed with explosives. Like the rest of the missile, though, this 9kg warhead is highly sophisticated. It consists of a high explosive wrapped with around 200 titanium rods, plus an initiator explosive. When the missile is within range of its target, the low-power initiator is activated. This in turn ignites explosive pellets, which then cause the main

charge to explode. This blasts the titanium rods apart into thousands of fragments, which hit the target at high speed, causing cataclysmic damage. A safety device in the missile means that the warhead cannot be activated unless the missile has been accelerating at 20g for ve seconds, therefore ensuring it is at least 2.4km (1.5mi) away from the launching aircraft.

6 3 2

035

ENGINEERING
Hydroelectric power

Head to Head
DAMS
Christoph Filnkl 2006

BIGGEST

1. The Three Gorges Dam

Location: Yangtze River, China Size: Its 2,335 metres long, 101 metres wide and 115 metres at its thickest point. It took 15 years, approximately 25 billion and nearly 14 million tons of cement and materials to construct it. Fascinating fact: 34 turbines, weighing in at 6,000 tons each, generate 22,500 megawatts for an annual output of 60.7 terawatt hours per year in 2009. It is the worlds largest electricity-generating plant of any kind.

Hydroele power

TALLEST
Ibrahim Rustamov

2. Nurek Dam

Location: Vakhsh River, Tajikistan Size: The Nurek dam is an earth ll dam completed in 1980 when the Soviet Union had control of Tajikistan. At 300 metres it is the worlds tallest dam, though the Rogun Dam has a taller proposed height for when it is eventually completed. Fascinating fact: A comparatively modest nine hydroelectric turbines have a total power output of three gigawatts, but amazingly, since 1994 this has been enough to supply 98 per cent of the nations total electricity needs.

Using natures resources to their full potential

MOST FAMOUS
Adrian Michael 2006

Location: Lago di Vogorno, Switzerland Size: Neither the largest nor the tallest dam at 220 metres high Fact: As the site for the scene where James Bond dives off into the Verzasca river below in GoldenEye, this is one of the worlds most famous dams.

3. Verzasca Dam

Water has been used to power man-made mechanisms for hundreds of years, mostly in food production in the form of a mill wheel to grind corn. However, using the kinetic energy of water probably became a reality earlier than you thought. In 1878, inventor Lord Armstrong lit his home in Northumberland using only the power of a nearby waterfall. Its not until the latter half of the 20th Century that we began to take advantage of the massive potential of hydroelectric power. Intriguingly, both the dirty and environmentally unfriendly coal power plants and clean, green hydro-power use almost

identical technology to generate power. Central to a coal-red plant is a turbine: coal is burned to produce heat energy, which is used to boil water into steam, which then drives a turbine. Hydroelectric power removes the coal and steam elements and instead, owing water turns the blades of each turbine. By damming a river next to a drop in elevation and releasing a controlled ow (and creating a large body of water behind the dam called a reservoir), you can effectively harness the Earths gravity as an energy source. Its based on the principles discovered by physicist Michael Faraday: when a magnet moves past a conductor, it creates electricity. When the water owing

036

ctric
The huge generators inside the Hoover Dam

DID YOU KNOW? Between 13,000 to 16,000 people cross the Hoover Dam every day

Reservoir

Inside the dam


The main components that allow water to generate electricity
Powerhouse Generator Turbine Power lines

Intake

Penstock Outow river

Generator

The generator consists of a stationary stator and a spinning rotor.

The outer ring consists of a series of copper wound iron cells that act as electromagnets.

Rotor

TYPES OF
DAM
1 Saddle
Often constructed as an auxiliary to the main dam, at a dip (or saddle) where water would otherwise escape.

Stator

2 Diversionary
This shaft connects the turbine to the generator.

The spinning rotors magnetic eld induces a current in the stators windings.

Turbine generator shaft

Often a controversial construction, these are created with the pure intention of diverting a river from its course.

Wicket gates

3 Dry

These control the amount of water entering.

These are designed to control ooding, allowing the river to ow freely except in times of intense rainfall where ooding is likely.

4 Overow 5 Check
through a hydroelectric turbine turns the blades it rotates a shaft attached to a large disk called a rotor at the opposite end. The rotor is made up of loops of wire with current circulating through them, wound around stacks of magnetic steel. When active, the turbine propeller turns the rotor past the conductors located in the static part of the turbine, known as the stator. Modern technology in even a single large turbine (which can weigh thousands of tons) can generate an enormous amount of power, but the cost-effectiveness of building the dam as well as the environmental and economic impact of ooding the area behind it can prohibit such ventures.

These are made with the intention of the river owing over the top of the dam, usually to measure ow and for drinking water.

Check dams are used to slow the rate of ow of the river with the expressed intention of controlling soil erosion.

Learn more
For more information about the Hoover Dam visit http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/ americanexperience/ hoover/ where you can watch a video on how the dam was built and the mammoth task that was involved.

Turbine blades

The force of the water on these blades generates movement.

The rate of rotation determines the amount of power produced.

Turbine

037

The glossy, 60-f00t lane is normally constructed out of 39 strips of sugar maple wood ENGINEERING Bowling alleys / Optical bre
Side view of a pinsetter
Pin distributor Shark switch

Manufacturing opticalglassbre become cylinder How does a large


a tiny thread of exible glass?
The tiny lament of glass at the core of a length of optical bre starts out as two tubes. These tubes are made from fused quartz glass, which is mainly silica to give it exible properties. First the glass tubes are dipped in corrosive hydrouoric acid to remove any oily residues, they are then placed in a pair of lathes that spin and heat both tubes with a hydrogen and oxygen ame. When the tubes turn white they are nearing peak temperature and at 2,000C the tubes melt together to form one longer tube. This longer tube is placed in another lathe where it is turned and heated by a burner before being injected with chemical gases containing liquid forms of silicon and germanium. The heat and gases cause a chemical reaction that leaves a ne white soot inside the tube. As the burner travels up and down the length of the tube the soot fuses to create a solid glass core. The outer glass tube will form the cladding around the core. Heating softens the tube and the new glass inside until the tube collapses in on itself. You now have a solid rod called a preform. To thin the preform, it is placed vertically in a drawing tower. This heats one end of the rod to 2,000C until the glass becomes a honey-like consistency. As the glass melts it stretches under its own weight and becomes a very tall, thin glass bre. Pulleys and lasers are used to measure the precise tension and diameter of the bre, which should be just 125 micrometres thick. The bre is then passed under an ultraviolet lamp to bake on a protective outer jacket. The nished optical bre is then rolled onto massive drums.

How a bowling alley works


The mechanisms inside a ten-pin bowling alley
Any bowling alley works through a combination of a wooden or synthetic lane anked by semicylindrical gutter channels, an automated pinsetter machine and ball sorter, and a return ball gully and stacker. The glossy, 60-f00t lane is normally constructed out of 39 strips of sugar maple wood, which itself is coated with varying layers of oil down its length. This coating is often heavy towards the bowler end, before dissipating down the alley. This allows a spinning ball more purchase in the nal quarter of its journey, enabling pro-bowlers to hit the pins at varying angles. At the pin end of the alley, starting at the termination of the lane, lays the pin-deck. This deck is where the pins are set up and knocked down, and thanks to this constant activity, it is coated with a durable impact-resistant material. Behind the deck lies the rst part of the mechanical pinsetter machine. The pit and shaker collects both the fallen ball and pins before shufing them to its rear and into mechanical lifts that raise them to above the alley. Once there, the ball is then funnelled onto a metal track which then descends back under the lane to the conveyer belt gully and back to the bowler. The pins on the other hand get dropped from this elevated position into the pinsetters turret, where their bottomheavy weight ensures that they drop base rst. Once lled, the turret then waits for the sweep a mechanical bar that literally sweeps any still-standing pins backwards into the pit to operate before dispensing a freshly ordered set of pins into the spotting table. This table then lowers the pins gently back onto the pin deck ready for the process to begin again. In addition, returned balls are automatically slowed and ltered by spinning rubberised pads as they reach the docking station and ball stacker at the bowler end of the lane, as well as scores being automatically logged and recorded by the lanes in-built computer system, and displayed on a screen.

Pin elevator

Ball pit

Pin table

Sweep

Optical cladding

Protecting the inner glass core is another layer of glass that has a lower refractive index than the core. The whole glass element is 125 micrometres across.

This layer is the last line of defence against damage, such as scratches, to the fragile internal contents. This brings the total diameter of the bre up to 400 micrometres.

Plastic jacket

Inner core

The glass component of optical bre is highly refractive causing total internal reection. This core measures just eight micrometres across, about the size of a human hair.

Total internal reection

The high refraction of the glass core and the low refraction of the outer jacket trap light in the core of the bre so that little-to-no light is absorbed. This is called total internal reection.

A resin coating is baked on to protect the delicate glass thread within from moisture damage. With the addition of this layer, the diameter is now 250 micrometres.

Protective buffer

038

5 TOP FACTS

Fame
The builder of the Lighthouse of Alexandria, Sostratus disobeying orders from the pharaoh Ptolemy engraved his name and a dedication to the sea gods on the tower base.

Academia
The technical term for the study of lighthouses is pharology, a word derived from Pharos, the island upon which the great Lighthouse of Alexandria once stood.

War
George Meade built many notable lighthouses in the US during the classical lighthouse period. He is remembered in history as the winning general in the Battle of Gettysburg.

Tallest
The tallest lighthouse in the world is the Yokohama Marine Tower in Yokohama, Japan. The structure ashes alternately green and red every 20 seconds.

Elemental
Originally lighthouses were lit merely with open res, only later progressing through candles, lanterns and electric lights. Lanterns tended to use whale oil as fuel.

LIGHTHOUSES

The historic Lighthouse of Alexandria on the Pharos Island, Egypt, could be seen from 30 miles away DID YOU KNOW? XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
A reassuring sight for sailors throughout history

A xed Fresnel lens without its outer shell

Lighthouses
Including some of the most impressive man-made structures in the world, lighthouses have played a pivotal life-saving role throughout history
Light source
Early lighthouses used open res and large candles to create light. During the classic period of lighthouse usage, lanterns burning animal oils were common. Gas lamps were also used around the turn of the 20th Century. Modern lighthouses use electric lamps and bulbs.

The Fresnel lens allows for a light source to be amplied way beyond its standard emitable ability in a certain direction and done so with fewer materials than a conventional spherical lens. It achieves this by redirecting light waves through a series of prisms arranged in a circular array, with steeper prisms at the edges and atter ones near the centre.

Fresnel lens

Rotational crank/ machinery

Lighthouses work by rhythmically ashing a rotating light in order to transmit a visual signal to surrounding vessels. This is done so that conditions that provide poor visibility can be mitigated by approaching sailors, allowing them to safely manoeuvre while close to the shore. The individual pattern of ashes or eclipses referred to as the lights character determine the transmitted message and these can range from collision warnings to weather reports, directional guidance to the position of other vessels and structures. The breadth and types of characters a lighthouse can use is determined by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities in Paris. Lighthouse construction emanated from the practice of lighting beacon res upon hilltops, something rst referenced in Homers Iliad and Odyssey in the 8th Century BC. However, it was not until 280 BC, when the architect Sostratus built the Great Lighthouse of Alexandria on the island of Pharos, Egypt, that man-made lighthouse structures began to be built across the entire globe. Since then the style and complexity of the structure, light source and fuel has changed greatly, with intricate designs formed dedicated to advancing the light-saving technology. How It Works takes a closer look at a classical lighthouse and its constituent components.

The rotational ability of the lamp was classically generated by a hand crank, which would be wound by the lighthouse keeper up to every two hours. In modern lighthouses the lamps are powered by diesel electric generators.

Arguably the most important aspect of the lighthouse, the lantern room is the glassed-in structure that sits at the pinnacle of the tower. Commonly, lantern rooms are tted with storm panes and metal astragal bars in order to withstand the harsh weather conditions it is exposed to, as well as a ventilator in the roof to remove any smoke and heat caused by the lamps within obviously, smoke is not an issue with electric lamps. Lantern rooms are often surrounded by a gallery, which is used for cleaning the windows.

Lantern room

Tower

Lighthouse towers are usually either built onshore or directly on the seabed. This is best shown in the caisson method, where an openended cylinder is sunk and lled with concrete to form a solid base. However the latter is less common due to the erosion suffered by sea waves. Towers have a distinctive shape and colour often a toptapered, white tower to help sailors identify it. Within the tower it is also common to nd the lighthouses service room, the place where the fuel/generator is kept.

The gallery is the lighthouses circular, external platform that is often wrapped around one or two levels. It is used for human observation and also as a maintenance platform for cleaning the lantern rooms windows.

Gallery

039

Hannes Grobe

ENGINEERING

Nuclear power
3. Concrete shield building
The steel liner is enclosed in a reinforced concrete building, designed to contain radiation leakage in the event of an accident.

Nuclear power

1. Passive cooling tank

2. Steel containment liner

4. Steam generators

Heat from the reactor boils water in the steam generators to produce a steady supply of highpressure steam.

The reactor and steam generators are housed in a massive steel liner, which shields the radiation.

If the reactor core overheats, the passive cooling tank automatically empties water into the reactor cavity. This cools the reactor from outside the pressure vessel, preventing molten fuel from spilling out.

6. Reactor coolant pumps

Pumps constantly circulate water to cool the reactor and transfer heat to the steam generators.

5. Pressuriser

Operators control the pressure of the coolant water around the reactor by adjusting the air level in the pressuriser.

8. Reactor

9. Turbine generator

The reactor comprises the uranium fuel rods and control rods, housed in a steel containment vessel.

Steam from the steam generator spins a turbine, which powers an electric generator.

7. Main control room

Operators monitor and control reactor activity from a central control room.

Control rods are positioned in between fuel rods to slow or speed up the reaction

Inside a nuclear power station


040

A complex process that requires some high-tech machinery

Images Westinghouse Nuclear

5 TOP FACTS NUCLEAR


POWER

A global energy source


Nuclear power provides 15 per cent of the worlds electricity. That power comes from 436 reactors that are in operation worldwide.

Born in the USA


The very rst nuclear reactor, built in Arco, Idaho in 1951, only powered four light bulbs. It was known as the Nuclear Reactor Testing Station.

A lot of waste
The yearly total of waste that is produced from nuclear power is somewhere between 8,800 and 13,200 tons thats a lot of waste!

Powers most of France


A total of 59 reactors provide 76 per cent of Frances electricity, compared to the UKs 24 reactors providing 19 per cent of our electricity.

Its out to sea


Approximately 150 ships, ranging from huge submarines to massive aircraft carriers, are powered by nuclear reactors.

DID YOU KNOW? A single pound of enriched uranium can provide the same energy as 3 million pounds of coal

From ssion to electricity


1. Fuel rods 2. Reactor
Hundreds of 3.6m uranium rods undergo a ssion reaction, releasing substantial heat.

The principles of nuclear power are remarkably simple. Heres how a pressurised water reactor station turns subatomic particle activity into usable power
5. Pressuriser
The pressuriser contains water, air, and steam. By adding or releasing air in the pressuriser, operators can control the pressure of the coolant water around the reactor.

3. Control rods

Operators can speed up or slow down the ssion reaction by raising and lowering neutron-absorbing rods between the fuel rods.

9. Turbine

Rushing steam drives the turbine which in turn powers the generator.

A steel pressure vessel contains the uranium rods, surrounding water and other reactor components.

10. Generator

4. Pump

A water pump keeps water circulating, and transfers heat away from the reactor core.

6. Heat exchanger

The turbine spins a rotor that sits in a magnetic eld in a generator, inducing an electric current.

A pipe carries hot water from the reactor to a separate reservoir of water.

11. Transformer

7. Steam generator

The hot pipe leading from the reactor heats a separate reservoir of water to the boiling point, generating steam.

The generator transmits electricity to a transformer which is connected to the power grid.

12. Condenser

8. Steam line

5 7 3 8

The steam makes its journey from the steam generator to the turbine.

A pipe carrying a steady supply of cold water which typically comes from a cooling tower cools the steam, causing it to change back to liquid water.

6
Images DK Images

4 1 2 12

10 11

Ecological saviour or a looming catastrophe?


After the Three Mile Island meltdown in 1979, the Chernobyl catastrophe in 1986, and the Fukushima disaster of 2011, nuclear power found itself on the environmental villains list. And yet in the face of mounting global warming concerns, it remains a marvel. Since nuclear power produces no greenhouse gasses, proponents are touting it as a greener alternative to fossil fuels. They argue that one pound of enriched uranium (the chief nuclear fuel) can provide the same energy as 3 million pounds of coal or 1 million gallons of gasoline. But theres a catch. Nuclear fuel produces radioactive waste, which can cause cancer, trigger birth defects, and spawn mutants. The technology is both fascinating and ominous and youre about to nd out why. Nuclear power plants are complexes that span many square kilometres, but the real action happens on a subatomic level. The sole purpose of a plant is to harness the energy of nuclear ssion a reaction where an atoms nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei. Specically, nuclear plants typically derive power from inducing nuclear ssion in enriched uranium oxide, comprising 96-97 per cent uranium238 and three-to-four per cent uranium-235. Uranium is the heaviest of all natural elements and one of the easiest to break apart. When a relatively slow-moving free neutron runs into a uranium-235 atom, the atom will absorb the neutron, and the extra energy will make the atom unstable. The atom immediately splits apart, into two smaller atoms and twoto-three free neutrons. A fraction of the atoms original mass becomes energy, in the form of heat and high-energy photons called gamma rays. With the right mix or uranium-235, you get a chain reaction. Some of the free neutrons generated in the ssion reaction encounter other uranium-235

041

ENGINEERING
Nuclear power
2. Split

The atom immediately splits apart, into two smaller atoms and two-to-three free neutrons. A fraction of the atoms original mass becomes energy, heat and high-energy photons called gamma rays.

Colliding molecules What happens in the


chain reaction
3. Chain reaction
With the right mix of uranium-235, you get a chain reaction. Collectively, the splitting atoms generate substantial heat.

1. Collision

When a free neutron runs into a uranium-235 atom, the atom will absorb the neutron, and the extra energy will make the atom unstable.

The concrete and steel sarcophagus erected around the damaged reactor at Chernobyl

atoms, causing those atoms to split apart, producing more free neutrons. Collectively, the splitting atoms generate a substantial heat. All the equipment in a nuclear plant has one core function: safely harnessing this heat to generate electricity. The heart of a nuclear power plant is the reactor, which contains the uranium fuel and the equipment that controls the nuclear ssion reaction. The central elements in the reactor are 150-200 bundles of 3.6m-long fuel rods. Each bundle includes 200-300

fuel slightly supercritical, without allowing a runaway ssion reaction. The key mechanism for controlling the reaction rate are a series of control rods, made from neutron-absorbing material such as cadmium. Operators can move the control rods in and out of the bundles of uranium rods. To slow down the ssion reaction, operators lower the rods into the bundles. The rods absorb neutrons from the ssion reactions, preventing them from splitting additional nuclei. Operators can stop the ssion

From Fukushima to Chernobyl, the risks that accompany nuclear power production are real

When nuclear reactors fail


When a magnitude nine earthquake shook Japan in March 2011, the water stopped circulating at the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) station in Fukushima and a build up of hydrogen gas blew the roof off the building. The fear of a radiation leak occurred when the coolant water (which immerses the fuel rods) failed and exposed the fuel elements in the reactor vessel to air. In case of an emergency the control rods slide in between the fuel elements to halt the nuclear reaction process, but if the fuel elements are not cooled there can still be a risk of radiation leaking. Technicians used seawater to attempt to cool the fuel rods. And 25 years after reactor four at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant exploded, were still reminded of the risk posed by nuclear power. Chernobyls reactors had little shielding to protect against radioactive contamination and the blasted reactor burned for ten days, spewing 400 times the radioactive fallout that fell on Hiroshima in the World War II bombing. The explosion and radiation exposure killed 56 people soon after the blast, but the total death toll is impossible to calculate, due to the contaminations far reach and long-term effects.

The heart of a nuclear power plant is the reactor


individual rods, which are made from small uranium oxide pellets. The rods are immersed in a coolant and housed in a steel pressure vessel. The ssion reaction continues indenitely when, on average, more than one neutron from each ssion reaction encounters another uranium atom. This state is called supercriticality. In order to safely heat the water, the reactor must keep the reaction by lowering the control rods all the way into the uranium rod bundle. To accelerate the ssion reactions, operators partially raise the rods out of the bundle. This increases the rate of free neutrons colliding with uranium atoms to keep the ssion reaction going. Apart from the ssion reaction, a nuclear plant works the same basic way as a coal-burning plant: the fuel

042

DID YOU KNOW? Radioactive rain resulting from the Chernobyl disaster reached as far as Ireland

Types of reactor
Advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR)
Fuel element Re-entrant gas Boiler

Several nuclear reactor designs are in operation today

The most common design is the pressurised water reactor (PWR). PWRs use pressurised water both as a moderator (the material that slows down free neutrons, increasing the rate of ssion reactions) and as a coolant (the substance that transfers heat away from the reactor core to the steam generator). Another common design, the advanced gas-cooled reactor, uses graphite as a moderator and carbon dioxide as a coolant. The chief advantage of this design is that its possible to heat carbon dioxide to higher temperatures than water (about 650C vs 325C). The greater heat capacity greatly improves plant efciency.

Pressurised water reactor (PWR)


Steel pressure vessel Heat exchanger Pressuriser

Pros and cons

The most powerful force ever harnessed by mankind

Steam Turbine

Steam Turbine

Condenser Condenser Feed pump Gas circulator Graphite core Diagrid Concrete pressure vessel Feed pump Circulation pump

Fuel elements Control rods Concrete shield

generates heat, which boils water, which produces steam, which turns a turbine, which drives an electric generator. In a pressurised water reactor, the heat from ssion doesnt produce steam directly. The ssion reaction heats the water inside the pressure vessel to about 325 degrees Celsius, but the water is kept under high pressure to keep it from boiling. A pumping system drives this hot water through a pipe that runs to a separate water reservoir, in the steam generator. The pipe heats the water in the steam generator to the boiling point, and it produces steam. The rushing steam turns a turbine and then reaches a cooling system. As the steam cools, it condenses back into a liquid. The liquid water returns to the reservoir, and boils again, repeating the cycle. As the turbine spins, it powers a generator, which produces an electric current. And there you have it: usable electric power. Nuclear ssion produces high levels of gamma and beta radiation, which can mutate cells, causing cancer and birth defects, among other things. Naturally, the most important concern when designing a nuclear power plant is containing this dangerous radiation. A modern nuclear power plant has many layers of protection. The pressure vessel that contains the uranium rods is encased in a thick concrete liner, which blocks gamma radiation. The entire

The water treatment systems in a power plant

reactor and the steam generator system are housed in a giant steel liner, providing additional radioactive shielding. The steel liner is surrounded by an outer concrete structure, designed to contain the radiation, even in the event of an earthquake. Modern nuclear power plants also include advanced automatic cooling systems, which kick into action in the event of the reactor or other equipment overheating. The spent uranium rods are also highly radioactive, which means power plants cant just throw them away. The best solutions anyone has come up with so far is to encase the nuclear waste in massive concrete and steel structures or bury it underground.

The remarkable advantage of nuclear power plants is they generate electricity without emitting any air pollution. The clouds billowing from cooling towers are nothing but harmless steam. Nuclear power does take a toll on the environment, however. Mining uranium destroys natural habitats, and the activity involved in both mining and processing uranium produces greenhouse gasses. The bigger problem is fuel radioactivity. As Chernobyl demonstrated, accidents can cause widespread disease. Nuclear waste remains highly radioactive for thousands of years, and theres already more than 60,000 metric tons of it to deal with. Nobody wants it in their backyard. Another concern is waste falling into the wrong hands, giving terrorists material for weapons. In recent years, dozens of nations have decided the benets are worth the risks and are forging ahead. Theyre touting nuclear power as the way of the future just as it was 60 years ago.

Learn more
For more information about the Chernobyl disaster, head to www.world-nuclear.org/ info/chernobyl/inf07.html where you can read an in-depth analysis of the events and impact relating to the unfortunate catastrophe in Ukraine.

Jean Paul Gaultiers new winter line received a mixed reaction

043

ENGINEERING
Semi-automatic pistols

Recoil is the guns kickback, balancing the bullets forward momentum


14 17 13 12

How do semiautomatic pistols work?


The colourful prole of the semi-automatic weapon continues to shape public opinion, but there is more to its substance than style alone
The semi-automatic pistol is a functionally different animal to the romanticised revolver of the Wild West. The motivation for semi and full for that matter automatics derive from energy generated by the ring process to self-load and prime a new round. This comes in a variety of avours, including recoil, blowback and gas. Recoil is the guns kick-back, balancing the bullets forward momentum or as Newton says, with every action must come an equal and opposite reaction. Here, the opposing recoil force drives the gun backwards, initiating momentum in the slide and barrel that are mechanically engaged. Separation of the two typically allows the breech to open as the slide carries on, self-loading and cocking the gun in the process. With blowback the barrel and slide are not wed. The barrel is typically xed to the frame with the shunting force of the exploding cartridge operating against the breech face itself and forcing the slide to the rear. The infamous AK-47 is a further example of a system that siphons gas drawn from the red cartridge explosion to cycle the self-loading process. Despite these distinctions, the term automatic is often clouded with reference to loading and ring. Though its function is distinct from its ancestors, the triggering

15

There are many components inside these pistols

Inside a semiautomatic
Pistol key:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Single action (SA) trigger/ double action (DA) trigger Disconnector (engaged in semi-automatics) Sear Safety grip (must be depressed or gun will not fire) Magazine/Magazine spring (holds upwards of 15 rounds or more) Centerfire cartridge Hammer Firing pin Breech Extractor Chamber Barrel rifling Slide Top locking lugs Recoil spring Link Muzzle

mechanism of semi-automatics such as the US Armys M1911 mean they can only discharge one round for every reciprocal pull of the trigger. This differentiates them from full automatics which utilise a trigger mechanism that actuates a continuous self-loading/ring cycle until a guns clip is spent or trigger released. Due to the unwieldy nature of full automatic pistols, semiautomatic variants are now common throughout the military, police and criminal underworld.

Firearms training makes for better, safer shooters

6. Up and out

The breech opens, the extractor and ejector take turns to draw and kick out the spent chambered cartridge. The slide continues passing over and recocking the hammer.

3. re!

The primer explodes the gunpowder, sheaving the bullet from its case. Expanding gases force the bullet down the barrel past helical grooves that impart spin to improve accuracy in flight.

2. Squeeze

The weapon is first primed by manually racking the slide, which cocks the hammer and chambers the round.

1. Cock 4. Shots away!


Combustion gases provide muzzle velocity upwards of 250m/s; in turn the slide recoil is locked to the barrel by lugs. As the bullet exits, bore pressure falls.

Auto re stage 1
044

The hammer is held by a small notch or sear. Upon pulling the trigger the sear moves and the spring-loaded hammer slips free, striking the firing pin which in turn hits the primer.

5. On the slide

Auto re stage 2

At this point the link pivots the barrel out of lock and the lugs disengage. The slide continues to retreat under conserved momentum, compressing the recoil spring.

5 TOP FACTS TYPES OF


GUN

Lever-action
Synonymous with the Winchester Rie, this action allowed the likes of Billy the Kid to lever new rounds from a sealed tubular magazine, all in one movement.

Giving it both barrels


The double-barrelled shotgun is the prime example of break-open in action; whereby barrels are hinged to expose the breech and ready new rounds.

2,000 rounds a minute


Gatlings gun housed upwards of ten barrels, each with its own breech and ring pin, loaded upon cranked rotation by a gravity-fed ammunition hopper.

Unchained melody
The chain gun has a single barrel and employs an electric motor to drive a chain that is connected to the bolt, which moves back and forth to reload the weapon.

Pump up the volume!


The pump-action is most often found in repeating ries and shotguns; with a hand grip that is pumped back and forth that strips the spent shell and loads a fresh round.

DID YOU KNOW? Holding a full automatic on its side helps against the potential for kick up and vertical spray
9 11 10 8 8 2 16 6 1 5 4 3 7

Semi vs fully automatic

While both loading mechanisms are automated, the advantage of going full automatic means there is no trigger disconnect and no mechanical delay in the cycling of re representative of semi-automatic weapons. Therefore, while they are great in a tight spot and satisfy a penchant for wanton carnage, such continuous re allied to a typically low weight and no shoulder stock makes them tough to control, and a tendency to kick-up during ring makes them prone to vertical spray. Cook-off is also a factor in full automatics, where a round may dispense prematurely from the over-heated chamber. Full automatics often benet from an open bolt policy, where the slide is held back at the end of the cycle to allow cooling air to lter the barrel. Another issue is slam re. This occurs when the slide is released and the force of it closing is powerful enough to detonate the primer. They are also subject to jamming, where the cartridge can stick while entering, or ejecting from the chamber.

1. Safety rst

With frame-mounted safety locking, the hammer and slide allow the gun to be carried with hammer in a cocked and locked state.

2. Reconnecting the disconnect


Taking cover.... along with you Linked to the trigger, this acts as a second sear, which catches the hammer or striker if the trigger is held. The disconnector is active until the trigger is released, and the hammer falls back on the regular sear.

Commonly seen in semiautomatics that are less prone to cook-off, but also found on full automatics. Once cocked, the slide is forward and breech closed, with the chamber housing a fully loaded round.

4. Closed-bolt design

A trigger mechanism that actuates a continuous self-loading/ring cycle

The ring cycle


7. Relock
The slide is propelled forward by the unwinding recoil spring, the returning breech closes and the slide locks into place with the barrel. The single-action trigger (unlike double-action) doesnt cock the hammer, so requiring a shallow press; minimising mechanical disturbance and enhancing the aim.

5. First shot accuracy

9. Trigger happy

Auto re stage 3

In a full automatic the disconnector is not engaged in events. Therefore, keeping the trigger pulled results in a continuous cycling of fire until its released or all ammo is spent.

8. and reload

The slide returns over the hammer (now cocked) and strips a round from the magazine, which is then thrust forward into the chamber.

The magazine is a distinct separation from classic cylindrical multi-chambered revolvers, housing upwards of 15 rounds or more. Note the chambered centrefire round: unlike rimfire, whose primer is built into the rim of the base and therefore when struck the case is not deformed and can be re-used.

3. The round house

045

ENGINEERING
Megastructures

Up close the worlds tallest bridge is no less stunning

Megastruct
Bigger, taller, longer, heavier. We explain the record-breaking engineering behind the worlds biggest man-made structures
2. Making ends meet
Using hydraulic conveyors, the steel deck was glided into place from opposite directions, eventually meeting over the River Tarn.

1. Worlds tallest

Pier Two (P2) is the tallest support pier in the world at 244.96 metres (804 feet).

Since the reign of the pharaohs, the lure of the very large has proven irresistible to visionary architects and game-changing engineers. Ancient Egypt had its pyramids, the Chinese dynasties had their Great Wall and modern Dubai has its well, pretty much everything. At the heart of

every megastructure is a dare: how far can you go? And every few years or so, some ambitious billionaire ups the ante, going higher, longer, deeper and more wildly expensive. The 828-metre (2,717-foot) Burj Khalifa tower in Dubai makes your palms sweat just looking at pictures from the observation deck. And not to be outdone,

Dubais Palm Islands are visible from space with the naked eye. None of these mind-blowing projects would be possible without quantum leaps in structural engineering, materials science, construction technology and logistics. On these pages, well explain the extreme engineering behind extraordinary structures.

Even the Eiffel Tower is dwarfed by the 343-metre high masts of the viaduct

046

Science Photo Library

BRIDGES

ures
3. Bendy bridge
Far from a straight shot, the viaduct is slightly curved and rises at a three per cent incline.

DID YOU KNOW? The Millau Viaduct was ofcially opened on 14 December 2004

FXFOWLE

Head to Head

LONGEST SUSPENSION

1. Akashi Kaikyo Bridge


At 3,900 metres long, this masterwork of Japanese engineering can survive an earthquake up to 8.5 on the Richter scale.

BIGGEST ARCH

2. Dubais MileLong Bridge

BRIDGE OF THE FUTURE

Leave it to boomtown Dubai to dream up a fantastically futuristic proposal for a milelong double arch bridge spanning 12 lanes of trafc.

The proposed 88.5km (55mi) bridge linking North America and Asia would carry vehicle trafc, a high-speed train and pipelines for natural gas and oil.

3. Bering Strait Bridge

The Millau Viaduct

Majestic and minimalist, the worlds longest bridge is also one of the most beautiful
From a distance, the seven steel masts of the record-breaking Millau Viaduct in southern France look like billowing sails of a cosmic spacecraft. Up close, the tallest bridge in the world is no less stunning, a minimalist masterpiece that resembles an Apple iPad in bridge form. The Millau Viaduct is a cable-stayed road bridge of concrete and steel with load-bearing masts stretching 343 metres (1,125 feet) into the air. 17 years in the making at a cost of 400 million euros the 2,460-metre (1.52-mile) span employed the very latest construction techniques and technologies during each of its six stages of fabrication and assembly. First came the legs of the bridge, seven thick piers consisting of 206,000 tons of poured concrete. The smooth, seamless surface of each pier was achieved using a machine called a self-climbing framework. Powered by hydraulic lifters, the concrete framework rises upwards with the pier at a rate of three meters every three days. Pouring continuously, the piers rose from the valley oor, reaching their peak heights in ten months. Next came the deck, built from 173 steel box beams forged in the Eiffel factory. Using two on-site metalworks, the steel oor was welded to the box beams to create 171-metre deck panels. The panels were then launched from both sides of the bridge using 64 hydraulic conveyors positioned atop the piers and temporary steel crutches. The two sides of the deck literally slid towards each other at a rate of 60cm per push, equal to nine metres an hour. The two sides nally met on 28 May 2004 at 2:12pm. The seven steel masts support 1,500 tons of steel stays attached at 11 paired points. Each stay consists of up to 91 bound steel cables and each cable is made from seven individual strands of steel. The stays are triply weatherproofed to avoid corrosion. Before paving the road, workers used highpressure blasters to scour the steel deck with millimetre-size ball bearings. Once all traces of rust were removed, special equipment laid a four-centimetre thick layer of tar thermosealed at 400C, offering complete corrosion protection. The bridge construction is guaranteed for 120 years and is continuously monitored for movements as small as a micrometre by dozens of bre-optic sensors strung throughout the structure.

The Statistics
Opened: 14 December 2004 Designed by: Michel Virlogeux and Norman Foster Length: 2,460 metres (1.52 miles) Width: 32 metres (105 feet) Mast height: 343 metres (1,125 feet)
Stephane Compoint / Foster & Partners

Millau Viaduct

3. The missing link

The viaduct completes an important span of the A75 autoroute, serving 4,670,449 vehicles in 2008.

2. Tightly wound

154 stays, 11 pairs per mast, were strung and pulled to precision tautness to support the 36,000-ton weight of the steel deck.

These two masts were raised first to support the overhanging noses of the decks as they slid into place.

1. No nosedive

047

ENGINEERING
Megastructures
Dubai re-creates The World from an ocean of sand
Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum has only one requirement for construction projects in his desert nation of Dubai: if it doesnt break a world record for tallest, biggest or most expensive, hes not interested. It shouldnt surprise, therefore, that the original design of the Palm islands three man-made islands of colossal proportions off the coast of Dubai came from the Sheikhs own pen. But how do you build the worlds largest man-made islands? Luckily, Dubai has almost as much sand as it does oil money. The state-run developer Nakheel hired the Dutch dredging rm Van Oord, specialists in land reclamation, to suction up millions of cubic metres of sand from the sea oor and precision spray it into the shape of a huge date tree with 16 slender fronds extending into the sea. Van Oords dredging equipment is guided by DGPS (differential global positioning system), NASAs new real-time positioning technology thats accurate down to ten centimetres. The rst stage of each of Dubais articial island projects the three Palm islands, plus a 300-island cluster in the shape of the continents called The World is to install an articial barrier reef as a water break. The articial wall for The World, consisting of 34 million tons of carefully stacked rocks, is 27km long. The dredging team then builds each island or peninsula in stages, using heavier machinery for the island foundations and rainbowing sand sprayers to nish the above-water detail work.

A starter home begins at 1.3 million


2. Lifes a beach
The rainbowing sand sprayers on the dredging equipment are designed to create beachfront with a precise and consistent slope.

The Statistics
Palm Jumeirah

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Privacy Eraser Portable5.17.2






Publisher Description


Privacy Eraser Portable 5.17.2 Screenshot

Privacy Eraser is an all-in-one privacy suite that protects your privacy by cleaning up all your Internet history tracks and past computer activities. It supports popular web browsers such as Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari and Opera.
With simply one click, Privacy Eraser can quickly erase the Internet cache, cookies, browsing history, address bar history, typed urls, autocomplete form history, saved password and index.dat files of your browser, and Windows run history, search history, open/save history, recent documents, temporary files, recycle bin, clipboard, taskbar jump lists, dns cache, log files, memory dumps, error reporting and much more.
Furthermore, Privacy Eraser supports plug-ins to extend cleaning features, you can easily delete the tracks left by any applications by making your own plug-ins. Privacy Eraser embedded more than 250 FREE plug-ins which supports the most popular programs such as ACDSee, Adobe Reader, Microsoft Office, WinZip, WinRAR, Windows Media Player, VLC Player, eMule, BitTorrent, Google Toolbar and many others. With the flexible, highly customizable and open plug-in architecture, you can even customize your own exclusive Privacy Eraser!
Privacy Eraser works on Microsoft Windows 10/8.x/7/Vista/2012/2008 (32/64-bit) and supports Microsoft Windows FAT16/FAT32/exFAT/NTFS file systems, completely implements and exceeds the US Department of Defense and NSA clearing and sanitizing standard, to gives you confidence that once erased, your file data is gone forever and can not be recovered.

About Privacy Eraser Portable

Privacy Eraser Portable is a free software published in the Other list of programs, part of Security & Privacy.

This program is available in English, Arabic, Bulgarian, Chinese, ChineseSimplified, Czech, Dutch, French, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovenian, Spanish, Turkish. It was last updated on 2021-11-19. Privacy Eraser Portable is compatible with the following operating systems: Windows, Windows-mobile.

The company that develops Privacy Eraser Portable is Cybertron Software Co., Ltd.. The latest version released by its developer is 5.17.2. This version was rated by 2 users of our site and has an average rating of 2.8.

The download we have available for Privacy Eraser Portable has a file size of 9.09 MB. Just click the green Download button above to start the downloading process. The program is listed on our website since 2021-11-15 and was downloaded 1506 times. We have already checked if the download link is safe, however for your own protection we recommend that you scan the downloaded software with your antivirus. If your antivirus detects the Privacy Eraser Portable as malware or if the download link is broken, use the contact page to email us.

How to install Privacy Eraser Portable on your Windows device:

  • Click on the Download button on our website. This will start the download from the website of the developer.
  • Once the Privacy Eraser Portable is downloaded click on it to start the setup process (assuming you are on a desktop computer).
  • When the installation is finished you should be able to see and run the program.

Program Details



General

 
Publisher Cybertron Software Co., Ltd.
Released Date 2021-11-15
Languages English, Arabic, Bulgarian, Chinese, ChineseSimplified, Czech, Dutch, French, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovenian, Spanish, Turkish


System requirements

 
Operating systems windows, windows-mobile

Download information

 
File size 9.09 MB
Total downloads 1506

Pricing

 
License model Free
Price N/A

Version History



Here you can find the changelog of Privacy Eraser Portable since it was posted on our website on 2014-07-24. The latest version is 5.17.2 and it was updated on soft112.com on 2021-11-19. See below the changes in each version:


version 5.17.2

posted on 2021-11-15

Added Windows 11 official version support; Improved Registry detection and backup on Windows 11; File Shredder functionality; Improved Drive Wiper functionality on Windows 11; Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routines on Windows 11; Improved installer/uninstaller compatibility.

version 5.13.2

posted on 2021-07-15

Improved command line support; Minor GUI improvements.

version 5.13

posted on 2021-07-01

Improved Brave cleaning and monitoring; Improved Vivaldi cleaning and monitoring; Improved Windows local temp folder cleaning; Improved File Shredder functionality; Improved Portable version support.

version 5.12.3

posted on 2021-06-15

Improved localization and language support; Minor bug fixes.

version 5.12

posted on 2021-06-01

Improved Microsoft Edge journal and temp files cleaning; Improved cleaning Download History for Chromium based browsers; Improved Browser monitoring for Chromium based browsers; Improved Plug-in testing functionality.

version 5.11

posted on 2021-05-01

Improved Microsoft Edge Cookies cleaning; Improved Firefox Cookies detection; Improved Windows 10 Notifications & Actions support; Improved Taskbar Jump Lists cleaning; Improved secure deletion performance.

version 5.10

posted on 2021-04-01

Improved Microsoft Edge Cache, History and Cookies cleaning; Improved Opera Cache, History, Cookies and Sessions cleaning; Improved Vivaldi Cache, History, Cookies and Sessions cleaning; Improved localization and language support.

version 5.9.2

posted on 2021-03-19

Improved Google Chrome Cache, History, Cookies and Sessions cleaning; Improved Brave Cache, History, Cookies and Sessions cleaning; Improved Firefox Cache and Download History cleaning; Improved Auto-Update checking process.

version 5.8.4

posted on 2021-02-15

Added cleaning for GitHub Desktop, Handy Backup, WhatsApp, Wondershare PDF Editor and Zend Studio; Improved Google Chrome Cache and History cleaning; Improved Wipe exFAT Free Space routine; Improved Solid-state drive (SSD) detection.

version 5.7

posted on 2021-01-01

Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routines; Improved File Slack Space cleaning; Improved Recycle Bin cleaning; Improved Windows Error Reporting cleaning; Improved Windows Log Files cleaning.

version 5.6

posted on 2020-12-15

Improved Thunderbird embedded browser cleaning; Improved Registry cleaning and backup support; Improved Windows environment variable support; Improved command line support; Improved Auto-Update checking process.

version 5.5

posted on 2020-11-15

Improved Google Chrome Download History cleaning; Improved cleaning multiple profiles for Chromium based browsers; Improved detection and cleaning of portable browsers; Improved performance of Compact database routines; Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routines; Optimized 64-bit build architecture.

version 5.3

posted on 2020-09-05

Added cleaning for WinZip Registry Optimizer, Wordweb, XMind, YouTube-DL and Zoom; Improved Internet Explorer Cache, History and Cookies cleaning; Improved Microsoft Edge Cache, History and Cookies cleaning; Improved localization and language support.

version 5.2.5

posted on 2020-08-22

Fixed serval issues and bugs.

version 5.2.2

posted on 2020-08-11

Improved Microsoft Edge Cache, History and Cookies cleaning; Improved Cookie Manager for Microsoft Edge; Optimized 64-bit build architecture; Improved localization and language support.

version 5.1.4

posted on 2020-07-15

Improved Internet Explorer Cache, History and Cookies cleaning; Improved Cookie Manager for Internet Explorer; Improved Invalid Start Menu/Desktop Shortcuts cleaning; Improved Drive Wiper workflow; Improved Skype cleaning.

version 5.0

posted on 2020-06-15

Added support for Microsoft Edge (Chromium) browser; Added independent cleaning and monitoring for Brave/Vivaldi browser; Added automatically scan for cookies to keep functionality; Improved Google Chrome Download History cleaning; Improved Drive Wiper workflow.

version 4.62

posted on 2020-05-01

Improved Microsoft Office cleaning; Improved Registry detection and backup; Improved File scanning performance on Solid-state drive (SSD); Improved Uninstaller scanning and uninstalling routines.

version 4.61.2

posted on 2020-04-15

Improved Firefox cleaning and monitoring; Improved Registry cleaning for Missing Shared DLLs; Improved Windows Memory Dumps cleaning; Improved Wipe FAT/FAT32/exFAT Free Space routines.

version 4.60.3

posted on 2020-03-15

Improved Google Chrome cleaning and monitoring; Improved Firefox Internet History cleaning; Improved Opera Cookies cleaning; Improved Import/Export functionality for Plug-ins; Improved keyboard navigation and shortcuts.

version 4.59.2

posted on 2020-02-15

Improved Alternate Data Streams cleaning; Improved Solid-state drive (SSD) detection; Improved command line support; Improved Auto-Update checking process.

version 4.58.5

posted on 2020-01-15

Improved Google Chrome History cleaning; Improved Taskbar Jump Lists cleaning on Windows 10; Improved Skip UAC warning on Windows 10; Improved Schedule options on Windows 10; Improved environment variable support for plug-in processing engine.

version 4.57.5

posted on 2019-12-20

Improved detection and cleaning algorithm for Mozilla based browsers; Improved File scanning performance on NTFS drives; Improved Drive Wiper functionality for Windows 10; Improved Options-Include/Exclude Registry key entry format.

version 4.56.3

posted on 2019-11-15

Improved Firefox Cookies cleaning; Improved Microsoft Office cleaning; Improved Skip UAC warning on Windows 10; Improved multiple-user profiles detection and cleaning; Improved localization and language support.

version 4.55.3

posted on 2019-10-15

Improved Google Chrome Cookies cleaning; Improved Opera Cookies cleaning; Improved Chromium based browsers detection and cleaning; Improved detection and cleaning of portable browsers; Improved Auto-Update checking process.

version 4.54.2

posted on 2019-09-15

Improved Google Chrome Cookies cleaning; Improved Windows Memory Dumps cleaning; Improved Windows Error Reporting cleaning; Improved Windows Log Files cleaning; Improved Microsoft Office cleaning; Improved Solid-state drive (SSD) detection.

version 4.53.5

posted on 2019-08-21

Improved Microsoft Edge Cookies management and cleaning; Improved Firefox History and Session cleaning; Improved Registry detection and cleaning algorithm; Improved secure deletion performance; Improved installer/uninstaller routines.

version 4.52

posted on 2019-07-01

Improved Microsoft Edge Cache and Cookies cleaning; Improved Recycle Bin cleaning; Improved Solid-state drive (SSD) detection.

version 4.51.6

posted on 2019-06-24

Improved Waterfox and Brave browser cleaning and monitoring; Improved Microsoft Edge History cleaning; Improved Registry cleaning for Obsolete Software and MUI Cache; Improved Windows 10 support and performance; Improved Auto-Update checking routine.

version 4.50.5

posted on 2019-05-15

Added Waterfox browser cleaning and monitoring; Added Brave browser cleaning and monitoring; Improved Firefox Session cleaning; Improved Registry cleaning for Application Paths and Missing Shared DLLs; Improved File Slack Space and Alternate Data Streams cleaning on Windows 10.

version 4.49.3

posted on 2019-04-15

Improved Google Chrome Saved Form Information cleaning; Improved Memory and CPU usage; Improved localization and language support.

version 4.48.5

posted on 2019-03-15

Improved Firefox Cache and Cookies cleaning; Improved Secure file deletion on exFAT file system; Improved Solid-state drive (SSD) detection; Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routine.

version 4.47.2

posted on 2019-02-15

Improved Google Chrome Media Cache and Thumbnail cleaning; Improved Vivaldi cleaning and monitoring; Improved Include/Exclude Registry key entry format; Improved file scanning performance on Windows 10; Improved secure file deletion routines.

version 4.46.2

posted on 2019-01-15

Improved Microsoft Edge Cookies management and cleaning; Improved Opera GPU and Application cache cleaning; Improved Windows 10 Notifications & Actions Center support; Improved registry scanning routines; Improved Portable version support.

version 4.45.2

posted on 2018-12-15

Improved Google Chrome Extension Cache and Cookies cleaning; Improved performance of Compact database routines for Google Chrome, Firefox and Opera; Improved Browser monitoring for Chromium based browsers; Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routine.

version 4.38

posted on 2018-07-01

Improved Google Chrome Cookies cleaning; Improved Firefox Saved Password cleaning; Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routines on Windows 10; Improved File Slack Space and Alternate Data Streams cleaning on Windows 10; Improved uninstalling routines for Uninstaller.

version 4.37.3

posted on 2018-06-15

Improved Google Chrome journal and tmp files cleaning; Improved Opera AutoFill Form History and Saved Password cleaning; Improved multiple-user profiles detection and cleaning; Improved intelligent algorithms for Wipe MFT Free Space routines; Improved Windows Log Files cleaning.

version 4.36.5

posted on 2018-05-15

Improved Microsoft Edge Cache, History and DOMStore cleaning; Improved Chrome Cache and History cleaning; Improved Opera History cleaning; Improved Windows 10 Registry detection and cleaning; Improved Schedule options for multiple users on Windows 10.

version 4.35.2

posted on 2018-04-15

Improved Microsoft Edge History and Session cleaning; Improved Chrome Last Download Location cleaning; Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routines on Windows 10; Improved Taskbar Jump Lists cleaning on Windows 10; Improved drag and drop functionality on Windows 10.

version 4.34.2

posted on 2018-03-15

Improved Chrome and Opera History cleaning; Improved Firefox Cache and Session cleaning; Improved Chromium based browsers detection and cleaning; Improved loading speed of Cookie Manager; Improved command line parameters /Silent and /VerySilent; Improved global exception handling and reporting.

version 4.32.5

posted on 2018-01-15

Improved Windows 10 Fall Creators Update support; Improved Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer Cookies cleaning; Improved Cookie Manager for Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer on Windows 10; Improved Windows 10 Registry detection and cleaning; Improved Windows Explorer MRU Cache cleaning.

version 4.28.2

posted on 2017-09-15

Improved Vivaldi cleaning and monitoring; Improved Microsoft Edge Tab cleaning; Improved Shutdown after cleaning and /Clean command-line; Improved 64-bit build architecture for Windows 10; Improved Include and Exclude wildcard support; Improved Import/Export functionality for Custom Plug-ins.

version 4.27.2

posted on 2017-08-15

Added Vivaldi browser cleaning and monitoring; Added Microsoft Edge Last Download Location cleaning; Improved Google Chrome Download History cleaning; Improved Windows 10 Registry detection and cleaning; Improved Windows Explorer MRUs cleaning. Improved Portable version support.

version 4.26.5

posted on 2017-07-15

Improved Windows 10 Creators Update support; Improved Firefox Internet Cache cleaning; Improved Chrome Download History cleaning; Improved 64-bit Registry detection and cleaning architecture; Improved file security algorithms; Improved accuracy for uninstall items installation.

version 4.25.2

posted on 2017-06-15

Improved Microsoft Edge Cookies and History cleaning; Improved Google Chrome 64-bit support; Improved Firefox Download History cleaning; Improved ActiveX and Class Issue Registry cleaning; Improved Wipe Free Space algorithm; Improved internal architecture for better performance.

version 4.24.2

posted on 2017-05-15

Improved Internet Explorer and Microsoft Edge Cache cleaning; Improved Firefox History and Session cleaning; Improved detection of Chromium based browsers; Improved system monitoring startup procedure; Improved 64-bit build architecture on Windows 10; Improved and optimized Registry Cleaning.

version 4.23.3

posted on 2017-04-15

Added Romanian language support; Improved Google Chrome Saved Passwords cleaning; Improved Firefox and Chrome History cleaning; Improved recursive folder analysis and cleaning; Improved System Restore discovery; Improved Startup Item tool compatibility; Improved Auto-Update checking process.

version 4.22.4

posted on 2017-03-15

Improved Google Chrome Cache and History cleaning; Improved Firefox Search History cleaning; Improved Windows 10 Recycle Bin cleaning; Improved skip UAC warning for Monitoring; Improved live monitoring notifications and settings; Optimized internal architecture for faster start up.

version 4.21.3

posted on 2017-02-15

Improved Microsoft Edge Cache and History cleaning; Improved Firefox History and Session cleaning; Improved Firefox Cookies detection; Improved detection and cleaning of portable browsers; Improved System and Browser Monitoring; Improved 64-bit Registry detection and cleaning architecture.

version 2.0

posted on 2014-04-15

Added Portable version support; Added Uninstaller to manage installed applications; Added support for Torch & K-Meleon browser; Added cleaning for Adobe Premiere Pro CC, Agent NewsReader, CuteFTP 9, Directory Opus 10, OpenOffice 4 and Sony Vegas Pro 12; Fixed "Load at Windows startup" issue.


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Privacy Eraser Portable5.17.2






Publisher Description


Privacy Eraser Portable 5.17.2 Screenshot

Privacy Eraser is an all-in-one privacy suite that protects your privacy by cleaning up all your Internet history tracks and past computer activities. It supports popular web browsers such as Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari and Opera.
With simply one click, Privacy Eraser can quickly erase the Internet cache, Resharper 2020.2.3 crack Archives, browsing history, address bar history, typed urls, autocomplete form history, saved password and index.dat files of your browser, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, and Windows run history, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, search history, open/save history, recent documents, temporary files, recycle bin, clipboard, taskbar jump lists, dns cache, log files, memory dumps, error reporting and much more.
Furthermore, Privacy Eraser supports plug-ins to extend cleaning features, you can easily delete the tracks left by any applications by making your own plug-ins. Privacy Eraser embedded more than 250 FREE plug-ins which supports the most popular programs such as ACDSee, Adobe Reader, Microsoft Office, WinZip, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, Windows Media Player, VLC Player, eMule, BitTorrent, Google Toolbar and many others. With the flexible, highly customizable and open plug-in architecture, you can even customize your own exclusive Privacy Eraser!
Privacy Eraser works on Microsoft Windows 10/8.x/7/Vista/2012/2008 (32/64-bit) and supports Microsoft Windows FAT16/FAT32/exFAT/NTFS file systems, completely implements and exceeds the US Department of Defense and NSA clearing and sanitizing standard, to gives you confidence that once erased, your file data is gone forever and can not be recovered.

About Privacy Eraser Portable

Privacy Eraser Portable is a free software published in the Other list of programs, part of Security & Privacy.

This program is available in English, Arabic, Bulgarian, Chinese, ChineseSimplified, Czech, Dutch, French, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovenian, Spanish, Turkish. It was last updated on 2021-11-19. Privacy Eraser Portable is compatible with the following operating systems: Windows, Windows-mobile.

The company that develops Privacy Eraser Portable is Cybertron Software Co., Ltd. The latest version released by its developer is 5.17.2. This version was rated by 2 users of our site and has an average rating of 2.8.

The download we have available for Privacy Eraser Portable has a file size of 9.09 MB. Just click the green Download button above to start the downloading process. The program is listed on our website since 2021-11-15 and was downloaded 1506 times. We have already checked if the download link is safe, however for Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives own protection we recommend that you scan the downloaded software with your antivirus. If your antivirus detects the Privacy Eraser Portable as malware or if the download link is broken, use the contact page to email us.

How to install Privacy Eraser Portable on your Windows device:

  • Click on the Download button on Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives website. This will start the download from the website of the developer.
  • Once the Privacy Eraser Portable is downloaded click on it to start the setup process (assuming you are on a desktop computer).
  • When the installation is finished you should be able to see and run the program.

Program Details



General

 
Publisher Cybertron Software Co., Ltd.
Released Date 2021-11-15
Languages English, Arabic, Bulgarian, Chinese, ChineseSimplified, Czech, Dutch, French, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, Slovenian, Spanish, Turkish


System requirements

 
Operating systems windows, windows-mobile

Download information

 
File size 9.09 MB
Total downloads 1506

Pricing

 
License model Free
Price N/A

Version History



Here you can find the changelog of Privacy Eraser Portable since it was posted on our website on 2014-07-24. The latest version is 5.17.2 and it was updated on soft112.com on 2021-11-19. See below the changes in each version:


version 5.17.2

posted on 2021-11-15

Added Windows 11 official version support; Improved Registry detection and backup on Windows 11; File Shredder functionality; Improved Drive Wiper functionality on Windows 11; Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routines on Windows 11; Improved installer/uninstaller compatibility.

version 5.13.2

posted on 2021-07-15

Improved command line support; Minor GUI improvements.

version 5.13

posted on 2021-07-01

Improved Brave cleaning and monitoring; Improved Vivaldi cleaning and monitoring; Improved Windows local temp folder cleaning; Improved File Shredder functionality; Improved Portable version support.

version 5.12.3

posted on 2021-06-15

Improved localization and language support; Minor bug fixes.

version 5.12

posted on 2021-06-01

Improved Microsoft Edge journal and temp files cleaning; Improved cleaning Download History for Chromium based browsers; Improved Browser monitoring for Chromium based browsers; Improved Plug-in testing functionality.

version 5.11

posted on 2021-05-01

Improved Microsoft Edge Cookies cleaning; Improved Firefox Cookies detection; Improved Windows 10 Notifications & Actions support; Improved Taskbar Jump Lists cleaning; Improved secure deletion performance.

version 5.10

posted on 2021-04-01

Improved Microsoft Edge Cache, History and Cookies cleaning; Improved Opera Cache, History, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, Cookies and Sessions cleaning; Improved Vivaldi Cache, History, Cookies and Sessions cleaning; Improved localization and language support.

version 5.9.2

posted on 2021-03-19

Improved Google Chrome Cache, History, Cookies and Sessions cleaning; Improved Brave Cache, History, Cookies and Sessions cleaning; Improved Firefox Cache and Download History cleaning; Improved Auto-Update checking process.

version 5.8.4

posted on 2021-02-15

Added cleaning for GitHub Desktop, Handy Backup, WhatsApp, Wondershare PDF Editor and Zend Studio; Improved Google Chrome Cache and History cleaning; Improved Wipe exFAT Free Space routine; Improved Solid-state drive (SSD) detection.

version 5.7

posted on 2021-01-01

Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routines; Improved File Slack Space cleaning; Improved Recycle Bin cleaning; Improved Windows Error Reporting cleaning; Improved Windows Log Files cleaning.

version 5.6

posted on 2020-12-15

Improved Thunderbird embedded browser cleaning; Improved Registry cleaning and backup support; Improved Windows environment variable support; Improved command line support; Improved Auto-Update checking process.

version 5.5

posted on 2020-11-15

Improved Google Chrome Download History cleaning; Improved cleaning multiple profiles for Chromium based browsers; Improved detection and cleaning of portable browsers; Improved performance of Compact database routines; Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routines; Optimized 64-bit build architecture.

version 5.3

posted on 2020-09-05

Added cleaning for WinZip Registry Optimizer, Wordweb, XMind, YouTube-DL and Zoom; Improved Internet Explorer Cache, History and Cookies cleaning; Improved Microsoft Edge Cache, History and Cookies cleaning; Improved localization and language support.

version 5.2.5

posted on 2020-08-22

Fixed serval issues and bugs.

version 5.2.2

posted on 2020-08-11

Improved Microsoft Edge Cache, History and Cookies cleaning; Improved Cookie Manager for Microsoft Edge; Optimized 64-bit build architecture; Improved localization and language support.

version 5.1.4

posted on 2020-07-15

Improved Internet Explorer Cache, History and Cookies cleaning; Improved Cookie Manager for Internet Explorer; Improved Invalid Start Menu/Desktop Shortcuts cleaning; Improved Drive Wiper workflow; Improved Skype cleaning.

version 5.0

posted on 2020-06-15

Added support for Microsoft Edge (Chromium) browser; Added independent cleaning and monitoring for Brave/Vivaldi browser; Added automatically scan for cookies to keep functionality; Improved Google Chrome Download History cleaning; Improved Drive Wiper workflow.

version 4.62

posted on 2020-05-01

Improved Microsoft Office cleaning; Improved Registry detection and backup; Improved File scanning performance on Solid-state drive (SSD); Improved Uninstaller scanning and uninstalling routines.

version 4.61.2

posted on 2020-04-15

Improved Firefox cleaning and monitoring; Improved Registry cleaning for Missing Shared DLLs; Improved Windows Memory Dumps cleaning; Improved Wipe FAT/FAT32/exFAT Free Space routines.

version 4.60.3

posted on 2020-03-15

Improved Google Chrome cleaning and monitoring; Improved Firefox Internet History cleaning; Improved Opera Cookies cleaning; Improved Import/Export functionality for Plug-ins; Improved keyboard navigation and shortcuts.

version 4.59.2

posted on 2020-02-15

Improved Alternate Data Streams cleaning; Improved Solid-state drive (SSD) detection; Improved command line support; Improved Auto-Update checking process.

version 4.58.5

posted on 2020-01-15

Improved Google Chrome History cleaning; Improved Taskbar Jump Lists cleaning on Windows 10; Improved Skip UAC warning on Windows 10; Improved Schedule options on Windows 10; Improved environment variable support for plug-in processing engine.

version 4.57.5

posted on 2019-12-20

Improved detection and cleaning algorithm for Mozilla based browsers; Improved File scanning performance on NTFS drives; Improved Drive Wiper functionality for Windows 10; Improved Options-Include/Exclude Registry key entry format.

version 4.56.3

posted on 2019-11-15

Improved Firefox Cookies cleaning; Improved Microsoft Office cleaning; Improved Skip UAC warning on Windows 10; Improved multiple-user profiles detection and cleaning; Improved localization and language support.

version 4.55.3

posted on 2019-10-15

Improved Google Chrome Cookies cleaning; Improved Opera Cookies cleaning; Improved Chromium based browsers detection and cleaning; Improved detection and cleaning of portable browsers; Improved Auto-Update checking process.

version 4.54.2

posted on 2019-09-15

Improved Google Chrome Cookies cleaning; Improved Windows Memory Dumps cleaning; Improved Windows Error Reporting cleaning; Improved Windows Log Files cleaning; Improved Microsoft Office cleaning; Improved Solid-state drive (SSD) detection.

version 4.53.5

posted on 2019-08-21

Improved Microsoft Edge Cookies management and cleaning; Improved Firefox History and Session cleaning; Improved Registry detection and cleaning algorithm; Improved secure deletion performance; Improved installer/uninstaller routines.

version 4.52

posted on 2019-07-01

Improved Microsoft Edge Cache and Cookies cleaning; Improved Recycle Bin cleaning; Improved Solid-state drive (SSD) detection.

version 4.51.6

posted on 2019-06-24

Improved Waterfox and Brave browser cleaning and monitoring; Improved Microsoft Edge History cleaning; Improved Registry cleaning for Obsolete Software and MUI Cache; Improved Windows 10 support and performance; Improved Auto-Update checking routine.

version 4.50.5

posted on 2019-05-15

Added Waterfox browser cleaning and monitoring; Added Brave browser cleaning and monitoring; Improved Firefox Session cleaning; Improved Registry cleaning for Application Paths and Missing Shared DLLs; Improved File Slack Space and Alternate Data Streams cleaning on Windows 10.

version 4.49.3

posted on 2019-04-15

Improved Google Chrome Saved Form Information cleaning; Improved Memory and CPU usage; Improved localization and language support.

version 4.48.5

posted on 2019-03-15

Improved Firefox Cache and Cookies cleaning; Improved Secure file deletion on exFAT file system; Improved Solid-state drive (SSD) detection; Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routine.

version 4.47.2

posted on 2019-02-15

Improved Google Chrome Media Cache and Thumbnail cleaning; Improved Vivaldi cleaning and monitoring; Improved Include/Exclude Registry key entry format; Improved file scanning performance on Windows 10; Improved secure file deletion routines.

version 4.46.2

posted on 2019-01-15

Improved Microsoft Edge Cookies management and cleaning; Improved Opera GPU and Application cache cleaning; Improved Windows 10 Notifications & Actions Center support; Improved registry scanning routines; Improved Portable version support.

version 4.45.2

posted on 2018-12-15

Improved Google Chrome Extension Cache and Cookies cleaning; Improved performance of Compact database routines for Google Chrome, Firefox and Opera; Improved Browser monitoring for Chromium based browsers; Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routine.

version 4.38

posted on 2018-07-01

Improved Google Chrome Cookies cleaning; Improved Firefox Saved Password cleaning; Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routines on Windows 10; Improved File Slack Space and Alternate Data Streams cleaning on Windows 10; Improved uninstalling routines for Uninstaller.

version 4.37.3

posted on 2018-06-15

Improved Google Chrome journal and tmp files cleaning; Improved Opera AutoFill Form History and Saved Password cleaning; Improved multiple-user profiles detection and cleaning; Improved intelligent algorithms for Wipe MFT Free Space routines; Improved Windows Log Files cleaning.

version 4.36.5

posted on 2018-05-15

Improved Microsoft Edge Cache, History and DOMStore cleaning; Improved Chrome Cache and History cleaning; Improved Opera History cleaning; Improved Windows 10 Registry detection and cleaning; Improved Schedule options for multiple users on Windows 10.

version 4.35.2

posted on 2018-04-15

Improved Microsoft Edge History and Session cleaning; Improved Chrome Last Download Location cleaning; Improved Wipe MFT Free Space routines on Windows 10; Improved Taskbar Jump Lists cleaning on Windows 10; Improved drag and drop functionality on Windows 10.

version 4.34.2

posted on 2018-03-15

Improved Chrome and Opera History cleaning; Improved Firefox Cache and Session cleaning; Improved Chromium based browsers detection and cleaning; Improved loading speed of Cookie Manager; Improved command line parameters /Silent and /VerySilent; Improved global exception handling and reporting.

version 4.32.5

posted on 2018-01-15

Improved Windows 10 Fall Creators Update support; Improved Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer Cookies cleaning; Improved Cookie Manager for Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer on Windows 10; Improved Windows 10 Registry detection and cleaning; Improved Windows Explorer MRU Cache cleaning.

version 4.28.2

posted on 2017-09-15

Improved Vivaldi cleaning and monitoring; Improved Microsoft Edge Tab cleaning; Improved Shutdown after cleaning and /Clean command-line; Improved 64-bit build architecture for Windows 10; Improved Include and Exclude wildcard support; Improved Import/Export functionality for Custom Plug-ins.

version 4.27.2

posted on 2017-08-15

Added Vivaldi browser cleaning and monitoring; Added Microsoft Edge Last Download Location cleaning; Improved Google Chrome Download History cleaning; Improved Windows 10 Registry detection and cleaning; Improved Windows Explorer MRUs cleaning. Improved Portable version support.

version 4.26.5

posted on 2017-07-15

Improved Windows 10 Creators Update support; Improved Firefox Internet Cache cleaning; Improved Chrome Download History cleaning; Improved 64-bit Registry detection and cleaning architecture; Improved file security algorithms; Improved accuracy for uninstall items installation.

version 4.25.2

posted on 2017-06-15

Improved Microsoft Edge Cookies and History cleaning; Improved Google Chrome 64-bit support; Improved Firefox Download History cleaning; Improved ActiveX and Class Issue Registry cleaning; Improved Wipe Free Space algorithm; Improved internal architecture for better performance.

version 4.24.2

posted on 2017-05-15

Improved Internet Explorer and Microsoft Edge Cache cleaning; Improved Firefox History and Session cleaning; Improved detection of Chromium based browsers; Improved system monitoring startup procedure; Improved 64-bit build architecture on Windows 10; Improved and optimized Registry Cleaning.

version 4.23.3

posted on 2017-04-15

Added Romanian language support; Improved Google Chrome Saved Passwords cleaning; Improved Firefox and Chrome History cleaning; Improved recursive folder analysis and cleaning; Improved System Restore discovery; Improved Startup Item tool compatibility; Improved Auto-Update checking process.

version 4.22.4

posted on 2017-03-15

Improved Google Chrome Cache and History cleaning; Improved Firefox Search History cleaning; Improved Windows 10 Recycle Bin cleaning; Improved skip UAC warning for Monitoring; Improved live monitoring notifications and settings; Optimized internal architecture for faster start up.

version 4.21.3

posted on 2017-02-15

Improved Microsoft Edge Cache and History cleaning; Improved Firefox History and Session cleaning; Improved Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives Cookies detection; Improved detection and cleaning of portable browsers; Improved System and Browser Monitoring; Improved 64-bit Registry detection and cleaning architecture.

version 2.0

posted on 2014-04-15

Added Portable version support; Added Uninstaller to manage installed applications; Added support for Torch & K-Meleon browser; Added cleaning for Adobe Premiere Pro CC, Agent NewsReader, CuteFTP 9, Directory Opus 10, OpenOffice 4 and Sony Vegas Pro 12; Fixed "Load at Windows startup" issue.


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How It

How do games consoles work? Whats inside a haul truck?

ENTERTAINMENT

DOMESTIC

COMPUTING

GADGETS

INVENTIONS

Does a roller coaster defy gravity?

How does a pistol work? Can an eco bulb save energy?

What are motion sensors?

TM

BOOK OF

Whats inside a DSLR?

TECHNOLOGY
The science of bladeless technology How do lighthouses save lives? Whats behind a touch screen?

Everything you need to know about the worlds best tech

8,500
Whats in a laser beam?

INSIDE:

AMAZING FACTS

TM

BOOK OF

TECHNOLOGY
Everything you need to know about the worlds best tech

TM

Technology
Imagine Publishing Ltd Richmond House 33 Richmond Hill Bournemouth Dorset BH2 6EZ % +44 (0) 1202 586200 Website: www.imagine-publishing.co.uk

Amazing
Book of
Editor in Chief Dave Harfield Production Editor Helen Laidlaw Design Danielle Dixon, Duncan Crooke

Photo Studio Studio equipment courtesy of Lastolite (www.lastolite.co.uk) Printed by William Gibbons, 26 Planetary Road, Willenhall, West Midlands, WV13 3XT Distributed in the UK & Eire by Imagine Publishing Ltd, www.imagineshop.co.uk. Tel 01202 586200 Distributed in Australia by Gordon & Gotch, Equinox Centre, 18 Rodborough Road, Frenchs Forest, NSW 2086. Tel + 61 2 9972 8800 Distributed in the Rest of the World by Marketforce, Blue Fin Building, 110 Southwark Street, London, SE1 0SU Disclaimer The publisher cannot accept responsibility for any unsolicited material lost or damaged in the post. All text and layout is the copyright of Imagine Publishing Ltd. Nothing in this magazine may be reproduced in whole or part without the written permission of the publisher. All copyrights are recognised and used specifically for the purpose of criticism and review. Although the magazine has endeavoured to ensure all information is correct at time of print, prices and availability may change. This bookazine is fully independent and not affiliated in any way with the companies mentioned herein. HIW Book of Amazing Technology 2011 Imagine Publishing Ltd ISBN 978-1-908222 0 84

nology Works Book Of Amazing Tech The How It


74 PlayStation 3 Internet television

Engineering
10 Massive mining machines explained
Extraction on a grand scale

76

Domestic
82 Dyson Airblade
Discover the tech that means you can dry your hands in seconds

16 18 18 19

MRI scanner Elevators/lifts Circular saws Pile drivers

84 Hairdryers 84 Yale locks 85 Power drills 86 Pressure cookers 86 Water lters 86 Can openers 87 Pianos 88 Flexfoot Cheetah 89 Powercube transformers 89 Touch-sensitive lamps 90 Kettles 90 Eco-friendly bulbs
How do they differ from normal bulbs?

20 Roller coasters 24 Offshore oil rigs 26 Rail guns 27 28 32 Cranes Renewable energy
Alternatives to fossil fuels

Coal mining

34 Bullet proof glass 34 Milking machines 35 36 38 38 39 Side winder missiles Hydro electric dams Bowling alleys Manufacturing optical bre Lighthouses

91 92

Fire extinguishers Dyson Air Multiplier

94 Cigarette lighters 94 Weighing scales 95 Refrigerators 96 Burglar alarms 96 Electric toothbrushes 97 Clock mechanisms 98 Online groceries 99 Water coolers 99 Batteries 100 Vacuum asks
How to keep hot things hot

40 Nuclear power 44 Semiautomatic pistols 46 Megastructures

Entertainment
52 Motion-control gaming
How motion sensors are changing the way we play games

58 Apple TV 60 OLEDs 61 Pinball machines 62 Nintendo DS 64 Slot machines 65 Electric guitars 66 Xbox 360 68 Audio reproduction 72 72 73 006 Auto tuning software
Cant sing. No problem!

103 Water sprinklers 192 weaponry Wild West


History

Space

100 Cycle helmets 101 Sky player 102 Aerosol sprays 102 Double glazing 103 Sprinklers 103 Ball cocks 104 Pencils 104 Central heating 105 Air conditioning 105 Beer widgets

IMAX cinemas Green screen

132 How Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives worlds fastest


computers work

164 Skype 164 Optical zooms 165 Remote control helicopters 166 Camera lenses 168 Motorola smartphones 170 Noise-cancelling headphones
How to listen to music in peace

170 Infrared watches 171 Phone chargers 171 Nasa detectors Metal 172 Apple smartphones

Inventions
178 Mark I tanks
A common sight on the WWII battlefield

180 Guillotines 180 Typewriters 181 Wright Flyer 181 V2 Rocket 182 Blast furnaces 182 Ancient earthquake detectors 183 First razors 184 Model T Ford 105 Staplers 106 Toasters 106 Smoke alarms 107 Barcodes 107 Washing machines 107 Pet ID tags 108 Sewage treatments 132 Superfast computers 136 PayPal 137 Web hosting 138 Social networks
The birth of mass production cars?

186 First television 186 First telephone 187 First computer 188 Anderson shelters 188 Floppy disks 189 Windmills 190 First mechanical calculator 190 Early ploughs 190 Self-heating food cans 191 1804 steam locomotive
The power of steam in practice

Gadgets
144 Tablet computers
What goes on beneath the touch screen?

Computing
112 Spotify
Music download systems explained

148 Radar 148 Digital sound 148 Geiger counters 149 DVD burning 149 Night vision 150 eBook readers 152 Blu-ray
How does a Blu-ray disc work?

114 Superfast broadband 118 QR codes 118 Electronic ink 119 Firewalls 119 IBM Roadrunner 120 MacBook Pros 122 Wi-Fi 122 USB drives 123 App creation 124 Mobile internet
The next-generation of mobile networks explained and explored

192 Weapons of the wild west 194 Gramophones 194 Dynamo generators 195 Tesla coil 196 Bicycles 197 The wheel 198 Concorde 200 Astrolabes
Ancient astronomy

152 Holograms 153 DSLR cameras 154 Electronic hearing aids 154 Bluetooth 155 Connected GPS 156 BlackBerry smartphones 158 Clockwork radios 158 Microphones 159 Electric cigarettes 159 Polygraph tests 160 3D digital cameras
Achieving real 3D on your camera

200 Ancient wells 201 Looms 201 Cannons 202 Sea mines 202 Mechanical music boxes 203 Atari 26 204 Man of War 007

128 Data centres 130 Fibre optic internet 130 Phishing 131 Facial recognition 131 USB 3.0

ERIng gInE En
world changed the thats credible tech In

How water can generate power

36

10

Learn how these behemoths work

Massive mining machines explained

coasters explained

20 Roller

16

MRI scanner

he medical wonders that T can get inside your head

18

Elevators/lifts

hat goes up must come W down, and we see how!

18

Circular saws

Behind the blade that can cut down a tree

26

Rail guns
xplaining how these E machines can be used

19

Pile drivers

riving down into the D ground with ease

27

Cranes
Reaching heights man cant quite get to

34

The incredible material that can save a persons life

Bullet proof glass

20

Roller coasters
he science behind these T exhilarating rides

24
008

he life and T technology behind these essential rigs

Offshore oil rigs

28
32

Renewable energy

34 35 36

Milking machines
he tech that gets it from cow to T kitchen table

iscover the ways D were trying to save the planet

Side winder missiles


he deadly missiles that can T track and trace

Coal mining
oing underground in G search of coal

Hydroelectric dams
earn how to generate L electricity using water

ENGINEERING

39about Learn
lighthouses

38 Go behind a bowling alley

40 A look at

nuclear power

Inside an MRI scanner

16

38
38 39

Bowling alleys

See how the pins fall down and get back up again

40
44 46

Nuclear power

The controversial technology explained

Manufacturing optical bre


This minute tech that has changed the world

Semiautomatic pistols
Learn how these guns shoot a bullet

Lighthouses
Showing you your way when youre out at sea

Megastructures
Explaining giant construction

24 Life on an oil rig


009

ENGINEERING

MASSIVE mining machines

Massive mining machines

Bucyrus International Inc.

The world is still primarily reliant on fossil fuels for energy generation. With billions of people across the globe, this means the demands that are placed on the mining industry are huge. Extracting these fossil fuels as efciently as humanly possible is of utmost importance, and for best efciency and ability to meet this demand, you need scale. And the ve machines featured across the next six pages denitely t the bill scale. This is hugescale engineering that you can barely get your head

around. Its difcult to get your head around just how vast these massive tools are not to mention the sheer amount of fossil fuels they extract each and every day, around the clock. They may cost tens of millions of pounds, and last for decades, but when it comes down to it they are still controlled by a human being. The principles they use will be familiar to those who have driven past roadworks or looked closely at a building site. Its just that they are enlarged to dimensions to take your breath away. Read on to nd out how they work.

010

DID YOU KNOW? The RH400 is the worlds largest hydraulic excavator

The mining industry is all about scale. And when we say these machines are big, we mean BIG!

BIGGEST DRAGLINE
Bucyrus 8750
This massive dragline can clear football pitch-sized spaces right before your eyes
The Bucyrus Dragline 8750 will run 24 hours a day, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, seven days a week, and excavate up to 116m3 per scoop thats the equivalent of 58,000 two-litre water bottles. It will do this for an average of 40 years, which is why its used in surface mining operations worldwide. There are 45 different specications of dragline, each with its very own on-staff application engineer. The 8750 series has multiple bucket capacities, and a boom length of up to 132.5m. It can reach depths of up to 79.8m. It is among the largest of all mobile equipment in the world; but when we say mobile, we do not mean fast! Moving a dragline is not the work of a moment, particularly the Bucyrus. It has a rated suspended load of up to 344,736kg and its approximate working weight is more than 7.5 tons. It is powered by Siemens AC drives throughout. The 8750 series comes in various guises, with the rangetopper being the 8750D3. This uses gearless AC direct drive for hoist and drag the advantages here are in efciency. It allows fast bucket lls, and the lack of hoist and drag gearing also Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives maintenance. Power is provided to the AC drives by utility lines the enormous power consumption means that connection directly to the electrical grid is often the most efcient solution.

Just in case you have trouble getting your head around just how massive this machine is

How big?!
On the grid
Most draglines are connected direct to the electrical grid because of the sheer hunger they have for power.

AC ace

The AC drives in the Bucyrus are 86 per cent efficient, compared to 74 per cent efficiency for DC drives.

Cutting-edge drive

The cutting-edge D3 Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives drive technology is even more efficient, with an 89 per cent efficiency stat.

How a dragline excavator works


1. Hoist the bucket
A bucket is suspended on a hoist coupler from the draglines boom arm by strong hoist wires. The hoist rope drops down from the top point of the boom arm; connected to it is the dragline bucket.

2. Boom arm

The Statistics
Bucyrus 8750
Built by: Bucyrus Overall length: 140m Width: 39m Overall height: 80m

3. Drag the bucket

The bucket is dragged across the surface by a drag rope, collecting material.

The dragline can swing out to one side, and bucket contents dumped by releasing the wire rope.

4. Swing out and dump

011

ENGINEERING
Massive mining machines

The T282C has up to 20 cylinders and a 95.4-litre capacity. Maximum power is 4,023bhp

BIGGEST HAUL TRUCK


Liebherr T282C
On-board troubleshooter
Support is available on various levels and is based around electronic communications through an online troubleshooting system.

This supertruck is the biggest of its kind in the world a monster mining truck no mine can defeat
When empty, the weight distribution is 54 per cent rear-biased. This changes to 67 per cent rear bias when fully laden.

Shifting weight distribution

The Statistics
Liebherr T282C
Built by: Liebherr Length: 15.7m Width: 8.7m Height: 8.3m Weight: 266 tons Total vehicle weight: 666 tons (fully loaded) Payload: 400 tons

Focus on service
Two service doors and better airflow to the engine and electronics mean best possible reliability and reduced servicing needs.

Brake stop unless operator says start

Electronic brakes include an antirollback feature this means the ultratruck cannot move backwards on an incline unless instructed.

The word supertruck is not enough to describe the ultratruck behemoth that is the Liebherr T282C, which is used in mining operations worldwide. Its sheer scale can be judged by its empty weight of 266 tons or more than 150 Ford Focus hatchbacks piled together. Not only that, but its also capable of carrying a 400 ton payload on top of this, giving it a weight of over 600 tons when full! Powering it is a diesel engine that comes in either fuel-optimised or emissions-optimised setup. As with passenger cars, achieving lowest-possible exhaust emissions carries a fuel usage penalty. It has up to 20 cylinders and a 95.4-litre capacity; maximum power is 4,023bhp! The engine alone weighs 12 tons. It delivers energy to an alternator, which powers a liquid-cooled control box this converts it into three-phase AC current. It is moved by an AC electronic drive system called IGBT insulated gate bipolar transistor. This uses in-wheel induction motors to move the monster truck. They allow the diesel to run independently of travel speed, therefore generating drive in the most efcient way possible. This gives better fuel economy.

The IGBT drive system can also slow the big truck down instead of using the back-up disc brakes. This regenerates electrical energy, which is used to power the trucks auxiliary systems it is hybrid-style ecological awareness! Road construction dumper truck drivers will nd the cabin of this beast fairly familiar: it has a traditional steering wheel and pedals, and the left-hand-drive set-up includes a 30cm colour touch screen for diagnostics. Its top speed is 64km/h (40mph) and the clever drive system even aids handling. In corners, drive to the outside rear wheels is increased and eased off on the inside wheels, helping it turn in better. The T282C is constructed using a vertical integration process. On the cast truck frame sits the massive dump body, superstructure and drivetrain. Liebherr has optimised it using computer aided design, so reinforcements are only added in high stress areas. This has cut weight and also improved the maximum payload. The dump system is controlled using a joystick and completes a lift cycle in under 50 seconds. Fully lifted, the dump body stands nearly 15m high.

Multi-purpose digger

The LeTourneau can be used to load rock, coal and Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives ore. It can lift up to 72,574kg.

LeTourneau

On the fast cycle

The entire load cycle takes just 25 seconds 16 seconds for hoist, three seconds for dump and a six-second float.

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5 TOP FACTS TYPES OF


MINING

Open-cast mining
In open-cast mining the minerals that lie on the surface of the earth or very near the surface are scooped and scratched out from the surface by machines like these.

Open-pit mining
Open-pit mining consists of recovery of materials from an open pit in the ground, quarrying or gathering building materials from an open-pit mine.

Strip mining
Similar in many ways to openpit mining, this consists of stripping surface layers off to reveal the ore and seams that lie underneath.

Mountaintop removal
Commonly associated with coal mining, this involves taking the top of a mountain off to reach deposits Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives depth.

Sub-surface mining
Digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits. Ore for processing, and waste rock for disposal are brought to the surface through the tunnels.

DID YOU KNOW? The T282C has a payload of up to 400 tons


Its murder to park but you could t 400 tons of groceries in it

Diesel generates electricity

A large diesel engine drives a generator, producing the electrical energy to drive the in-wheel motors. It is cooled by massive radiators.

Hydraulic rams lift the haul dump deck that has been previously loaded by another ultra-machine.

Hydraulic ram lifter

Anatomy of a haul truck Get under


Alex Pang

the hood of a Terex Titan

Liebherr

Four in-wheel motors convert AC power into forward drive, moving the haul truck at up to 64km/h.

AC into forward drive

Liebherr

The Statistics
LeTourneau L-2350
Built by: LeTourneau Length: 20.9m Width: 7.6m Height: 6.4m cabin height, bucket max lift 13.9m

The wheel motors also slow the haul truck, and in doing so, also regenerates electrical energy.

Multi-purpose wheel motors

BIGGEST WHEEL LOADER L-2350 LeTourneau


To clear large spaces fast, you need a LeTourneau L-2350. Its the worlds biggest wheel loader, and is more than 20m long. The wheelbase alone is the length of two large executive cars, and the bucket is so big it is nearly a metre wider than the wheel loader truck itself. It is driven by a choice of several diesel engines, depending on the type of material to be excavated it is highly exible but used mainly in coal mining. The largest engine is 45 litres and puts out 2,300hp. Maximum speed is 17km/h (10.5mph), both forwards and backwards; an AC-DC traction drive uses four traction motors with innitely variable speed. Braking is electronic and the

These worker ants are often seen on building sites but its not often you see one on this scale!
L-2350 is steered by a joystick. Excavation operations use an electrohydraulic hoist and bucket; the best-match truck capacity is 400 tons and larger! As it operates in mines, all air is ltered and supplied to the engine, drive system cooling and also a pressurised cabin. Operators have a colour-coded warning light system that alerts them to engine, hydraulic, electrical and electronic problems. The operating payload is vast, up to 72,574kg in standard form, and only slightly reduced at 68,039kg in high-light form. As standard, it has a reach of 3.18m, with the high-lift increasing this to 3.49m (and a total height of 13.89m).

Bucket size is varied according to material density: less dense surfaces have larger buckets.

Variety bucket

013

ENGINEERING
Massive mining machines

The RH400 has a bucket capacity of 50m3

BIGGEST HYDRAULIC LOADERS


Terex (now Bucyrus) RH400
Everything about the Bucyrus hydraulic excavator is huge as youd imagine of something that weighs nearly 1,000 tons!
In front of you is the worlds largest hydraulic excavator an $11m machine that stands a full ten metres (33 feet) high and 8.6 metres wide. The record-breaking Bucyrus is used for many mining operations, including coal, copper, iron ore and oil sands; it is commonly found in Canada, but also has an underground coalmining specication. The RH400 weighs an incredible 980 tons and is powered by two turbodiesel engines with a maximum output of Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives at 1,900rpm. Each is 60.2 litres in capacity and has 16 cylinders; they use two-stage turbocharging, aftercooling and intercooling. The engines power hydraulic pumps, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, which generate very high pressure oil for driving the track motors and moving the excavator rams. There are eight main pumps and six swing pumps. Forward drive is via axial piston motors on each side; each track is two metres wide and three metres high. The total hydraulic oil volume is 13,000 litres; an electronic Pump Managing System oversees the hydraulics and incorporates ow-on-demand control. Excavators are built of two distinct constructions the undercarriage and the house, where the operator cab and boom reside. They t to the undercarriage using a centre pin, meaning they can rotate 360 degrees. A torsion-resistant 9.5m-long boom and 56m-long stick provides the excavation shovelling duties; the bucket is attached on the end. The RH400 has a bucket capacity of 50m3, and various specications are available, depending on shovelling duties: iron ore, heavy rock, oil sand and standard rock congurations are offered. Up to 3,300kN of digging force can be generated. It achieves considerable bucket load without signicant counterweights at the rear. This means it is relatively compact, which is an important consideration for use in space-restricted areas. The operator also has a comfy cabin with pneumatic seat and ergonomic joystick control system. The windscreen is armour plated and a safety switch is embedded inside the seat: when it senses it is unoccupied, all the hydraulic controls are automatically neutralised.
The maximum speed of the RH400 is 2.2km/h (1.37mph); it can, however, generate a maximum tractive force of 4,140kN

Low speed, high power

The Statistics
Terex RH400
Built by: Bucyrus Length: 10.98m Width: 8.6m Height: 9.99m

Eco engines

The diesel engines pass US EPA emissions laws; they are fed by a 15,100-litre diesel fuel tank.

014

DID YOU KNOW? A rope shovel is used for digging out surfaces such as vertical coal faces
More of a bungalow-load than a shed-load

BIGGEST ROPE SHOVEL


P&H 4100XPC
Even the largest rock faces in the world should fear this huge rope shovel
clear, it swings to one side and can be Rope shovels are the heavy-duty attackers of released into a dumper truck. P&H has cut the mining industry and none eat away seconds from this entire cycle with its ultra the earth faster than the P&H 4100XPC. This shovel. How? Through speeding up the hoist is the supercharged high-performance cycle by extending the shovels speed range. pinnacle of the rope shovel world! This has come at no penalty to capacity or A rope shovel is used for digging out payload, though. The nominal payload is 115 surfaces such as vertical coal faces. They tons, and it can cut up to 16.8m high, consist of a rotating deck where the driver through a radius of 23.9m. This is why the cabin lies, along with the engine and a operator sits a full ten metres off the ground; heavy counterweight. To the front of the the rope shovel itself is 14.7m high, and 15m deck a boom is attached, which carries a long. The wire hoist rope swing arm and a bucket. alone is 73mm thick! The bucket is controlled There are two hoist motors, by a series of ropes. When rated at a peak 3,990hp, three facing a surface to be P&H 4100XPC swing motors, two propel excavated, the wire ropes Built by: P&H motors and a single crowd are dug into the surface Length: 32m motor. The operator controls using a crowd arm, then Width: 14.4m it via an armrest-mounted pulled up through lling it Height: 21m pistol-grip joystick. with material. Once raised

Comes in a range of colours, including this fetching burgundy

The Statistics

Low on service

Bucyrus has fitted a xenon working light. It is ultra-bright for working around the clock. Servicing is minimal and oil change intervals are 1,000 hours.

On-board loo

The operators cabin is so large, it can even have an optional lavatory room! There are also two work counters for appliances.

Bucyrus International Inc. PH Mining Equipment

A big thanks goes to Paul Moore, editor of Mining Magazine, for his help researching this article. www.miningmagazine.com

Monster truck for monster shovel


P&H specifies an optimum truck size payload; this is a monumental 400 tons: even the trucks are monster trucks!

The dipper capacity is 76.5m3, and the maximum suspended load is 215 tons.

Stock the suspender

015

ENGINEERING
Inside an MRI scanner
Planning from the detail

Physicists and engineers use and manipulate the basic laws of physics
An MRI scan on a skull

Using magnets produces highquality images at virtually no risk to the patient.

Best of both worlds

The detail provided by MRI scanners enables doctors of all specialties to plan their treatment. When Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives damage their knees, an MRI scan will tell if the ligaments are ruptured. Knee surgeons can then reconstruct the damage, often via keyhole incisions (arthroscopically), Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. MRI scans are used to characterise a variety of tumours, such as those of the rectum (the lowest part of the colon) and within the brain. MRI gives enough detail to determine the size and stage of the tumour, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. This helps specialist surgeons plan whether the tumour is resectable, and also how to perform the operation. MRIs key lies in its ability to differentiate soft tissues it can even tell the difference between infected and normal tissues. Infections within bones are best identied using MRI, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, and then surgeons can plan whether to treat with antibiotics, an operation, or, if the infection is spread too far, an amputation.

Inside an MRI scanner


When doctors need the highest quality images possible they turn to MRI scanners, but how do they work?
Doctors often plan treatments based on imaging. X-rays, ultrasound and CT scans provide useful pictures, but when the highest quality images are needed, they turn to MRI scanners. While CT scanners use x-rays and therefore expose the patient to radiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses powerful magnets and is virtually risk free. MRI scans are obtained for many medical conditions, although since they are expensive and complicated to interpret, they certainly arent as easy as taking a chest x-ray. Examples for which they are used include planning surgery for rectal cancers, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, assessing bones for infection (osteomyelitis), looking at the bile ducts in detail for trapped gallstones, assessing ligamental damage in the knee joints and assessing the spinal cord for infections, tumours or trapped nerves. Physicists and engineers use and manipulate the basic laws of physics to develop these incredible scanners for doctors to use. MRI scans provide such details because they work at a submolecular level; they work on the protons within hydrogen atoms. By changing the position of these protons using magnetic elds, extremely detailed pictures of the different types of particles are obtained. Since these pictures rely on the tiny movements of these tiny particles, you need to lie very still during the scan.

Slice by slice images


Specially wound coils, known as gradient coils, allow for the detailed depth imaging which creates the slice-by-slice pictures. While the main superconducting magnet creates a very stable magnetic eld, these gradient coils create variable magnetic elds during the scan. These elds mean that the magnetic strength within the patient can be altered in specic areas, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Since the protons realign at different rates in different tissue

types, the relationship between the strength of the eld and the frequency of the emitted photons is different for various tissues. Detecting these differences allows for very detailed images. Powerful computers outside the main machine then reconstitute all of this data to produce slice-by-slice imaging. Depending on whats being scanned, 3D reconstructions can then be created, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives as for brain tumours.

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Science Photo Library

5 TOP FACTS MRI

Careful
Due to the powerful magnets, any metal objects left in the room can be pulled towards the magnet and can harm patients. Examples have included oxygen cylinders and chairs.

Pacemakers
Pacemakers were absolute contraindications to MRI scans. However, modern pacemakers and implantable debrillators are being designed to be MRI safe.

The most modern


MRI scans can be combined with PET scans. These PET-MRI scans produce anatomical and functional images, such as assessing for extent of tumour growth and tumour activity.

Now thats cold


The coils of the superconducting magnets are cooled to lower their resistance. Liquid helium cools them to near absolute zero around -270C.

Mobile MRI
Mobile MRI scanners can go to where the patients are. They are based in big articulated lorries and can be stationed outside hospitals to provide extra scanning capacity.

SCANNERS

DID YOU KNOW? Around ten per cent of patients are too claustrophobic for conventional MRI scanners
Radiofrequency transmission

A radiofrequency transmission causes the protons to flip around, and then turning this off causes the protons to re-align. This movement releases energy which is detected by the scanner to create pictures.

The MRI scanner


Its a big, hi-tech machine Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives there are different varieties all around the world, found in hospitals, medical research centres and even zoos, but they all work on common principles of manipulating the laws of physics
Superconducting magnets
These powerful magnets create very stable magnetic fields, which align protons within the bodys hydrogen atoms. The magnets are cooled to near absolute zero and so are well insulated from the patient.

MRI atoms

Its a matter of reading the alignment

Enhancement

Contrast agents are used in addition to enhance the contrast between tissue types. For looking at joints such as the shoulder or knee, contrast can be injected directly into the joint prior to the scan. For the blood vessels, an intravenous contrast is injected during the scan.

Bang bang!

The gradient coils are switched on and off rapidly and alter the magnetic field in specific tissue areas. As they switch on and off, the coils contract and expand by tiny amounts this produces a loud noise which is heard as a series of loud bangs.

Line up please

Looking for tumours

Since the protons in different tissue types return to their normal state at different rates, they give off different frequencies of energy and so contrast between different types of tissues can be seen. This allows identification of a brain tumour from normal cells.

The tunnel in which the patient lies is very narrow; some patients dont fit. There are small lights and a radio with headphones to keep you comfortable. Once the changes in energy have been detected within the Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, they are transmitted to powerful computers outside the scanner, which transform the data into useful images.

The tunnel

Hydrogen atoms contain just one proton and emit tiny magnetic fields. When placed in a stronger magnetic field (the one produced by the magnets), these protons line up in the direction of the field.

The computer

Flip and spin

Gradient coils

These coils produce much weaker, variable magnetic fields compared to the superconductors. These gradient fields are specifically targeted to certain tissues, allowing for depth and detailed tissue type differentiation.

The scanner emits a radiofrequency through the patient, which flips the spinning direction of these aligned protons. The frequency is at just the right pitch, producing a resonance energy (hence magnetic resonance).

Philip s Achie va 3.0T

TX imag es

courtes y of Phil ips

The patient lies down on a narrow plastic table outside the machine, which is then advanced slowly into the tunnel.

Lie here

Flip back
Youll need to be an expert to interpret the imagery

S cien ce P hot o Li bra ry

Once the radiofrequency is removed, the protons degrade back to their original positions. As they do so, they release tiny amounts of radiowave energy in the form of photons. It is these changes that build the detailed pictures.

Coronal

The transverse plane is a horizontal plane which divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts.

Transverse

Which direction?

Converting to pictures

The coronal plane divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) halves.

The sagittal plane moves down the midline of the body and divides it into left and right.

Sagittal

Medical teams need to communicate using the same terms so they are clear what they are looking at. The cross-sectional images produced by MRI scanners are extremely complex, but this is why they are so useful. The terms to the left are the imaginary lines that provide cross-sections. The planes can be moved across the body to look at whole organs or areas.

Different magnetic strengths produce different frequencies in the protons, which are also affected by the different type of body tissues. The resultant energy given off by re-aligning the protons is interpreted by a computer to produce detailed images.

017

ENGINEERING
Elevators / Circular saws

Lift/elevator mechanics

The lift was a world-changing invention because it enabled the creation of todays stunning skyscrapers, not to mention saving an incredible amount of time and effort! Imagine a world with just stairs

How circular saws work


Circular saws rely on providing a large torque in the centre of a hole in the blade. As a force is applied to one side of the hole, a torque force is created much like when using a spanner on a nut, although signicantly faster. When cutting through an object such as wood, the circular saw is placed at with the saw pointing down. The wood is clamped in place. By slowly moving the blade through the wood it will produce a clean cut.

Using a torque force, these clever cutting tools make light work of wood
There are several types of circular saw, most spinning at up to 3,500 rotations per minute (rpm) to make a clean cut through an object. Some connect the motor directly to the saw for a one-to-one speed ratio. Others use a combination of large and small cogs to alter the revolution of the saw and ultimately the speed. For example, by attaching a large gear cog to a smaller one on the blade, usually at a ratio of two to one, a motor turning at 1,750 rpm will actually move the blade at 3,500 rpm.

Most modern lifts use a cable system. The lift car runs up and down rails within a shaft, and at the top of the shaft is an electric motor that turns a large wheel, or sheave. Cables run over this, one end of which is attached to the car, the other end to a counterweight. The counterweight weighs the same as the car plus a typical half load, which means that the two structures balance each other out, so the motor doesnt need to work very hard to move the lift; it just needs to overcome the friction within the system. Of course, the motor must be strong enough to cope with the lift being fully loaded, but this only happens occasionally. A number of cables are used as back-up in the rare event of one failing. In addition, an automatic brake activates if the lift falls too fast. So those horror-movie scenes of plummeting lifts and ailing cables can never become reality.

Double gear drive


Gullet
The teeth are designed to remove any material shed from the object it is cutting. This allows for a clean cut with no rough edges.

For each revolution, the saw will cut further and more swiftly into an object if there are more teeth.

Teeth

Inside a lift shaft


Electric motor
This drives the ropes that are looped around the sheave, which is a grooved pulley system.

In cable-based lifts, the car is raised and lowered by traction steel ropes. Most lifts have between four and eight cables.

Cables

Although most saws use a round hole, some use a diamond shaped hole for a higher torque force.

Blade hole

Double gear

In this double gear system, a large cog is powering the smaller cog by applying a large Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives force, which increases the number of revolutions.

Carbide is a compound of carbon and iron, which is sometimes used to make the teeth. It is stronger and longer lasting than steel.

Tip

Counterweight weight

A collection of metal weights that help conserve energy by adding accelerating power when the lift is ascending but have a braking effect when the lift is descending.

These run the length of the shaft to keep the car and counterweight from swaying when in motion. Rollers attached to the car also keep transit smooth.

Guide rails

Upper guard

Height adjustment

Movable lower guard lever

Motor

Braking system

Some lifts have electromagnetic brakes that are activated automatically if the lift loses power.

If the brakes fail and the car falls, a piston mounted in an oil-lled cylinder can save lives as a last resort.

Shock absorber

Blade lock bolt

Cut-width control

Blade tilting lever

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Pile drivers
How do these mechanical monsters puncture holes in the Earth?
A pile driver Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives used for bridge building in California Most pile drivers are mounted on trucks

Once released, the piston, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, which is also a massive weight, free-falls within the cylinder compressing air and fuel added by a fuel pump within.

Piston

The cylinder both acts as a guide for the piston and also sports the systems exhaust vents, releasing fumes and smoke post-contact.

Cylinder

The compressed air within the cylinder exerts massive force on the impact block, which in turn Jr Typing tutor crack serial keygen the drive cap against the pile top.

Impact block

As the piston reaches the impact block the compressed fuel and air is atomised on contact and ignited, driving the pile into the ground.

Pile

A pile driver is a mechanical device used to drive piles deep-lying structural Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives into the Earth. Traditionally, pile drivers worked by suspending a large heavy object above the pile needing to be driven into the Earth within a guidance frame, which was then released to freefall upon it before being winched back up for another freefall. Modern pile drivers, however, have evolved and come in three types: diesel hammer, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, hydraulic hammer and vibratory hammers. Diesel pile drivers operate by utilising a piston in conjunction with a cylinder to compress air and fuel on top of an impact block. Due to the resulting contained explosion once ignited, this has the dual effect of driving the below pile into the ground and projecting the above piston back to the top of its housing, ready to fall again under gravity for another drive cycle. This type of pile driver is the most common worldwide as it is relatively cheap to operate

and features a deceptively simple design. It is, however, the most noisy and polluting, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, and for every cycle, smoke and exhaust fumes are released into the atmosphere post-drive. Hydraulic drivers are newer than diesel variants and employ cylinders stocked with hydraulic uid where traditionally compressed air and fuel would be used to generate the systems driving force. These systems are often preferred now in construction as they mitigate the effects of vibration on the pile and surrounding areas, something especially important in built-up areas where other structures may potentially be compromised. Typically, hydraulic pile drivers work within 70 decibels too, which also makes them considerably quieter in operation than diesel or vibration drivers. Vibration pile drivers work differently to diesel and hydraulic variants, utilising a series of hydraulically powered, counter-rotating eccentric weights designed

Often a large two-stroke machine, the diesel engine lifts the piston/weight to the top of the support structure.

Engine

to cancel out generated horizontal vibrations, but transmit vertical ones into the below pile, hammering it into the ground. Due to the reduced need for vertical piston clearance on this type of driver they are often used in situations when space is at a premium for example when adding additional supports to an existing bridge. Depending on the hardness of the Earth, various hammers can be tted to these pile drivers, ranging from those that perform 1,200 vibrations per minute, all the way up to 2,400.

019

ENGINEERING
Roller coasters
Oblivion is one of Alton Towers main attractions

1. Corkscrew

The corkscrew is among the most famous roller coaster elements. Trains enter the corkscrew and are twisted through 360 and emerge travelling in a different direction.

6. Train

Two or more cars linked up are called a train. The position of the car in a train dictates the effects on the riders.

5. Brake run

These are sections of track, usually at the end, that incorporate a braking device to slow the roller coaster. These can be skids, a fin on the car or, more recently, magnetic eddy current brakes.

Roller coasters
Some of the worlds most forward-looking engineering is actually in operation right now, in the unexpected setting of the worlds theme parks. From the pioneering 18th Century Russian Mountains, people have been hooked on the frightful thrill of a roller coaster and ever since, the challenge has been to make an even bigger, even better, even more terrifying one.

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

3. Zero-gravity roll

Riders experience zero G. Gravity is cancelled out by opposing forces so there is a feeling of weightlessness. It is often felt on uphill 360 twists.

They strike fear into many, but we still love them! Here, we detail the engineering achievement that is the Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives coaster
Today, they incorporate solutions that are at the leading edge of scientic development. This means they are able to accelerate as fast as a drag racer and let passengers experience G-forces way in excess of a Formula 1 race car. They do all this in complete safety, having passed the very strictest engineering standards. People travel for miles to ride on the latest roller coaster theyll even cross continents just to experience the latest thrill. But why? Here, we explain all

7. Dive loop

A dive loop is a type of roller coaster inversion where the track twists upwards and to the side, and then dives toward the ground in a halfvertical loop

020

5 TOP FACTS

Ferrari World, Abu Dhabi


Opened in 2010, Ferrari World is home to the worlds fastest roller coaster. Formula Rossa has a top speed of nearly 240km/h (150mph) and riders have to wear safety goggles.

Kingda Ka, New Jersey


This Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives coaster is not only the tallest (139m/456ft), it also has the biggest drop (127m/418ft), and before Formula Rossa opened it was also the fastest in operation.

Steel Dragon 2000, Nagashima, Japan


For sheer length of thrill, this one tops the lot with a running length of 2,479m (8,133ft). Hopefully you wont decide you hate it after the rst twist.

Colossus, Thorpe Park, UK


A combination of loop, double corkscrew, heartline roll, cobra roll and quad heartline roll hand this ride has a record number of inversions.

Ring Racer, Nurburgring, Germany


Running parallel to the famed German racetrack, this goes from 0-217km/h (0-135mph) in 2.5 seconds! Thats way beyond any road car.

MOST THRILLING ROLLER COASTERS

DID YOU KNOW? American LaMarcus Adna Thompson is considered the father of the roller coaster
4. Lift hill

The lift hill is the first rising section of track containing the drive mechanism to raise the roller coaster to the summit.

Smile for the camera

Alex Pang

2. Headchopper

Designers build the layout tightly so they appear to risk chopping passengers heads off as they approach! The reality is theres ample clearance, but its a big part of the thrill.

Roller coaster trains are unpowered, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. They rely on an initial application of acceleration force, then combine stored potential energy and gravitational forces to continue along the track. This is why they rise and fall as they twist and turn. There are various methods of launching a roller coaster. Traditionally, a lift hill is used the train is pulled up a steep section of track. It is released at the top, where gravity transfers potential energy into kinetic energy, accelerating the train. Launches can be via a chain lift that locks onto the underneath of the Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, or a motorised drive tyre system, or a simple cable lift. There is also the catapult launch lift: the train is accelerated very fast by an engine or a dropped weight. Newer roller coasters use motors for launching. These generate intense acceleration on a at section of track. Linear induction motors use electromagnetic force to pull the train along the track. They are very controllable with modern electronics. Some rides now have induction motors at points along the track, negating the need to store all the energy at the lift hill giving designers more opportunities to create new sensations. Hydraulic launch systems are also starting to become more popular. Careful calculation means a roller coaster releases roughly enough energy to complete the course. At the end, a brake run halts the train this compensates for different velocities caused by varying forces due to changing passenger loads.

How roller coasters roll

The Stealth ride at Thorpe Park isnt for the faint-hearted

Roller coasters comprise many elements, each with its own specic physical characteristics. Designers give a ride character by applying an understanding of physics to build up a sequence of thrills. These are all interrelated and mean the experience of every ride is exciting and unique.

Computer models can analyse the forces that will be produced by each twist and turn, ensuring they are kept within specic boundaries. Roller coasters may look like a random snake of track, but the reality is years of scientic calculations to provide just the right effects.

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2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

Anatomy of a roller coaster

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

ENGINEERING
Roller coasters
Acceleration force

The physics of the ride


The science that gets roller coasters going
All roller coasters begin with an acceleration force. This is to overcome inertia the resistance to change in velocity. It is quantied by the mass of the train, which depends on the individual load. Full trains will have more inertia than unladen ones. However, by applying more force during acceleration, they also store more potential energy to offset this. Designers work to reduce other sources of inertia such as friction-reducing low rolling resistance wheels, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. The aim of acceleration is to store sufcient potential energy at the top of the crest for transferral into driving kinetic energy to take the train to the next ascent. Because of frictional and other losses, each subsequent incline will be shorter than the one before not all the kinetic energy can be recovered into potential energy. Gravity is fundamental to roller coasters. Designers manipulate the effect of attraction between two masses to subject strong forces on the body. Weightlessness, for example, is caused by centrifugal forces cancelling out gravity forces. Centrifugal force feels like Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives outward force away from the centre of rotation when turning a corner. Its as if the body is being pressed down into the train, but is actually the reverse: an external force is being supplied by the train towards the centre of rotation.

Gravity (weight)

Pure acceleration is a change in velocity over time represented by Newtons famous formula F=ma. Rate of acceleration is therefore dependent on both the weight of the train and the force applied.

Apparent weight

Acceleration force

Apparent weight

Applying acceleration or gravity forces changes our sensation of weight. It is different to actual weight, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Less apparent weight makes our bodies feel lighter.

Gravity (weight)

Weight is a measurement of the force exerted on a body by gravity towards the centre of the Earth. 2g means equivalent to twice the force of gravity.

Need for speed

The roller coaster is accelerated to the ground faster than gravity this causes negative G-force that presses you back into the seat.

G makes it great
The aim of a roller coaster is to subject forces on the body people do not normally experience. These have to be within safe medical limits, and to do this designers consider physiology. The body is more capable of tolerating vertical forces than horizontal ones. This is particularly the case for compression forces. Many roller coasters therefore compress passengers rmly into their seats, with forces up to +6g, but wont let them oat out too severely the effects of a negative 2g force will still be strongly felt!

An intolerance of side forces is why many roller coaster corners are banked. This reduces the Gforces on passengers to around 1.5g, helping protect necks. It is unable to deal with high side forces so careful consideration must be given here to not injure people. Overall, though, a roller coaster is the only thing this side of a race car or space shuttle where you can feel what such incredible forces are like. Are your body and your constitution up to it?

Summit approach

The approach to a summit appears to be about to launch you into the air as no track is visible in front!

Loop
2010 Merlin Entertainments Group 2010 Merlin Entertainments Group 2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

Serious G-force is felt during the loop, along with disorientation as the track disappears over your head.

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THE STATS

ROLLER COASTERS

240km/h TALLEST 139m LONGEST2,479m BIGGEST DROP 127m MOST INVERSIONS 10 DROP ANGLE 97
FASTEST

DID YOU KNOW? A human intolerance to side forces is why many corners and bends are banked

Keeping you on the right track

Train to retain
Roller coaster trains themselves are quite simple they are not powered so do not have to account for drive mechanisms. They do, however, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, have to incorporate a method of picking up drive from the roller coaster itself either through connection to a launch track or chain lift, or via power from induction motors. There is much redundancy built into the connection between train and track. There are a series of wheels which run on the sides and underneath of the track as well as the usual top-running wheels. Side wheels drive it and wheels below stop it moving up off the track. The top wheels carry the load of the passengers. In combination, the wheels lock the train securely on the track. Train carriages are connected by a exible joint that securely attaches despite the extreme angles, twists and turns that can occur between the Sandboxie keygen Archives trains. Carriages themselves are usually steel structures, with classic roller coasters using wooden trains.

Side wheels

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

Wheels to the side and wheels below prevent the train from being derailed.

Learn more
The Roller Coaster Database is a great source of top stats (http:// rcdb.com/). Fan sites include Ultimate Roller Coaster (http:// www.ultimateroller coaster, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. com/) and ThrillNetwork (http:// www.thrillnetwork.com/). Discovery also airs special programmes on roller coasters and has a great roller coaster builder resource on its website (http://dsc.discovery.com/ games/coasters/interactive. html). The industry bodys IAAPA (http://www.iaapa.org/) and BlooLoop (http://www.blooloop. com/index.aspx) provide news for the theme park industry.

Top wheels

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

The wheels above the track support the weight of the passengers.

Feeling hot?

The twists of Thorpe Parks Nemesis Inferno demand over-theshoulder restraints.

Belts for the fans


Two types of restraint are common lap bars and over-shoulder restraints. Older roller coasters use lap bars oor-mounted padded bars that swing down above the passengers legs and lock at either side of the carriage. This double locking means if one side fails, the other will still restrain people. Roller coaster connoisseurs like them for the greater freedom but they are not as safe. Most roller coasters now use over-shoulder bars. These are Ushaped padded bars that swing down to lock over the passengers shoulders. They hold securely and also mean occupants cannot y out of their seat: an essential for inversion rides. Secondary strap

belts are often tted too for redundancy, and for measurement: theyre sized to t the largest possible person, no larger!

Hold on tight

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

Colossus is the UKs only quadruple corkscrew.

2010 Merlin Entertainments Group

023

Cranes

ENGINEERING
Oil platforms

Offshore rigs have multiple cranes that are continually used for lifting containers, drill equipment and sections of piping to the top of the derrick.

Derrick
The derrick usually towers over the rest of the rig and is used to house the drill machinery and feed in new pipe as the drill descends.

Drilling for oil offshore


The world produces over 82 million barrels of oil every day, much of it in harsh conditions, miles from shore and safety in the event of an Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. So how is it done?
Oil has been around for millions of years, located deep below the land or sea where it became trapped under layers of permeable rocks, or slowly seeping to the surface. Although examples of oil drilling were documented in 4th Century China, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, the rst modern oil-gathering structure was built in 1897, and by 1928 mobile rigs consisting of a simple barge with a drill mounted on top had set the scene for a revolution that fuelled Western industrial dominance Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives the next century. Over 82 million barrels of oil are produced every single day, a process that usually starts with a range of surveys. These include geographical and geomagnetic surveys and the deep echo sounding or seismic reection surveys that pinpoint the likely location of a substantial deposit. Only then and after the necessary permits have been obtained can the rigs move in. These multi million-pound structures are positioned by teams of professionals who make the well safe and drill down to its precious commodity. Today, there are over 40,000 oil elds around the world, with most offshore drilling undertaken in the Continental shelf the sunken perimeter of a continents original glacial shape. From the $100 million monsters that plumb the deepest waters in the Gulf of

How a platform works


A structure unlike anything else on Earth

Legs
Platforms required to drill thousands of feet below sea level rest on concrete or steel legs, securely anchored to the seabed and particularly hard to remove after use.

Mexico, to the smaller North Sea structures that nevertheless have to withstand 90-knot winds and 20m waves. Mobile rigs are usually reserved for exploratory work, owned by private contractors and leased to the oil companies who then have limited time to nd, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, tap and process their precious bounty. Larger manned platforms and spars can service up to 30 wellheads, tapping into multiple wells up to 8km from the platform itself.

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DID YOU KNOW? As North Sea reserves run dry, the estimated cost of removing the structures would exceed 621 billion

Life on a platform
Required to work for up to six months a year, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, oil workers are well compensated for the undeniably hazardous conditions in which they work. Wages are typically higher than in similar engineering disciplines and the larger platforms and spars come complete with facilities more appropriate to a cruise ship than a oating factory. These can include private rooms for the 100+ crew, cinemas, 24-hour restaurants and even gyms. Supplies are usually brought in by helicopter or ship, making oil platforms better stocked than most workplaces and signicantly more important to the local economies in which they reside, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. It is estimated that every offshore worker supports up to ten more in local industries such as food, transport or maintenance. However, the dangers are constant and largely unpredictable. Offshore drilling involves not only dealing with highly ammable oil and gas with the added danger of this being pumped out at exceptionally high pressures but also extreme wind and sea conditions. When danger strikes, support is often miles away by helicopter or ship, and despite the high levels of training and increasingly safe equipment, offshore fatality rates have been on the rise in recent years. In addition to this, workers are often prone to alcoholism or drug abuse to overcome the isolation and gruelling 12-hour shifts.

THE RIGHT RIG FOR THE JOB


Drill Ships
Designed for speculative or deep-water mining, these vessels are converted to include a drilling platform in the centre. Drill ships use sophisticated sensors and satellite tracking to keep them moving while lined up to the well.
Above: Accommodation decks of a North Sea oil platform Below: A worker checks the drilling head on a tower

Semi-submersibles
Made up of oating pontoons and columns able to sink in the water where they are anchored to the sea oor or kept in place by steerable thrusters. Effective at drill depths of up to 1,800m, theyre designed for quick deployment.

Jack-up
Mobile platforms can be raised above the sea on extendable steel legs. Designed for depths of 500m or less, they are useful for small to midsized deposits and typically only support smaller crews.

Deck
The working space on board an offshore platform where drilling rigs, production facilities and crew quarters are located. Larger platforms may use nearby flotels for crew quarters.

Oil rig teamwork


A small selection of the different roles on a rig
Offshore installation manager
Also known as the Man in Charge (MIC) the installation manager makes all key production decisions, both before, during and after drilling. He has usually worked his way through the other drill team roles. working roughnecks responsible for guiding the pipe into the drill as well as operating mud pumps Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives other such machinery.

Rig
An immovable structure of concrete and steel that rests on the seabed with deck space for multiple rigs, crew quarters and production facilities. Their design and expense makes them appropriate for larger offshore deposits.

Jacket
Jackets are usually vertical steel sections piled into the seabed, protecting the central drill shaft against damage or interference.

Roughneck
The grunts of the oil business, roughnecks work in teams of three and are mainly responsible for manual work both during and after drilling. They can also be called on to operate other equipment such as mud shakers.

DK Images

Driller
A highly specialist discipline, the drillers are those who operate the drilling equipment, including making the initial hole in the seabed, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. The driller is effectively in charge of everything that happens on the rig oor.

Spar
Perfect for major oil elds, such as the North Sea, spars are drilling platforms xed to giant, hollow hulls that can descend up to 250m, still above the ocean oor and secured by cables.

Wells
With each platform required to service up to 30 wells at different depths and positions, flow lines and umbilical connections are needed to connect them all to the main rig.

Tool pusher
On an offshore rig, tool pushers tend to be department heads in charge of drilling or other essential functions such as engineering or operations. They may also assist with administrative work, such as payroll or benets.

Derrickman
So called because of their position at the top of the derrick, derrickmen are usually

025

ENGINEERING
Railguns

It could still be years before we see railguns used in combat

The re power of a railgun


Electricity is the secret behind high-tech railguns
For many centuries gunpowder was the explosive propellant of choice in warfare, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, partly because there was little else to actually choose from. However, inevitably modern technology has evolved, and so too did the gun and its ammunition. Careful experiments in the early-20th Century made way for anti-aircraft cannons that harnessed the intense power of electricity, and soon after the railgun was born. A railgun consists of two conductive rails (also known as bars), electrical current, and a projectile, such as a rocket or missile. The two rails sandwich the conductive projectile, which is itself encased inside a shell to make for a complete electrical circuit. Apart from nearly overheating and melting due to the immense amount of friction inside the gun created every time its red, a railgun is a truly groundbreaking step from its former ally: gunpowder. Ammunition in a railgun is propelled with the help of magnetism. As the electrical current ows through one of the rails, it passes through the projectile and onto the opposite rail. One of the rails becomes positively charged and the other becomes negatively charged. This rapidly heating mechanism naturally creates an electromagnetic eld. This swirls around both rails holding the projectile, forming an Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives power. As the two rails are carrying electrical current in opposite directions the projectile is eventually forced away from the ends of the rails and out of the barrel. The speed all depends on how much current is used and the length of both rails, but can be up to ten times faster than a weapon using gunpowder. The materials for a railgun have to be highly heat resistant, and they are built to withstand extreme opposing forces made when the projectile is red. Its also worth considering that the cost of electricity used to power a single railgun is colossal but could be greatly offset as the cost of otherwise-lost bullets is reduced.

The US Navy have test-red a railgun that red a projectile at 2,520mps

Firing the railgun


Driving current Magnetic eld

The source of the electricity is mounted with the railgun to pump current.

4. Electricity

The missile hides in a casing (armature) that allows electricity to pass through, ring the missile.

3. Missile

Projectile

Armature current

1. Positive rail

The positive electrically charged rail holds one side of the missile, creating an electromagnetic eld.

The other side of the missile is secured by a negative, electrically charged rail.

2. Negative rail

026

5 TOP FACTS
CRANES

Mobile crane
The most versatile crane for both small and large jobs is simply a telescoping hydraulic boom attached to the bed of a heavy-duty construction vehicle.

Overhead crane
Shaped like an upside down U, this small but powerful crane rolls along tracks on factory oors to lift car engines and other heavy parts into place.

Self-erecting cranes
This crane rolls onto the work site as a compact, foldable unit only 13.6m long. The crane rises and extends its jib 32m out with a holding capacity of 4,000kg.

Lufng tower crane


The jib arm of this tower crane which can still carry 35 tons can be raised from a at horizontal position to an 85-degree angle using a special jib cable and motor.

Hammerhead tower crane


The classic T-shaped tower crane with a xed horizontal jib and counterweight arm. The hammerhead lacks freedom of movement, but can carry more weight.

Tower cranes are designed DID YOU KNOW? XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX to withstand wind gusts up to 150km/h

Load and stability


Hold a 10kg weight close to your body. Now try to extend your arms without tipping over. Tough, isnt it? Tower cranes have the same problem. A large tower crane can handle loads up to 16 tons, but thats only at a horizontal distance thats very close to the tower. At 80 metres out on the jib, the most that the same crane can carry is 3.9 tons. Tower cranes are preloaded with multiple slabs of concrete counterweights to maintain the overall equilibrium of the arm. A crane that carries heavy loads at 80 metres from the tower requires 31 tons of counterweight.

The horizontal arm of a tower crane can extend 85m outwards. The arm has three sides forming an isosceles triangle with a trolley track running along the bottom section.

Jib arm

The trolley and hook are connected by cables to a trolley motor mounted on the upper side of the jib arm. The operator can roll the trolley back and forth with hand controls.

Trolley

On hammerhead tower cranes, the cat head tower reinforces the jib arm and counterweight jib using thick steel cables called pendants.

Cat head tower

Operators Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives tower cranes work
These big birds of sky-high construction are engineering marvels
Tower cranes ock to money, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. During the economic boom years, high-rise construction cranes migrated from Beijing to Shanghai to Dubai, where it was estimated in 2006 that there was one tower crane for every 44 residents of the desert boom-opolis. Tower cranes are feats of structural engineering that often outshine their creations. They are designed to stand 80 metres tall and reach 80 metres out supported only by a narrow steel-frame mast, a concrete foundation and several counterweights. The engineering principle that keeps the twiggy tower crane from tipping over is something called a moment. If you hang a weight from the cranes jib arm, it exerts a rotational force or torque where the arm connects to the top of the mast. The magnitude and direction of this force (clockwise or anticlockwise) is called the moment. If the weight is hung close to the mast, the magnitude of the moment is lower than if the weight is hung far out on the jib. To keep the crane upright, counterweights are used to create a moment of equal magnitude in the opposite direction, balancing out the rotational forces. Once a tower crane meets its maximum unsupported height, it can be tethered to the building itself and continue to grow with the rising skyscraper, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. The tower cranes that rose with the construction of the record-breaking Burj Khalifa skyscraper in Dubai reached a truly dizzying height of 750 metres.

Its a long climb to the cab, where the crane operator has a birds-eye view of the construction site through oor-toceiling windows.

The power to raise and lower the load line is supplied by a huge winch located along the counterweight jib or machinery arm.

Machinery arm

The tower

Also known as the mast, each 2.8-metre tower section has four sides, each with vertical, horizontal and diagonal trusses that give them full structural integrity.

Multiple concrete slabs each weighing several tons are hung or piled on the very back end of the counterweight jib to overcompensate for the cranes lifting capacity.

Counterweights

Slewing unit

This motorised pivot allows the jib arm to rotate nearly 360 degrees to lift and drop materials all across the construction site.

Self-assembling crane
One of the most remarkable engineering feats of tower cranes is that they can literally build themselves. With help from a large mobile crane, construction workers secure the base sections Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives the tower and assemble the top unit of the crane the slewing unit, jib and machinery arm. But before the top section of the crane is attached, workers slide a hydraulic climbing unit around the base of the tower. Once everything is in place, the hydraulic climbing unit lifts the entire top section of the crane (including the horizontal jib and operators cab) just enough to slide in a new section of tower beneath. Once the new section is secured, the hydraulic unit continues to climb up, section by section, as the crane slowly builds itself higher.

The hydraulic unit attaches to the outside of the tower. A powerful hydraulic arm lifts the entire top section of the crane just enough for the crane to insert a new section beneath.

Hydraulic climbing section

Nebrot 08

Large tower cranes get their core stability by burying the bottom of the tower in several metres of concrete weighing 185 tons.

Concrete foundation

027

ENGINEERING
Renewable energy
Mirrors
Curved mirrors focus the Suns power on the central processing tower. Amazingly, behind the parabolic reector mirror, people are working.

Ofce

The Suns rays are focused here onto a dark-coated, 3,800C furnace.

Furnace

Renewable energy
An operational Pelamis Wave Energy Converter is buffeted by ocean waves

Science Photo Library

With the Earths supply of fossil fuels perpetually declining, new and exciting energy systems are being designed to exploit sustainable resources
Each year the global population is increasing at an exponential rate, creating a ravenous demand for energy. Fossil fuels cannot sustain this and it is forcing governments across the globe to re-evaluate how they are going to provide power for future generations. Luckily, right now numerous systems are being designed and developed worldwide to address this issue, demonstrating novel and creative methods of exploiting the renewable resources with which Earth is privileged. Harnessing the power of sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat, these technologies are slowly repositioning the balance of power away from nite resources and towards sustainable ones, mitigating long-held fears over a world post-oil and delivering power generation on a domestic as well as industrial level, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Take a closer look at some of the most promising technologies.

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Pelamis

5 TOP FACTS RENEWABLE


ENERGY
Hydraulic ram

Megawatt
The worlds largest wind turbine is the Enercon E-126, which has a rotor diameter of 126m. The E-126 turbine is rated at a particularly whopping six megawatts.

Investment
Worldwide investment in renewable energy has risen exponentially year-on-year, increasing from $104 billion in 2007 to a staggering $150 billion in 2009.

African
Kenya is the current world leader in the number of domestic solar power systems installed per capita, with over 300,000 12-30 watt systems sold each year.

Greenest
The current world leader in renewable energy production is China, which in 2009 produced 682 TWh of electricity through water, wind, biomass and solar.

Future
Recent estimates by scientists forecast the world will run out of the majority of fossil fuels by 2070, with natural gas being the rst to go, followed quickly by oil and coal.

DID YOU KNOW? The largest solar power station in the world is situated in Californias Mojave Desert
The hydraulic rams resist the motion of the waves, which in turn pump high-pressure hydraulic uid into the units hydraulic motors.

Heave hinged joint

The position for the sections horizontal axis joint.

The vertical axis is connected here to the Converters other sections.

Sway hinged joint

Platform

Taking energy out of a owing water current generates a major thrust reaction (around 100 tons per MW). Because of this, the monopole tower is drilled deep into the bedrock of the seabed for stability.

Tubular tower

Solar furnace
The Odeillo-Font-Romeu solar power station in the Eastern Pyrenees, France. Positioned in front of the reector (out of Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives here) is an array of 63 at orientating mirrors that automatically track the motion of the Sun, reecting incident radiation onto the parabolic reector mirror. The reector comprises 9,500 mirrors that concentrate the Suns rays onto a darkcoated furnace at its focus (central tower). The system is capable of producing thermal power of 1,000 kilowatts, and achieving a temperature of 3,800 degrees Celsius within the furnace.

The tubular steel monopole tower is submerged at the heart of Strangford Lough and provides a solid structure for the rotors to protrude from.

Generating power from sunlight

Generators

Housed within the SeaGen tower, the generators turn the rotational movement of the rotor blades into electricity.

Motor/generator set

The hydraulic motor converts the hydraulic uid pumped into it by the rams into torque and rotation in order to drive the units generators.

High-pressure accumulators

This allows the Pelamiss pump mechanism to be a manageable size and also to operate quicker, allowing it to moderate demand and smooth out the waves pulsations.

Pelamis Wave Energy Converter


The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter from Pelamis Wave Power is a system designed to generate renewable electricity from ocean waves. The system consists of a semi-submerged, articulated structure (180 metres long and four metres in diameter) comprising cylindrical sections linked by joints. These joints, under the pressure of wave-induced motion, move and are resisted by hydraulic rams, which

Twin-axial rotors

pump high-pressure uid through hydraulic motors to drive electrical generators and produce electricity. This energy is then fed from each joint down an umbilical and then carried back to shore in a single large seabed feed, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Each Pelamis Converter is rated at 750kW and on average a unit will produce 25-40 per cent of that rating annually, which is the annual electricity demand for roughly 500 homes.

SeaGen tidal generator


The SeaGen tidal generator from Marine Current Systems is an operational tidal system based in Strangford Narrows in Northern Ireland. The system consists of twin submerged axial-ow rotors measuring 16 metres in diameter which are attached to a central machine and control tower that is xed to the seabed. Both rotors on the SeaGen sport a unique feature that allows the blades to be pitched through 180 degrees, allowing them to operate in both tidal directions. Appearing like an upside-down submerged windmill, SeaGen works by converting high-velocity currents into SeaGen is capable of raising its rotors out of the water usable electricity throughout for ease of maintenance the tidal cycle much as a windmill utilises the power of the wind to rotate its sails. Indeed, its large-scale rotors aided by the 400 million gallons of water that ow past it twice a day can develop a rated power of 1.2 MW at a current velocity of 2.4m every second. This gives SeaGen the ability to deliver about 10 MW per tide, which annually amounts to 6,000 MWh of energy.
Fundy

A second-generation Pelamis Wave Energy Converter at the European Marine Energy Centre, Orkney

Pelamis

Science Photo Library

Measuring 16 metres in diameter, SeaGens rotors are huge and sport a patented system that allows their blades to be pitched through 180 degrees.

029

ENGINEERING
Renewable energy
A wind farm 28km off the shore of Belgiums part of the North Sea

The Roscoe Wind Farm in Texas has an epic 627 turbines

Wind turbines
Taking the power-generating capabilities of windmills to the next level
Among the worlds most developed renewable energy systems, wind turbines take the mechanics of a traditional windmill and upscale them dramatically in order to obtain energy from wind which can be converted into electricity. The most common wind turbine in production is the horizontal axis variety, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. These consist of a main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a large, tapered, cylindrical tower. This type of turbine allows the wind to rotate its three xed blades in order to generate mechanical, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, rotational energy, which is then in turn converted into electrical energy by the installed electrical generator. The slow-to-fast rotation of the rotor and blades is aided by an installed gearbox, which allows for a smooth transition in speeds depending of wind strength. Wind turbines are often installed en masse in highly windy areas, such as coastal regions, in massive wind farms. The largest windfarm in the world is the Roscoe Wind Farm in Texas, which has an epic 627 turbines and total installed capacity of 781.5 MW.
An Enercon E-126, the largest wind turbine in the world, situated in Germany

Operation

The turbines generator, gearbox and yaw-control mechanism are housed here.

Generator

The turbines generator converts the rotors rotational energy into electrical energy to be sent to the grid or storage device.

Helps initiate the rotors movement and then aids its velocity dependent on wind speed to maximise energy conversion.

Gearbox

Inside a turbine
Tower

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DK Images

The turbines tall tower is a crucial element of its design. In areas with high wind shear, the overall wind speed can increase by 20 per cent and the power output by 34 per cent for every 100 metres of elevation.

Nacelle

The direction of the nacelle is dictated by a yaw-control mechanism and it is designed to be a streamlined as possible in order to reduce turbulence behind the turbine.

The turbines rotor blades are often adjustable, allowing for their angle of attack to be adjusted dependent on wind direction. This allows the turbine to collect the maximum amount of wind energy for the day or season.

Blades

Eirbyte

RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

DID YOU KNOW? Two solar updraft towers have been approved for construction so far, one in Namibia and the other in Spain

Geothermal power plants


Pump house Production well
Geothermal energy is power extracted from heat stored inside the Earth. The heat is generated from radioactive decay, volcanic activity, core convection and solar energy absorbed at the Earths surface. Geothermal power plants pump water down a borehole into hotspots a few kilometres beneath the Earth, then force it out of a second borehole into a steam turbine to produce electricity.

Reservoir Heat exchanger Turbine hall

Interview
How It Works spoke to Kamil Shar from Sanyo Solar about the exciting Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives sustainable systems becoming available for home use
How It Works: Energy efciency is crucial for solar cells, how efcient are Sanyo Solars modules? Kamil Shar: The energy conversion efciency for modules is essentially the barometer for quality and this is really the core feature of our product, offering a lot of value for the end users on a domestic level. It is the residential market that we are focusing on primarily and the reason for this is that due to the modules high efciency we are able to offer more value in a limited space installation area. So your Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives terraced house can only get up to a 2kW system size, and if they are trying to achieve that with lower-quality modules they wouldnt have enough space to make that installation. With our new HIT modules we can achieve a record energy conversion efciency of 23 per cent at the R&D level; on a domestic level 21.1 per cent. HIW: How has the conversion efciency for solar panels been progressing, has it been developing incrementally? KS: It has been incremental. Previous to that it was around 20 per cent and before that the number rose fast only in the last ve to ten years. That is mainly due to the amount of investment we are putting into our R&D, as the market has grown massively over the past couple of years in Europe. HIW: What level of power is one of your modules going Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives provide the average domestic consumer and how is created energy used? KS: The way that the system works in the UK [as of 1 April 2010] is we have a subsidiary system called the feed-in tariff and how that works is that if you have a solar installation on your roof it will be connected to the national energy grid. So any electricity you are generating and not using will be fed back into the grid. The dynamics of the feed-in system benet self generation as the government has set a tariff of 40 pence for every kW hour of electricity generated and that amount is paid to the system owner whether they use the electricity or not. HIW: So the user isnt generating electricity that can only be used in their own home, it can be fed into the grid and used anywhere? KS: That is correct. However, if there is an electricity demand in the house when the electricity is being generated then it will be used to power that household. But if there is no one in at the time or no energy is required it will be fed into the grid. So what we are suggesting to people who invest in our systems is that they should alter their energy habits to generate electricity and use it during the daytime, as it is free and also grants you the tariff all at the same time. HIW: In Britain it is not particularly sunny, would that jeopardise the 21.1 per cent conversion efciency? KS: The gures are generally measured based on industry criteria so all module manufacturers would have to conform to certain criteria when they are measuring cell conversion efciency, that way everyone is on an even playing eld and were not promoting statistics from Spain in the UK. So yes, dependent on conditions there will be uctuations but they are impossible to quantify, as we wouldnt know how much light there was one day to the next. HIW: How efcient can silicon solar cells actually become? It is currently 21.1 per cent but is there a theoretical cap or barrier that cannot be overcome? KS: Currently, 29 per cent is the theoretical maximum for these crystalline-based technology. HIW: When do you think that gure is going to be hit? KS: Its very hard to predict as the closer you get to 29 per cent the harder it is to achieve it. It will be achieved, but it will be dependent on technological advancement and R&D investment. However, with even a current solar setup now, such as our module and system, users would see a positive return on the initial outlay after eight to ten years and then for the next ten to 12 years, because the feed-in tariff is xed for 20, theyd be generating income of roughly ten per cent the initial outlay, all the while beneting from free electricity.

A. Injection well B. Hot water to district heating C. Porous sediments D. Observation well E. Crystalline bedrock 1. Tower
The central tower acts as a ue to draw hot air through the turbines, as well as housing the plants machinery and generator.

0m 1,00 500-

During the day the Suns rays heat air under the collector membrane to high levels. At night heat radiated from the ground is better contained under the collector.

2. Thermal storage

4. Turbines

Fisch

A diagram of a geothermal power plant showing the drilling of a borehole to a depth of 5km. At this depth, a layer of water has formed from rainwater draining through the ground (blue arrows). The water is heated by magma, and the borehole enables the energy of the heated water to be extracted.

D
tier/Sie mens

X/Ytrot

The updraft tower is tted with multiple turbines at its base that suck the hot air inwards from under the collector membrane to generate electricity.

Day

3. Collector membrane

This is made from clear plastic and while allowing a large proportion of the Suns rays Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives pass through it without reection, almost completely traps the heated air beneath it, adding an accumulative effect.

Night

Solar updraft towers


An elegant proposed system to exploit solar energy, the solar updraft tower works by combining the chimney effect where cold air is drawn upwards by reduced local pressure the greenhouse effect and a wind turbine. The power plant works by trapping air heated by the Sun under a large

greenhouse-like circular membrane that, through convection and the chimney effect, causes the hot air to be sucked in towards and up the central tower. As the hot air travels up the tower the airow drives a selection of turbines that in turn produce electricity. Denitely one to watch in the future

Heidas

Sju

Head to Head DOMESTIC

MOST EXPENSIVE

1. Solar

MOST INTRUSIVE

Solar panels offer an established form of energy generation on a domestic level. However, they can be expensive and are only useful when the weather is ne.

2. Wind

MOST CONSISTENT

Small wind turbines can be bought and attached to the tops of buildings to supply a small amount of electricity each year. They are cheap but currently inefcient.

3. Water

If you are lucky enough to live by a stream or river, small water turbine generators allow you to exploit its gentle amble for a small and ensured power return.

00m 4,000-6,0
m 00 1,0 0-

One of Sanyo Solars 21.1 per cent efcient HIT modules

031

ENGINEERING

The main tools are dynamite and dragline excavators


Headframe Vertical shaft

Coal mining
Coal miners literally move mountains to feed our insatiable appetite for cheap energy
Theres something brutally simple about coal mining. Take away the monstrous new machinery and ecofriendly marketing jargon and its the same dirty, dangerous job its always been: nd the black stuff and dig it up. The two major schools of coal mining are surface mining and underground mining. To qualify for surface mining, the coal seam must lie within 60 metres of the surface. The miners job is to remove all of the overburden the cubic Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives of rock, soil and trees above the coal seam and expose the coal layer for extraction. The main tools of the trade are dynamite and dragline excavators, 2,000-ton behemoths that can move 450 tons of material with one swoop of their massive buckets. Perhaps the most dramatic and controversial surface mining technique is Mountaintop Removal (MTR), in which miners use explosives and heavy machinery to literally knock the top off a mountain up to 200 metres below the peak to get at the rich coal beds beneath. Underground mining is decidedly more difcult and dangerous. In smaller mines, workers still use conventional methods, blasting and
Another day at the ofce for Short Round

Coal mining

Winding shaft

Coal seam

Mining companies go to great expense to reach these long horizontal fields of coal that range in thickness from a mere 50 centimetres to over four metres in height.

Cross cuts

Horizontal passageways are tunnelled through the ore bed to provide critical ventilation and to allow motorised access to coal seams via flat rail cars, commonly known as mantrips.

Top road

Winzes, manways, chutes and drifts

Chute

A well-worked mine is a labyrinth of vertical, horizontal and sloped shafts carved through the coal by continuous mining machinery.

digging out large rooms supported by thick pillars of untouched coal. But that wont cut it for modern mining operations that regularly remove over 100 megatons (1 million tons) of raw coal each year. The go-to machine of the highvolume coal mine is a continuous miner. This Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, low-slung machine rips through coal faces with a wide rotating drum armed with hundreds of drill bits. Each bit is sprayed with a ne mist of water, cooling the cutting surface and neutralising coal dust emissions. Using built-in conveyors, the machine rolls the coal off its back, where its transported to the surface by haulers or conveyor belts.

Ore pass

Manway

Bottom road Landing Sump

Winze Face

032

5 TOP FACTS

Worldwide production
Back in 2008, the worlds coal mines produced 5,845 megatons of black coal and 951 megatons of brown coal. Makes you wonder how long its going to last, doesnt it?

The coal king


China is by far the largest coal producer in the world with a staggering 18,557 mines, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. To compare, the United States has 1,458 mines and the UK has just 46.

Old friend steel


The steel industry is one of the heaviest consumers of coal. Worldwide steel plants burned 1,327Mt of coal in its puried form called coke in 2008.

Let there be light


Over 40 per cent of the worlds electricity is provided by coal. China burns coal for 81 per cent of its electricity, while the US uses coal for 49 per cent of its electricity.

Super scrapers
A continuous mining machine can extract eight tons of coal per minute. Some quick maths will tell you thats 480 tons an hour, 11,520 tons a day and 4.2 million tons a year.

COAL MINING

DID YOU KNOW? Coal provides over 23 per cent of the worlds energy needs

Types of coal mine


Winding tower
Also called a headframe, the winding tower uses powerful drum hoists and thick steel cables to pull men, machines and coal from the deepest reaches of the Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives shaft. Preparation plant Drift tunnel Conveyor Main shaft Aft shaft Preparation plant Coal

A closer look at the numerous different methods and mines that are often used to extract coal

DEEPEST AND MOST PRODUCTIVE COAL MINES ON EARTH


BIGGEST

Head to Head THE BIGGEST,

Room and pillar

In conventional coal extraction, miners use explosives to carve out large caverns in the coal seam, leaving a thick pillar of undisturbed coal for roof support.

Coal

1. El Cerrejn

Shaft mine
Miners and equipment are transported down vertical shafts hundreds or thousands of metres deep to access fertile coal seams.
Air shaft

Drift mine
The simplest method of underground mining, the coal seam is accessed by digging horizontally into the side of a hill.

The largest surface mine in the world, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, this 69,000 hectare pit in Northern Columbia produces over 31Mt of bituminous coal per year, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, transporting it to the coast for export on its own 150km railroad.

DEEPEST

Preparation plant Dragline

Levels and decks

Slope tunnel

Extraction starts with the coal seam closest to the surface, then miners descend through a thick section of rock or deck to reach the next workable level.

2. Cumberland Mine
Coal Coal

Slope mine
For a shallow underground coal seam, miners dig a slanted or sloped shaft and remove the coal via long conveyor belts.

Surface mine
In a surface mine (or strip mine), miners remove a horizontal layer of soil and rock called the overburden to expose a coal seam.

Closed in 1958 after an Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives collapse killed 74 miners, this Nova Scotia mine had sloped shafts over 4,200 metres deep, the deepest coal operation on record.

Panel

MOST PRODUCTIVE

Image Gebr. Eickhoff Maschinenfabrik und Eisengieerei

In longwall mining, miners carve four tunnels around a rectangular chunk of rock called the panel hundreds of metres wide and thousands of metres long. The panel is then harvested from floor to ceiling with automated machinery called shearers.

Continuous miner

A large rotating steel drum equipped with tungsten carbide teeth scrapes coal from the seam.

3. Shandong Mine

The most productive mine in the world, this Chinese operation dug up 117.8Mt of raw coal in 2008. Thats over ten per cent of the total annual coal production of the United States.

Inside a coalamine Take trip into the


claustrophobic depths of the mine

Learn more
For more information about coal mines head on over to www.bbc.co.uk/ nationonlm/topics/coalmining/ where you can take a trip through the coal mines of north-east England from the Thirties to the Nineties.

Room and pillar


Operating in a room and pillar system it can mine as much as five tons of coal a minute.

033

ENGINEERING
Mouthpiece chamber

The polycarbonate layer behind it forces the glass to shatter internally rather than outwards

Bulletproof glass / Milking machines


Cluster unit
Consisting of four teat cups, a claw, a long milk hose and a long pulse pipe, the cluster unit draws milk from the cow into the main pipe system. Mouthpiece

3. Milk phase
Science Photo Library

When air is drawn out of the pulsation chamber inside the teat cup, a vacuum (suction) is created around the teat. The pressure difference opens the teat canal and draws the milk out.

When air is pumped into the pulsation chamber inside the teat cup, the lining collapses, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, massaging the teat and closing the teat canal.

4, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Rest phase

Bulletproof glass explained


Shattering the science behind what makes the breakable unbreakable
Bullet-resistant glass works by absorbing a bullets kinetic (movement) energy and dissipating it across a larger area. Multiple layers of toughened glass are reinforced with alternated layers of polycarbonate a tough but exible transparent plastic which retains the see-through properties of glass. As a bullet strikes the rst glass layer, the polycarbonate layer behind it forces the glass to shatter internally rather than outwards. This process absorbs some of the bullets kinetic energy. The high velocity impact also attens the bullets head. Imagine trying to pierce through a sheet of cotton with the top end of a pencil, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. It would be very difcult compared to using the sharp pointed end. The same principle applies here. The at-headed bullet struggles to penetrate the layer of polycarbonate. As the bullet travels through each layer of glass and polycarbonate, the Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives is repeated until it no longer has the speed and shape to exit the nal layer.

Teat cup lining

Pulsation chamber Short milk pipe


A short milk hose connected to the teat cup directs milk away from the cow to the claw where its transported together with the milk from other cows to the main milking pipeline.

1. Teat cups

Outer teat cup

Each cluster consists of four teat cups themselves each made up of a metal shell, a rubber lining and a short milk pipe.

5. Long milk pipe

6. Claw

Beneath the teat cups is the claw, which connects the short pulse pipe and milk pipes to the main systems long air pipes and long milk pipes, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Here air is added to the milk to help it ow through the system.

Milk receiver

Milking station Vacuum line

2. Pulsator (not shown)

The pulsator is the valve on a pipe thats connected to the claw and adjusts the air pressure in the pulsation chamber. The pulsator is attached to a main air pipeline that feeds into the claw.

7. Milk pump

k oa. en w re w m) f G td (w .co o k sy t L .u te en k u r m oa Co uip reen q g E

The layers of bulletproof glass


Anti-scratch coating Polyester Polyvinyl butyral Glass Polyurethane Polycarbonate Polyurethane Glass Polyvinyl butyral Ceramic paint (dot matrix) Glass

A motor-driven milk pump removes the collected milk from the main pipeline and transports it to the receiver tank for chilling and processing.

Cooling tank

Portable milking unit

Milk line Vacuum pump

Milking machines
Discover how to get milk from a cow
The milk is extracted using a vacuum applied to the cows teats. Milk stored in the udder is drawn into Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives system of pipes leading to a receiver tank where the milk is collected before being passed to the cooling tank. A cluster of four teat cups each consisting of a stainless steel shell, a exible rubber lining and a short pulse pipe are attached to the teats. Between the outer shell and lining is a pulsation chamber that collapses with the addition of air from a pulsator. When the chamber is devoid of air (milk phase) a vacuum is created, which gently draws milk from the teat. When the Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives is lled with air (rest phase) the lining of the teat cup collapses and massages the teat. Continued repetition of these phases not only aids milk production by mimicking the action of a suckling calf, it also promotes blood circulation. To help the milk ow away through the pipeline, once out of the cow the milk is mixed with air added by a claw, the claw connects the teat cups to the milk and pulse tubes.

DID YOU KNOW?


One-way bullet-resistant glass is often used in military situations. While protecting against incoming bullets, shots can still be returned unaffected.

034

THE STATS
AIM-9

Mach 2.5 LENGTH 3.0m WARHEAD 9.5kg WEIGHT 85kg RANGE 17.7km COST $85,000
TOP SPEED

DID YOU KNOW? XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX target at speeds of 3,060km/h (1,900mph) DID YOU KNOW? The missile ies towards its

Missiles in action: AIM-9 Sidewinder


This air-to-air missile mercilessly seeks out its prey theres little chance of escape!
Hangers
Attach the missile to the launcher under the aircraft

ON THE

MAP

Warhead

9kg of explosives wrapped in lethal titanium rods

Deployment

Optical target detector

Rocket motor
Creates minimal smoke to avoid detection

Tail control ns

Laser beams bounce off the target and back to sensors

Adjustable, to steer the missile to its target

Front ns
All Images Raytheon

The infrared eye of the missile, with its control system just behind

Seeker

Provide lift and stability to keep the missile in ight

It is estimated that Sidewinder missiles have killed around 270 people worldwide over the last 50plus years. Over 110,000 missiles have been produced for 28 countries and just one per cent of them have been used in combat, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Here are just some of the war zones where the missile has seen action:

1. Second Taiwan Strait crisis Precision


Named after a venomous snake that is sensitive to infrared and so can sense the heat of its prey, the deadly Sidewinder missile does much the same. First tested in 1953, the Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range air-to-air missile used by ghter aircraft. Once launched, it will y towards a hot target usually the engines of an aircraft or another missile. The key to the system is hidden in the nose of the missile. The seeker consists of an array of sensors that react to infrared light; similar in principle to the CCD sensor in a digital camera but simpler in that it only judges its surroundings as
The deadly weapon can hit a target 17km away Date: 1958 Location: Taiwan Strait, Taiwan

very hot or not very hot. In other words it can see heat. The sensors, plus its assembly of mirrors and lenses, spin offcentre so that they can scan a wide vista and also work out where the heat is in relation to the missile. For instance, if the target is over to the right, the sensors will detect more infrared when they are aimed in that direction. The sensors feed information to the guidance control system that, in turn, move the ns at the back of the missile to steer the Sidewinder towards the target. Or rather, aim it at a point slightly ahead of the target to ensure that it doesnt end up chasing it and never catching it. This is called proportional navigation and

effectively anticipates where the target will be at the point of impact. In fact, the Sidewinder doesnt actually impact with its target, but is designed to explode just before it hits it, to ensure maximum damage. Lasers positioned behind the forward ns emit light, and when the missile is close to the target, the light bounces off it and back to sensors on the missile, telling the systems to trigger the warhead. The Sidewinder is launched from an aircraft and is initially propelled by a rocket motor that hurls it forward at a speed of Mach 2.5 (about 3,060km/h). Once the fuel has been used, the missile glides the rest of the way to its target.

2. Vietnam war
Date: 1959-1975 Location: North Vietnam

3. Falklands conict
Date: 1982 Location: Falkland Islands

4. Lebanese civil war


Date: 1975-1990 Location: Bekaa Valley, Lebanon

5. Gulf war
Date: 1990-1991 Location: Persian Gulf

6. SovietAfghan war
Date: 1979-1989 Location: Afghanistan

The warhead
The front mid-section of the Sidewinder is packed with explosives. Like the rest of the missile, though, this 9kg warhead is highly sophisticated. It consists of a high explosive wrapped with around 200 titanium rods, plus an initiator explosive. When the missile is within range of its target, the low-power initiator is activated. This in turn ignites explosive pellets, which then cause the main

charge to explode. This blasts the titanium rods apart into thousands of fragments, which hit the target at high speed, causing cataclysmic damage. A safety device in the missile means that the warhead cannot be activated unless the missile has been accelerating at 20g for ve seconds, therefore ensuring it is at least 2.4km (1.5mi) away from the launching aircraft.

6 3 2

035

ENGINEERING
Hydroelectric power

Head to Head
DAMS
Christoph Filnkl 2006

BIGGEST

1. The Three Gorges Dam

Location: Yangtze River, China Size: Its 2,335 metres long, 101 metres wide and 115 metres at its thickest point. It took 15 years, approximately 25 billion and nearly 14 million tons of cement and materials to construct it. Fascinating fact: 34 turbines, weighing in at 6,000 tons each, generate 22,500 megawatts for an annual output of 60.7 terawatt hours per year in 2009. It is the worlds largest electricity-generating plant of any kind.

Hydroele power

TALLEST
Ibrahim Rustamov

2. Nurek Dam

Location: Vakhsh River, Tajikistan Size: The Nurek dam is an earth ll dam completed in 1980 when the Soviet Union had control of Tajikistan. At 300 metres it is the worlds tallest dam, though the Rogun Dam has a taller proposed height for when it is eventually completed. Fascinating fact: A comparatively modest nine hydroelectric turbines have a total power output of three gigawatts, but amazingly, since 1994 this has been enough to supply 98 per cent of the nations total electricity needs.

Using natures resources to their full potential

MOST FAMOUS
Adrian Michael 2006

Location: Lago di Vogorno, Switzerland Size: Neither the largest nor the tallest dam at 220 metres high Fact: As the site for the scene where James Bond dives off into the Verzasca river below in GoldenEye, this is one of the worlds most famous dams.

3. Verzasca Dam

Water has been used to power man-made mechanisms for hundreds of years, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, mostly in food production in the form of a mill wheel to grind corn. However, using the kinetic energy of water probably became a reality earlier than you thought. In 1878, inventor Lord Armstrong lit his home in Northumberland using only the power of a nearby waterfall. Its not until the latter half of the 20th Century that we began to take advantage of the massive potential of hydroelectric power. Intriguingly, both the dirty and environmentally unfriendly coal power plants and clean, green hydro-power use almost

identical technology to generate power. Central to a coal-red plant is Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives turbine: coal is burned to produce heat energy, which is used to boil water into steam, which then drives a turbine. Hydroelectric power removes the coal and steam elements and instead, owing water turns the blades of each turbine. By damming a river next to a drop in elevation and releasing a controlled ow (and creating a large body of water behind the dam called a reservoir), you can effectively harness the Earths gravity as an energy source. Its based on the principles discovered by physicist Michael Faraday: when a magnet moves past a conductor, it creates electricity. When the water owing

036

ctric
The huge generators inside the Hoover Dam

DID YOU KNOW? Between 13,000 to 16,000 people cross the Hoover Dam every day

Reservoir

Inside the dam


The main components that allow water to generate electricity
Powerhouse Generator Turbine Power lines

Intake

Penstock Outow river

Generator

The generator consists of a stationary stator and a spinning rotor.

The outer ring consists of a series of copper wound iron cells that act as electromagnets.

Rotor

TYPES OF
DAM
1 Saddle
Often constructed as an auxiliary to the main dam, at a dip (or saddle) where water would otherwise escape.

Stator

2 Diversionary
This shaft connects the turbine to the generator.

The spinning rotors magnetic eld induces a current in the stators windings.

Turbine generator shaft

Often a controversial construction, these are created with the pure intention of diverting a river from its course.

Wicket gates

3 Dry

These control the amount of water entering.

These are designed to control ooding, allowing the river to ow freely except in times of intense rainfall where ooding is likely.

4 Overow 5 Check
through a hydroelectric turbine turns the blades it rotates a shaft attached to a large disk called a rotor at the opposite end. The rotor is made up of loops of wire with current circulating through them, wound around stacks of magnetic steel. When active, the turbine propeller turns the rotor past the conductors located in the static part of the turbine, known as the stator. Modern technology in even a single large turbine (which can weigh thousands of tons) can generate an enormous amount of power, but the cost-effectiveness of building the dam as well as the environmental and economic impact of ooding the area behind it can prohibit such ventures.

These are made with the intention of the river owing over the top of the dam, usually to measure ow and for drinking water.

Check dams are used to slow the rate of ow of the river with the expressed intention of controlling soil erosion.

Learn more
For more information about the Hoover Dam visit http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/ americanexperience/ hoover/ where you can watch a video on how the dam was built and the mammoth task that was involved.

Turbine blades

The force of the water on these blades generates movement.

The rate of rotation determines the amount of power produced.

Turbine

037

The glossy, 60-f00t lane is normally constructed out of 39 strips of sugar maple wood ENGINEERING Bowling alleys / Optical bre
Side view of a pinsetter
Pin distributor Shark switch

Manufacturing opticalglassbre become cylinder How does a large


a tiny thread of exible glass?
The tiny lament of glass at the core of a length of optical bre starts out as two tubes. These tubes are made from fused quartz glass, which is mainly silica to give it exible properties. First the glass tubes are dipped in corrosive hydrouoric acid to remove any oily residues, they are then placed in a pair of lathes that spin and heat both tubes with a hydrogen and oxygen ame. When the tubes turn white they are nearing peak temperature and at 2,000C the tubes melt together to form one longer tube. This longer tube is placed in another lathe where it is turned and heated by a burner before being injected with chemical gases containing liquid forms of silicon and germanium. The heat and gases cause a chemical reaction that leaves a ne white soot inside the tube. As the burner travels up and down the length of the tube the soot fuses to create a solid glass core. The outer glass tube will form the cladding around the core. Heating softens the tube and the new glass inside until the tube collapses in on itself. You now have a solid rod called a preform. To thin the preform, it is placed vertically in a drawing tower. This heats one end of the rod to 2,000C until the glass becomes a honey-like consistency. As the glass melts it stretches under its own weight and becomes a very tall, thin glass bre, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Pulleys and lasers are used to measure the precise tension and diameter of the bre, which should be just 125 micrometres thick. The bre is then passed under an ultraviolet lamp to bake on a protective outer jacket. The nished optical bre is then rolled onto massive drums.

How a bowling alley works


The mechanisms inside a ten-pin bowling alley
Any bowling alley works through a combination of a wooden or synthetic lane anked by semicylindrical gutter channels, an automated pinsetter machine and ball sorter, and a return ball gully and stacker. The glossy, 60-f00t lane is normally constructed out of 39 strips of sugar maple wood, which itself is coated with varying layers of oil down its length. This coating is often heavy towards the bowler end, before dissipating down the alley. This allows a spinning ball more purchase in the nal quarter of its journey, enabling pro-bowlers to hit the pins at varying angles. At the pin end of the alley, starting at the termination of the lane, lays the pin-deck. This deck is where the pins are set up and knocked down, and thanks to this constant activity, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, it is coated with a durable impact-resistant material. Behind the deck lies the rst part of the mechanical pinsetter machine. The pit and shaker collects both the fallen ball and pins before shufing them to its rear and into mechanical lifts that raise them to above the alley. Once there, the ball is then funnelled onto a metal track which then descends back under the lane to the conveyer belt Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives and back to the bowler. The pins on the other hand get dropped from this elevated position into the pinsetters turret, where their bottomheavy weight ensures that they drop base rst. Once lled, the turret then waits for the sweep a mechanical bar that literally sweeps any still-standing pins backwards into the pit to operate before dispensing a freshly ordered set of pins into the spotting table. This table then lowers the pins gently back onto the pin deck ready for the process to begin again. In addition, returned balls are automatically slowed and ltered by spinning rubberised pads as they reach the docking station and ball stacker at the bowler end of the lane, as well as scores being automatically logged and recorded by the lanes in-built computer system, and Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives on a screen.

Pin elevator

Ball pit

Pin table

Sweep

Optical cladding

Protecting the inner glass core is another layer of glass that has a lower refractive index than the core. The whole glass element is 125 micrometres across.

This layer is the last line of defence against damage, such as scratches, to the fragile internal contents. This brings the total diameter of the bre up to 400 micrometres.

Plastic jacket

Inner core

The glass component of optical bre is highly refractive causing total internal reection, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. This core measures just eight micrometres across, about the size of a human hair.

Total internal reection

The high refraction of the glass core and the low refraction of the outer jacket trap light in the core of the bre so that little-to-no light is absorbed. This is called total internal reection.

A resin coating is baked on to protect Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives delicate glass thread within from moisture damage. With the addition of this layer, the diameter is now 250 micrometres.

Protective buffer

038

5 TOP FACTS

Fame
The builder of the Lighthouse of Alexandria, Sostratus disobeying orders from the pharaoh Ptolemy engraved his name and a dedication to the sea gods on the tower base.

Academia
The technical term for the study of lighthouses is pharology, a word derived from Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, the island upon which the great Lighthouse of Alexandria once stood.

War
George Meade built many notable lighthouses in the US during the classical lighthouse period. He is remembered in history as the winning general in the Battle of Gettysburg.

Tallest
The tallest lighthouse in the world is the Yokohama Marine Tower in Yokohama, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, Japan. The structure ashes alternately green and red every 20 seconds.

Elemental
Originally lighthouses were lit merely with open res, only later progressing through candles, lanterns and electric lights. Lanterns tended to use whale oil as fuel.

LIGHTHOUSES

The historic Lighthouse of Alexandria on the Pharos Island, Egypt, could be seen from 30 miles away DID YOU KNOW? XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
A reassuring sight for sailors throughout history

A xed Fresnel lens without its outer shell

Lighthouses
Including some of the most impressive man-made structures in the world, lighthouses have played a pivotal life-saving role throughout history
Light source
Early lighthouses used open res and large candles to create light. During the classic period of lighthouse usage, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives burning animal oils were common. Gas lamps were also used around the turn of the 20th Century. Modern lighthouses use electric lamps and bulbs.

The Fresnel lens allows for a light source to be amplied way beyond its standard emitable ability in a certain direction and done so with fewer materials than a conventional spherical lens. It achieves this by redirecting light waves through a series of prisms arranged in a circular array, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, with steeper prisms at the edges and atter ones near the centre.

Fresnel lens

Rotational crank/ machinery

Lighthouses work by rhythmically ashing a rotating light in order to transmit a visual signal to surrounding vessels. This is done so that conditions that provide poor visibility can be mitigated by approaching sailors, allowing them to safely manoeuvre while close to the shore. The individual pattern of ashes or eclipses referred to as the lights character determine the transmitted message and these can range from collision warnings to weather reports, directional guidance to the position of other vessels and structures. The breadth and types of characters a lighthouse can use is determined by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities in Paris. Lighthouse construction emanated from the practice of lighting beacon res upon hilltops, something rst referenced in Homers Iliad and Odyssey in the 8th Century BC, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. However, it was not until 280 BC, when the architect Sostratus built the Great Lighthouse of Alexandria on the island of Pharos, Egypt, that man-made lighthouse structures began to be built across the entire globe. Since then the style and complexity of the structure, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, light source and fuel has changed greatly, with intricate designs formed dedicated to advancing the light-saving technology. How It Works takes a closer look at a classical lighthouse and its constituent components.

The rotational ability of the lamp was classically generated by a hand crank, which would be wound by the lighthouse keeper up to every two hours. In modern lighthouses the lamps are powered by diesel electric generators.

Arguably the most important aspect of the lighthouse, the lantern room is the glassed-in structure that sits at the pinnacle of the tower. Commonly, lantern rooms are tted with storm panes and metal astragal bars in order to withstand the harsh weather conditions it is exposed to, as well as a ventilator in the roof to remove any smoke and heat caused by the lamps within obviously, smoke is not an issue with electric lamps. Lantern rooms are often surrounded by a gallery, which is used for cleaning the windows.

Lantern room

Tower

Lighthouse towers are usually either built onshore or directly on the seabed. This is best shown in the caisson method, where an openended cylinder is sunk and lled with concrete to form a solid base. However the latter is less common due to the erosion suffered by sea waves. Towers have a distinctive shape and colour often a toptapered, white tower to help sailors identify it. Within the tower it is also common to nd the lighthouses service room, the place where the fuel/generator is kept.

The gallery is the lighthouses circular, external platform that is often wrapped around one or two levels. It is used for human observation and also as a maintenance platform for cleaning the lantern rooms windows.

Gallery

039

Hannes Grobe

ENGINEERING

Nuclear power
3. Concrete shield building
The steel liner is enclosed in a reinforced concrete building, designed to contain radiation leakage in the event of an accident.

Nuclear power

1. Passive cooling tank

2. Steel containment liner

4. Steam generators

Heat from the reactor boils water in the steam generators to produce a steady supply of highpressure steam.

The reactor and steam generators are housed in a massive steel liner, which shields the radiation.

If the reactor core overheats, the passive cooling tank automatically empties water into the reactor cavity. This cools the reactor from outside the pressure vessel, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives molten fuel from spilling out.

6. Reactor coolant pumps

Pumps constantly circulate water to cool the reactor and transfer heat to the steam generators.

5. Pressuriser

Operators control the pressure of the coolant water around the reactor by adjusting the air level in the pressuriser.

8. Reactor

9. Turbine generator

The reactor comprises the uranium fuel rods and control rods, housed in a steel containment vessel.

Steam from the steam generator spins a turbine, which powers an electric generator.

7. Main control room

Operators monitor and control reactor activity from a central control room.

Control rods are positioned in between fuel rods to slow or speed up the reaction

Inside a nuclear power station


040

A complex process that requires some high-tech machinery

Images Westinghouse Nuclear

5 TOP FACTS NUCLEAR


POWER

A global energy source


Nuclear power provides 15 per cent of the worlds electricity. That power comes from 436 reactors that are in operation worldwide.

Born in the USA


The very rst nuclear reactor, built in Arco, Idaho in 1951, only powered four light bulbs. It was known as the Nuclear Reactor Testing Station.

A lot of waste
The yearly total of waste that is produced from nuclear power is somewhere between 8,800 and 13,200 tons thats a lot of waste!

Powers most of France


A total of 59 reactors provide 76 per cent of Frances electricity, compared to the UKs 24 reactors providing 19 per cent of our electricity.

Its out to sea


Approximately 150 ships, ranging from huge submarines to massive aircraft carriers, are powered by nuclear reactors.

DID YOU KNOW? A single pound of enriched uranium can provide the same energy as 3 million pounds of coal

From ssion to electricity


1. Fuel rods 2. Reactor
Hundreds of 3.6m uranium rods undergo a ssion reaction, releasing substantial heat.

The principles of nuclear power are remarkably simple. Heres how a pressurised water reactor station turns subatomic particle activity into usable power
5, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Pressuriser
The pressuriser contains water, air, and steam. By adding or releasing air in the pressuriser, operators can control the pressure of the coolant water around the reactor.

3. Control rods

Operators can speed Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives or slow down the ssion reaction by raising and lowering neutron-absorbing rods between the fuel rods.

9, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Turbine

Rushing steam drives the turbine which in turn powers the generator.

A steel pressure vessel contains the uranium rods, surrounding water and other reactor components.

10. Generator

4. Pump

A water pump keeps water circulating, and transfers heat away from the reactor core.

6. Heat exchanger

The turbine spins a rotor that sits in a magnetic eld in a generator, inducing an electric current.

A pipe carries hot water from the reactor to a separate reservoir of water.

11. Transformer

7. Steam generator

The hot pipe leading from Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives reactor heats a separate reservoir of water to the boiling point, generating steam.

The generator transmits electricity to a transformer which is connected to the power grid.

12. Condenser

8. Steam line

5 7 3 8

The steam makes its journey from the steam generator to the turbine.

A pipe carrying a steady supply of cold water which typically comes from a cooling tower cools the steam, causing it to change back to liquid water.

6
Images DK Images

4 1 2 12

10 11

Ecological saviour or a looming catastrophe?


After the Three Mile Island meltdown in 1979, the Chernobyl catastrophe in 1986, and the Fukushima disaster of 2011, nuclear power found itself on the environmental villains list. And yet in the face of mounting global warming concerns, it remains a marvel. Since nuclear power produces no greenhouse gasses, proponents are touting it as a greener alternative to fossil fuels. They argue that one pound of enriched uranium (the chief nuclear fuel) can provide the same energy as 3 million pounds of coal or 1 million gallons of gasoline. But theres a catch. Nuclear fuel produces radioactive waste, which can cause cancer, trigger birth defects, and spawn mutants. The technology is both fascinating and ominous and youre about to nd out why. Nuclear power plants are complexes that span many square kilometres, but the real action happens on a subatomic level. The sole purpose of a plant is to harness the energy of nuclear ssion a reaction where an atoms nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei. Specically, nuclear plants typically derive power from inducing nuclear ssion in enriched uranium oxide, comprising 96-97 per cent uranium238 and three-to-four per cent uranium-235, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Uranium is the heaviest of all natural elements and one of the easiest to break apart. When a relatively slow-moving free neutron runs into a uranium-235 atom, the atom will absorb the neutron, and the extra energy will make the atom unstable. The atom immediately splits apart, into two smaller atoms and twoto-three free neutrons. A fraction of the atoms original mass becomes energy, in the form of heat and high-energy photons called gamma rays. With the right mix or uranium-235, you get a chain reaction. Some of the free neutrons generated in the ssion reaction encounter other uranium-235

041

ENGINEERING
Nuclear power
2. Split

The atom immediately splits apart, into two smaller atoms and two-to-three free neutrons. A fraction of the atoms original mass becomes energy, heat and high-energy photons called gamma rays.

Colliding molecules What happens in the


chain reaction
3. Chain reaction
With the right mix of uranium-235, you get a chain reaction. Collectively, the splitting atoms generate substantial heat.

1. Collision

When a free neutron runs into a uranium-235 atom, the atom will absorb the neutron, and the extra energy will make the atom unstable.

The concrete and steel sarcophagus erected around the damaged reactor at Chernobyl

atoms, causing those atoms to split apart, producing more free neutrons. Collectively, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, the splitting atoms generate a substantial heat, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. All the equipment in a nuclear plant has one core function: safely harnessing this heat to generate electricity. The heart of a nuclear power plant is the reactor, which contains the uranium fuel and the equipment that controls the nuclear ssion reaction. The central elements in the reactor are 150-200 bundles of 3.6m-long fuel rods. Each bundle includes 200-300

fuel slightly supercritical, without allowing a runaway ssion Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. The key mechanism for controlling the reaction rate are a series of control rods, made from neutron-absorbing material such as cadmium. Operators can move the control rods in and out Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives the bundles of uranium rods. To slow down the ssion reaction, operators lower the rods into the bundles. The rods absorb neutrons from the ssion reactions, preventing them from splitting additional nuclei, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Operators can stop the ssion

From Fukushima to Chernobyl, the risks that accompany nuclear power production are real

When nuclear reactors fail


When a magnitude nine earthquake shook Japan in March 2011, the water stopped circulating at the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) station in Fukushima and a build up of hydrogen gas blew the roof off the building. The fear of a radiation leak occurred when the coolant water (which immerses the fuel rods) failed and exposed the fuel elements in the reactor vessel to air. In case of an emergency the control rods slide in between the fuel elements to halt the nuclear reaction process, but if the fuel elements are not cooled there can still be a risk of radiation leaking. Technicians used seawater to attempt to cool the fuel rods. And 25 years after reactor four at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant exploded, were still reminded of the risk posed by nuclear power, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Chernobyls reactors had little shielding to protect against radioactive contamination and the blasted reactor burned for ten days, spewing 400 times the radioactive fallout that fell on Hiroshima in the World War II bombing. The explosion and radiation exposure killed 56 people soon after the blast, but the total death toll is impossible to calculate, due to the contaminations far reach and long-term effects.

The heart of a nuclear power plant is the reactor


individual rods, which are made from small uranium oxide pellets. The rods are immersed in a coolant and housed in a steel pressure vessel. The ssion reaction continues indenitely when, on average, more than one neutron from each ssion reaction encounters another uranium atom. This state is called supercriticality. In order to safely heat the water, the reactor must keep the reaction by lowering the control rods all the way into the uranium rod bundle. To accelerate the ssion reactions, operators partially raise the rods out of the bundle. This increases the rate of free neutrons colliding with uranium atoms to keep the ssion reaction going, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Apart from Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives ssion reaction, a nuclear plant works the same basic way as a coal-burning plant: the fuel

042

DID YOU KNOW? Radioactive rain resulting from the Chernobyl disaster reached as far as Ireland

Types of reactor
Advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR)
Fuel element Re-entrant gas Boiler

Several nuclear reactor designs are in operation today

The most common design is the pressurised water reactor (PWR). PWRs use pressurised water both as a moderator (the material that slows down free neutrons, increasing the rate of ssion reactions) and as a coolant (the substance that transfers heat away from the reactor core to the steam generator). Another common design, the advanced gas-cooled reactor, uses graphite as a moderator and carbon dioxide as a coolant. The chief advantage of this design is that its Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives to heat carbon dioxide to higher temperatures than water (about 650C vs 325C). The greater heat capacity greatly improves plant efciency.

Pressurised water reactor (PWR)


Steel pressure vessel Heat exchanger Pressuriser

Pros and cons

The most powerful force ever harnessed by mankind

Steam Turbine

Steam Turbine

Condenser Condenser Feed pump Gas circulator Graphite core Diagrid Concrete pressure vessel Feed pump Circulation pump

Fuel elements Control rods Concrete shield

generates heat, which boils water, which produces steam, which turns a turbine, which drives an electric generator. In a pressurised water reactor, the heat from ssion doesnt produce steam directly. The ssion reaction heats the water inside the pressure vessel to about 325 degrees Celsius, but the water is kept under high pressure to keep it from boiling. A pumping system drives this hot water through a pipe that runs to a separate water reservoir, in the steam generator. The pipe heats the water in the steam generator to the boiling point, and it produces steam. The rushing steam turns a turbine and then reaches a cooling system. As the steam cools, it condenses back into a liquid. The liquid water returns to the reservoir, and boils again, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, repeating the cycle, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. As the turbine spins, it powers a generator, which produces an electric current. And there you have it: usable electric power. Nuclear ssion produces high levels of gamma and beta radiation, which can mutate cells, causing cancer and birth defects, among other things. Naturally, the most important concern when designing a nuclear power plant is containing this dangerous radiation. A modern nuclear power plant has many layers of protection. The pressure vessel that contains the uranium rods is encased in a thick concrete liner, which blocks gamma radiation. The entire

The water treatment systems in a power plant

reactor and the steam generator system are housed in a giant steel liner, providing additional radioactive shielding. The steel liner is surrounded by an outer concrete structure, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, designed to contain the radiation, even in the event of an earthquake. Modern nuclear power plants also include advanced automatic cooling systems, which kick into action in the event of the reactor or other equipment overheating. The spent uranium rods are also highly radioactive, which means power plants cant just throw them away. The best solutions anyone has come up with so far is to encase the nuclear waste in massive concrete and steel structures or bury it underground.

The remarkable advantage of nuclear power plants is they generate electricity without emitting any air pollution. The clouds billowing from cooling towers are nothing but harmless steam. Nuclear power does take a toll on the environment, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, however. Mining uranium destroys natural habitats, and the activity involved in both mining and Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives uranium produces greenhouse gasses. The bigger problem is fuel radioactivity. As Chernobyl demonstrated, accidents can cause widespread disease. Nuclear waste remains highly radioactive for thousands of years, and theres already more than 60,000 metric tons of it to deal with. Nobody wants it in their backyard, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Another concern is waste falling into the wrong hands, giving terrorists material for weapons. In recent years, dozens of nations have decided the benets are worth the risks and are forging ahead. Theyre touting nuclear power as the way of the future just as it was 60 years ago.

Learn more
For more Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives about the Chernobyl disaster, head to www.world-nuclear.org/ info/chernobyl/inf07.html where you can read an in-depth analysis of the events and impact relating to the unfortunate catastrophe in Ukraine.

Jean Paul Gaultiers new winter line received a mixed reaction

043

ENGINEERING
Semi-automatic pistols

Recoil is the guns kickback, balancing the bullets forward momentum


14 17 13 12

How do semiautomatic pistols work?


The colourful prole of the semi-automatic weapon continues to shape public opinion, but there is more to its substance than style alone
The semi-automatic pistol is a functionally different animal to the romanticised revolver of the Wild West. The motivation for semi and full for that matter automatics derive from energy generated by the ring process to self-load and prime a new round. This comes in a variety of avours, including recoil, blowback and gas. Recoil is the guns kick-back, balancing the bullets forward momentum or as Newton says, with every action must come an equal and opposite reaction. Here, the opposing recoil force drives the gun backwards, initiating momentum in the slide and barrel that are mechanically engaged. Separation of the two typically allows the breech to open as the slide carries on, self-loading and cocking the gun in the process. With blowback the barrel and slide are not wed. The barrel is typically xed to the frame with the shunting force of the exploding cartridge operating against the breech face itself and forcing the slide to the rear. The infamous AK-47 is a further example of a system that Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives gas drawn from the red cartridge explosion to cycle the self-loading process. Despite these distinctions, the term automatic is often clouded with reference to loading and ring. Though its function is distinct from its ancestors, the triggering

15

There are many components inside these pistols

Inside a semiautomatic
Pistol key:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Single action (SA) trigger/ double action (DA) trigger Disconnector (engaged in semi-automatics) Sear Safety grip (must be depressed or gun will not fire) Magazine/Magazine Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives (holds upwards of 15 rounds or more) Centerfire cartridge Hammer Firing pin Breech Extractor Chamber Barrel rifling Slide Top locking lugs Recoil spring Link Muzzle

mechanism of semi-automatics such as the US Armys M1911 mean they can only discharge one round for every reciprocal pull of the trigger. This differentiates them from full automatics which utilise Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives trigger mechanism that actuates a continuous self-loading/ring cycle until a guns clip is spent or trigger released. Due to the unwieldy nature of full automatic pistols, semiautomatic variants are now common throughout the military, police and criminal underworld.

Firearms training makes for better, safer shooters

6. Up and out

The breech opens, the extractor and ejector take turns to draw and kick out the spent chambered cartridge. The slide continues passing over and recocking the hammer.

3. re!

The primer explodes the gunpowder, sheaving the bullet from its case. Expanding gases force the bullet down the barrel Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives helical grooves that impart spin to improve accuracy in flight.

2. Squeeze

The weapon is first primed by manually racking the slide, which cocks the hammer and chambers the round.

1. Cock 4. Shots away!


Combustion gases provide muzzle velocity upwards of 250m/s; in turn the slide recoil is locked to the barrel by lugs. As the bullet exits, bore pressure falls.

Auto re stage 1
044

The hammer is held by a small notch or sear. Upon pulling the trigger the sear moves and the spring-loaded hammer slips free, striking the firing pin which in turn hits the primer.

5. On the slide

Auto re stage 2

At this point the link pivots the barrel out of lock and the lugs disengage, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. The slide continues to retreat under conserved momentum, compressing the recoil spring.

5 TOP FACTS TYPES OF


GUN

Lever-action
Synonymous with the Winchester Rie, this action allowed the likes of Billy the Kid to lever new rounds from a sealed tubular magazine, all in one movement.

Giving it both barrels


The double-barrelled shotgun is the prime example of break-open in action; whereby barrels are hinged to expose the breech and ready new rounds.

2,000 rounds a minute


Gatlings gun housed upwards of ten barrels, each with its own breech and ring pin, loaded upon cranked rotation by a gravity-fed ammunition hopper.

Unchained melody
The chain gun has a single barrel and employs an electric motor to drive a chain that is connected to the bolt, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives moves back and forth to reload the weapon.

Pump up the volume!


The pump-action is most often found in repeating ries and shotguns; with a hand grip that is pumped back and forth that strips the spent shell and loads a fresh round.

DID YOU KNOW? Holding a full automatic on its side helps against the potential for kick up and vertical spray
9 11 10 8 8 2 16 6 1 5 4 3 7

Semi vs fully automatic

While both loading mechanisms are automated, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, the advantage of going full automatic means there is no trigger disconnect and no mechanical delay in the cycling of re representative of semi-automatic weapons, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Therefore, while they are great in a tight spot and satisfy a penchant for wanton carnage, such continuous re allied to a typically low weight and no shoulder stock makes them tough to control, and a tendency to kick-up during ring makes Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives prone to vertical spray. Cook-off is also a factor in full automatics, where a round may dispense prematurely from the over-heated chamber. Full automatics often benet from an open bolt policy, where the slide is held back at the end of the cycle to allow cooling air to lter the barrel. Another issue is slam re. This occurs when the slide is released and the force of it closing is powerful enough to detonate the primer. They are also subject to jamming, where the cartridge can stick while entering, or ejecting from the chamber.

1. Safety rst

With frame-mounted safety locking, the hammer and slide allow the gun to be carried with hammer in a cocked and locked state.

2. Reconnecting the disconnect


Taking cover. along with you Linked to the trigger, this acts as a second sear, which catches the hammer or striker if the trigger is held. The disconnector is active until the trigger is released, and the hammer falls back on the regular sear.

Commonly seen in semiautomatics that are less prone to cook-off, but also found on full automatics. Once cocked, the slide is forward and breech closed, with the chamber housing a fully loaded round.

4. Closed-bolt design

A trigger mechanism that actuates a continuous self-loading/ring cycle

The ring cycle


7. Relock
The slide is propelled forward by the unwinding recoil spring, the returning breech closes and the slide locks into place with the barrel. The single-action trigger (unlike double-action) doesnt cock the hammer, so requiring a shallow press; minimising mechanical disturbance and enhancing the aim.

5. First shot accuracy

9. Trigger happy

Auto re stage 3

In a full automatic the disconnector is not engaged in events. Therefore, keeping the trigger pulled results in a continuous cycling of fire until its released or all ammo is spent.

8. and reload

The slide returns over the hammer (now cocked) and strips a round from the magazine, which is then thrust forward into the chamber.

The magazine is a distinct separation from classic cylindrical multi-chambered revolvers, housing upwards of 15 rounds or more. Note the chambered centrefire round: unlike rimfire, whose primer is built into the rim of the base and therefore when struck the case is not deformed and can be re-used.

3. The round house

045

ENGINEERING
Megastructures

Up close the worlds tallest bridge is no less stunning

Megastruct
Bigger, taller, longer, heavier. We explain the record-breaking engineering behind the worlds biggest man-made structures
2. Making ends meet
Using hydraulic conveyors, the steel deck was glided into place from opposite directions, eventually meeting over the River Tarn.

1. Worlds tallest

Pier Two (P2) is the tallest support pier in the world at 244.96 metres (804 feet).

Since the reign of the pharaohs, the lure of the very large has proven irresistible to visionary architects and game-changing engineers. Ancient Egypt had its pyramids, the Chinese dynasties had their Great Wall and modern Dubai has its well, pretty much everything. At the heart of

every megastructure is a dare: how far can you go? And every few years or so, some ambitious billionaire ups the ante, going higher, longer, deeper and more wildly expensive. The 828-metre (2,717-foot) Burj Khalifa tower in Dubai makes your palms sweat just looking at pictures from the observation deck. And not to be outdone,

Dubais Palm Islands are visible from space with the naked eye. None of these mind-blowing projects would be possible without quantum leaps in structural engineering, materials science, construction technology and logistics. On these pages, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, well explain the extreme engineering behind extraordinary structures.

Even the Eiffel Tower is dwarfed by the 343-metre high masts of the viaduct

046

Science Photo Library

BRIDGES

ures
3. Bendy bridge
Far from a straight shot, the viaduct is slightly curved and rises at a three per cent incline.

DID YOU KNOW? The Millau Viaduct was ofcially opened on 14 December 2004

FXFOWLE

Head to Head

LONGEST SUSPENSION

1. Akashi Kaikyo Bridge


At 3,900 metres long, this masterwork of Japanese engineering can survive an earthquake up to 8.5 on the Richter scale.

BIGGEST ARCH

2. Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives MileLong Bridge

BRIDGE OF THE FUTURE

Leave it to boomtown Dubai to dream up a fantastically futuristic proposal for a milelong double arch bridge spanning 12 lanes of trafc.

The proposed 88.5km (55mi) bridge linking North America and Asia would carry vehicle trafc, a high-speed train and pipelines for natural gas and oil.

3. Bering Strait Bridge

The Millau Viaduct

Majestic and minimalist, the worlds longest bridge is also one of the most beautiful
From a distance, the seven steel masts of the record-breaking Millau Viaduct in southern France look like billowing sails of a cosmic spacecraft. Up close, the tallest bridge in the world is no less stunning, a minimalist masterpiece that resembles an Apple iPad in bridge form. The Millau Viaduct is a cable-stayed road bridge of concrete and steel with load-bearing masts stretching 343 metres (1,125 feet) into the air. 17 years in Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives making at a cost of 400 million euros the 2,460-metre (1.52-mile) span employed the very latest construction techniques and technologies during each of its six stages of fabrication and assembly. First came the legs of the bridge, seven thick piers consisting of 206,000 tons of poured concrete. The smooth, seamless surface of each pier was achieved using a machine called a self-climbing framework. Powered by hydraulic lifters, the concrete framework rises upwards with the pier at a rate of three meters every three days. Pouring continuously, the piers rose from the valley oor, reaching their peak heights in ten months. Next came the deck, built from 173 steel box beams forged in the Eiffel factory. Using two on-site metalworks, the steel oor was welded to the box beams to create 171-metre deck panels. The panels were then launched from both sides of the bridge using 64 hydraulic conveyors positioned atop the piers and temporary steel crutches. The two sides of the deck literally slid towards each other at a rate of 60cm per push, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, equal to nine metres an hour. The two sides nally met on 28 May 2004 at 2:12pm. The seven steel masts support 1,500 tons of steel stays attached at 11 paired points. Each stay consists of up to 91 bound steel cables and each cable is made from seven individual strands of steel. The stays are triply weatherproofed to avoid corrosion. Before paving the road, workers used highpressure blasters to scour the steel deck with millimetre-size ball bearings, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Once all traces of rust were removed, special equipment laid a four-centimetre thick layer of tar thermosealed at 400C, offering complete corrosion protection. The bridge construction is guaranteed for 120 years and is continuously monitored for movements as small as a micrometre by dozens of bre-optic sensors strung throughout the structure.

The Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives 14 December 2004 Designed by: Michel Virlogeux and Norman Foster Length: 2,460 metres (1.52 miles) Width: 32 metres (105 feet) Mast height: 343 metres (1,125 feet)
Stephane Compoint / Foster & Partners

Millau Viaduct

3. The missing link

The viaduct completes an important span of the A75 autoroute, serving 4,670,449 vehicles in 2008.

2, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Tightly wound

154 stays, 11 pairs per mast, were strung and pulled to precision tautness to support the 36,000-ton weight of the steel deck.

These two masts were raised first to support the overhanging noses of the decks as they slid into place.

1. No nosedive

047

ENGINEERING
Megastructures
Dubai re-creates The World from an ocean of sand
Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum has only one requirement for construction projects in his desert nation of Dubai: if it doesnt break a world record for tallest, biggest or most expensive, hes not interested. It shouldnt surprise, therefore, that the original design of the Palm islands three man-made islands of colossal proportions off the coast of Dubai came from the Sheikhs own pen. But how do you build the worlds largest man-made islands? Luckily, Dubai has almost as much sand as it does oil money. The state-run developer Nakheel hired the Dutch dredging rm Van Oord, specialists in land reclamation, to suction up millions of cubic metres of sand from the sea oor and precision spray it into the shape of a huge date tree with 16 slender fronds extending into the sea, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Van Oords dredging equipment is guided by DGPS (differential global positioning system), NASAs new real-time positioning technology thats accurate down to ten centimetres. The rst stage of each of Dubais articial island projects the three Palm islands, plus a 300-island cluster in the shape of the continents called The World is to install an articial barrier reef as a water break. The articial wall for The World, consisting of 34 million tons of carefully stacked rocks, is 27km long. The dredging team then builds each island or peninsula in stages, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, using heavier machinery for the island foundations and rainbowing sand sprayers to nish the above-water detail work.

A starter home begins at 1.3 million


2. Lifes a beach
The rainbowing sand sprayers on the dredging equipment are designed to create beachfront with a precise and consistent slope.

The Statistics
Palm Jumeirah

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NameDescriptionCVE-2021-43618GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library (GMP) through 6.2.1 has an mpz/inp_raw.c integer overflow and resultant buffer overflow via crafted input, leading to a segmentation fault on 32-bit platforms. CVE-2021-41991The in-memory certificate cache in strongSwan before 5.9.4 has a remote integer overflow upon receiving many requests with different certificates to fill the cache and later trigger the replacement of cache entries. The code attempts to select a less-often-used cache entry by means of a random number generator, but this is not done correctly. Remote code execution might be a slight possibility. CVE-2021-41990The gmp OctoPlus Box 3.0.1 Crack Archives in strongSwan before 5.9.4 has a remote integer overflow via a crafted certificate with an RSASSA-PSS signature. For example, this can be triggered by an unrelated self-signed CA certificate sent by an initiator. Remote code execution cannot occur. CVE-2021-41864prealloc_elems_and_freelist in kernel/bpf/stackmap.c in the Linux kernel through 5.14.9 allows unprivileged users to trigger an eBPF multiplication integer overflow with a resultant out-of-bounds write. CVE-2021-41203TensorFlow is an open source platform for machine learning. In affected versions an attacker can trigger undefined behavior, integer overflows, segfaults and `CHECK`-fail crashes if they can change saved checkpoints from outside of TensorFlow. This is because the checkpoints loading infrastructure is missing validation for invalid file formats. The fixes will be included in TensorFlow 2.7.0. We will also cherrypick these commits on TensorFlow 2.6.1, TensorFlow 2.5.2, and TensorFlow 2.4.4, as these are also affected and still in supported range. CVE-2021-41099Redis is an open source, in-memory database that persists on disk. An integer overflow bug in the underlying string library can be used to corrupt the heap and potentially result with denial of service or remote code execution. The vulnerability involves changing the default proto-max-bulk-len configuration parameter to a very large value and constructing specially crafted network payloads or commands. The problem is fixed in Redis versions 6.2.6, 6.0.16 and 5.0.14. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to prevent users from modifying the proto-max-bulk-len configuration parameter. This can be done using ACL to restrict unprivileged users from using the CONFIG SET command. CVE-2021-40346An integer overflow exists in HAProxy 2.0 through 2.5 in htx_add_header that can be exploited to perform an HTTP request smuggling attack, allowing an attacker to bypass all configured http-request HAProxy ACLs and possibly other ACLs. CVE-2021-39254A crafted NTFS image can cause an integer overflow in memmove, leading to a heap-based buffer overflow in the function ntfs_attr_record_resize, in NTFS-3G < 2021.8.22. CVE-2021-38714In Plib through 1.85, there is an integer overflow vulnerability that could result in arbitrary code execution. The vulnerability is found in ssgLoadTGA() function in src/ssg/ssgLoadTGA.cxx file. CVE-2021-38185GNU cpio through 2.13 allows attackers to execute arbitrary code via a crafted pattern file, because of a dstring.c ds_fgetstr integer overflow that triggers an out-of-bounds heap write. NOTE: it is unclear whether there are common cases where the pattern file, associated with the -E option, is untrusted data. CVE-2021-38166In kernel/bpf/hashtab.c in the Linux kernel through 5.13.8, there is an integer overflow and out-of-bounds write when many elements are placed in a single bucket. NOTE: exploitation might be impractical without the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability. CVE-2021-38094Integer Overflow vulnerability in function filter_sobel in libavfilter/vf_convolution.c in Ffmpeg 4.2.1, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or other unspecified impacts. CVE-2021-38093Integer Overflow vulnerability in function filter_robert in libavfilter/vf_convolution.c in Ffmpeg 4.2.1, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or other unspecified impacts. CVE-2021-38092Integer Overflow vulnerability in function filter_prewitt in libavfilter/vf_convolution.c in Ffmpeg 4.2.1, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or other unspecified impacts. CVE-2021-38091Integer Overflow vulnerability in function filter16_sobel in libavfilter/vf_convolution.c in Ffmpeg 4.2.1, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or other unspecified impacts. CVE-2021-38090Integer Overflow vulnerability in function filter16_roberts in libavfilter/vf_convolution.c in Ffmpeg 4.2.1, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or other unspecified impacts. CVE-2021-37646TensorFlow is an end-to-end open source platform for machine learning. In affected versions the implementation of `tf.raw_ops.StringNGrams` is vulnerable to an integer overflow issue caused by converting a signed integer value to an unsigned one and then allocating memory based on this value. The [implementation](https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/8d72537c6abf5a44103b57b9c2e22c14f5f49698/tensorflow/core/kernels/string_ngrams_op.cc#L184) calls `reserve` on a `tstring` with a value that sometimes can be negative if user supplies negative `ngram_widths`. The `reserve` Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives calls `TF_TString_Reserve` which has an `unsigned long` argument for the size of the buffer. Hence, the implicit conversion transforms the negative value to a large integer. We have patched the issue in GitHub commit c283e542a3f422420cfdb332414543b62fc4e4a5. The fix will be included in TensorFlow 2.6.0. We will also cherrypick this commit on TensorFlow 2.5.1, TensorFlow 2.4.3, and TensorFlow 2.3.4, as these are also affected and still in supported range. CVE-2021-37645TensorFlow is an end-to-end open source platform for machine learning. In affected versions the implementation of `tf.raw_ops.QuantizeAndDequantizeV4Grad` is vulnerable to an integer overflow issue caused by converting a signed integer value to an unsigned one and Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives allocating memory based on this value. The [implementation](https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/8d72537c6abf5a44103b57b9c2e22c14f5f49698/tensorflow/core/kernels/quantize_and_dequantize_op.cc#L126) uses the `axis` value as the size argument to `absl::InlinedVector` constructor. But, the constructor uses an unsigned type for the argument, so the implicit conversion transforms the negative value to a large integer. We have patched the issue in GitHub commit 96f364a1ca3009f98980021c4b32be5fdcca33a1. The fix will be included in TensorFlow 2.6.0. We will also cherrypick this commit on TensorFlow 2.5.1, and TensorFlow 2.4.3, as these are also affected and still in supported range, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2021-37600** DISPUTED ** An integer overflow in util-linux through 2.37.1 can potentially cause a buffer overflow if an attacker were able to use system resources in a way that leads to a large number in the /proc/sysvipc/sem file. NOTE: this is unexploitable in GNU C Library environments, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, and possibly in all realistic environments. CVE-2021-36058XMP Toolkit SDK version 2020.1 (and earlier) is affected by an Integer Overflow vulnerability potentially resulting in application-level denial of service in the context of the current user. Exploitation requires user interaction in that a victim must open a crafted file. CVE-2021-3520There's a flaw in lz4. An attacker who submits a crafted file to an application linked with lz4 may be able to trigger an integer overflow, leading to calling of memmove() on a negative size argument, causing an out-of-bounds write and/or a crash. The greatest impact of this flaw is to availability, with some potential impact to confidentiality and integrity as well. CVE-2021-3477There's a flaw in OpenEXR's deep tile sample size calculations in versions before 3.0.0-beta. An attacker who is able to submit a crafted file to be processed by OpenEXR could trigger an integer overflow, subsequently leading to an out-of-bounds read. The greatest risk of this flaw is to application availability. CVE-2021-3475There is a flaw in OpenEXR in versions before 3.0.0-beta. An attacker who can submit a Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives file to be processed by OpenEXR could cause an integer overflow, potentially leading to problems with application availability. CVE-2021-34392Trusty TLK contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel where an integer overflow in the tz_map_shared_mem function can bypass boundary checks, which might lead to denial of service. CVE-2021-34391Trusty contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel function where a lack of checks allows the exploitation of an integer overflow through a specific SMC call that is triggered by the user, which may lead to denial of service. CVE-2021-34390Trusty contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel function where a lack of checks allows the exploitation of an integer overflow through a specific SMC call that is triggered Virtual DJ pro 8 crack serial keygen the user, which may lead to denial of service. CVE-2021-34386Trusty TLK contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel where an integer overflow in the calloc size calculation can cause the multiplication of count and size can overflow, which might lead to heap overflows. CVE-2021-34385Trusty TLK contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel where an integer overflow in the calculation of a length could lead to a heap overflow. CVE-2021-34382Trusty TLK contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel&#8217;s tz_map_shared_mem function where an integer overflow on the size parameter causes the request Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives and the logging buffer to overflow, allowing writes to arbitrary addresses within the kernel. CVE-2021-34381Trusty TLK contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA TLK kernel function where a lack of checks allows the exploitation of an Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives overflow on the size parameter of the tz_map_shared_mem function, which might lead to denial of service, information disclosure, or data tampering. CVE-2021-34372Trusty (the trusted OS produced by NVIDIA for Jetson devices) driver contains a vulnerability in the NVIDIA OTE protocol message parsing code where an integer overflow in a malloc() size calculation leads to a buffer overflow on the heap, which might result in information disclosure, escalation of privileges, and denial of service. CVE-2021-34270An integer overflow in the mintToken function of a smart contract implementation for Doftcoin Token, an Ethereum ERC20 token, allows the owner to cause unexpected financial losses. CVE-2021-3420A flaw was found in newlib in versions prior to 4.0.0. Improper overflow validation in the memory allocation functions mEMALIGn, pvALLOc, nano_memalign, nano_valloc, nano_pvalloc could case an integer overflow, leading to an allocation of a small buffer and then to a heap-based buffer overflow. CVE-2021-34185Miniaudio 0.10.35 has an integer-based buffer overflow caused by an out-of-bounds left shift in drwav_bytes_to_u32 in miniaudio.h CVE-2021-3402An integer overflow and several buffer overflow reads in libyara/modules/macho/macho.c in YARA v4.0.3 and earlier could allow an attacker to either cause denial of service or information disclosure via a malicious Mach-O file. Affects all versions before libyara 4.0.4 CVE-2021-33909fs/seq_file.c in the Linux kernel 3.16 through 5.13.x before 5.13.4 does not properly restrict seq buffer allocations, leading to an integer overflow, an Out-of-bounds Write, and escalation to root by an unprivileged user, aka CID-8cae8cd89f05, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2021-33889OpenThread wpantund through 2021-07-02 has a stack-based Buffer Overflow because of an inconsistency in the integer data type for metric_len. CVE-2021-33403An integer overflow in the transfer function of a smart contract implementation for Lancer Token, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, an Ethereum ERC20 token, allows the owner to cause unexpected financial losses between two large accounts during a transaction. CVE-2021-3321Integer Underflow in Zephyr in IEEE 802154 Fragment Reassembly Header Removal. Zephyr versions >= >=2.4.0 contain Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow (CWE-680). For more information, see https://github.com/zephyrproject-rtos/zephyr/security/advisories/GHSA-w44j-66g7-xw99 CVE-2021-33106Integer overflow in the Safestring library maintained by Intel(R) may allow an authenticated user to potentially enable escalation of privilege via local access. CVE-2021-32765Hiredis is a minimalistic C client library for the Redis database. In affected versions Hiredis is vulnurable to integer overflow if provided maliciously crafted or corrupted `RESP` `mult-bulk` protocol data. When parsing `multi-bulk` (array-like) replies, hiredis fails to check if `count * sizeof(redisReply*)` can be represented in `SIZE_MAX`. If it can not, and the `calloc()` call doesn't itself make this check, it would result in a short allocation and subsequent buffer overflow. Users of hiredis who are unable to update may set the [maxelements](https://github.com/redis/hiredis#reader-max-array-elements) context option to a value small enough that no overflow is possible. CVE-2021-32762Redis is an open source, in-memory database that persists on disk. The redis-cli command line tool and redis-sentinel service may be vulnerable to integer overflow when parsing specially crafted large multi-bulk network replies. This is a result of a vulnerability in the underlying hiredis library which does not perform an overflow check before calling the calloc() heap allocation function. This issue only impacts systems with heap allocators that do not perform their own overflow checks. Most modern systems do and are therefore not likely to be affected. Furthermore, by default redis-sentinel uses the jemalloc allocator which is also not vulnerable. The problem is fixed in Redis versions 6.2.6, 6.0.16 and 5.0.14. CVE-2021-32761Redis is an in-memory database that persists on disk. A vulnerability involving out-of-bounds read and integer overflow to buffer overflow exists starting with version 2.2 and prior to versions 5.0.13, 6.0.15, and 6.2.5. On 32-bit systems, Redis `*BIT*` command are vulnerable to integer overflow that can potentially be exploited to corrupt the heap, leak arbitrary heap Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives or trigger remote code execution. The vulnerability involves changing the default `proto-max-bulk-len` configuration parameter to a very large value and constructing specially crafted commands bit commands. This problem only affects Redis on 32-bit platforms, or compiled as a 32-bit binary. Redis versions 5.0.`3m 6.0.15, and 6.2.5 contain patches for this issue. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the `redis-server` executable is to prevent users from modifying the `proto-max-bulk-len` configuration parameter. This can be done using ACL to restrict unprivileged users from using the CONFIG SET command. CVE-2021-32714hyper is an HTTP library for Rust. In versions prior to 0.14.10, hyper's HTTP server and client code had a flaw that could trigger an integer overflow when decoding chunk sizes that are too big. This allows possible data loss, or if combined with an upstream HTTP proxy that allows chunk sizes larger than hyper does, can result in "request smuggling" or "desync attacks." The vulnerability is patched in version 0.14.10, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Two possible workarounds exist. One may reject requests manually Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives contain a `Transfer-Encoding` header or ensure any upstream proxy rejects `Transfer-Encoding` chunk sizes greater than what fits in 64-bit unsigned integers. CVE-2021-32687Redis is an open source, in-memory database that persists on disk. An integer overflow bug affecting all versions of Redis can be exploited to corrupt the heap and potentially be used to leak arbitrary contents of the heap or trigger remote code execution. The vulnerability involves changing the default set-max-intset-entries configuration parameter to a very large value and constructing specially crafted commands to manipulate sets. The problem is fixed in Redis versions 6.2.6, 6.0.16 and 5.0.14. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to prevent users from modifying the set-max-intset-entries configuration parameter. This can be done using ACL to restrict unprivileged users from using the CONFIG SET command. CVE-2021-32628Redis is an open source, in-memory database that persists on disk. An integer overflow bug in the ziplist data structure used by all versions of Redis can be exploited to corrupt the heap and potentially result with remote code execution. The vulnerability involves modifying the default ziplist configuration parameters (hash-max-ziplist-entries, hash-max-ziplist-value, zset-max-ziplist-entries or zset-max-ziplist-value) to a very large value, and then constructing specially crafted commands to create very large ziplists. The problem is fixed in Redis versions 6.2.6, 6.0.16, 5.0.14. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to prevent users from modifying the above configuration parameters. This can be done using ACL to restrict unprivileged users from using the CONFIG SET command. CVE-2021-32627Redis is an open source, in-memory database that persists on disk. In affected versions an integer overflow bug in Redis can be exploited to corrupt the heap and potentially result with remote code execution. The vulnerability involves changing the default proto-max-bulk-len and client-query-buffer-limit configuration parameters to very large values and constructing specially crafted very large stream elements. The problem is fixed in Redis 6.2.6, 6.0.16 and 5.0.14. For users unable to upgrade an additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to prevent users from modifying the proto-max-bulk-len configuration parameter. This can be done using ACL to restrict unprivileged users from using the CONFIG SET command. CVE-2021-32625Redis is an open source (BSD licensed), in-memory data structure store, used as a database, cache, and message broker. An integer overflow bug in Redis version 6.0 or newer, could be exploited using the STRALGO LCS command to corrupt the heap and potentially result with remote code execution. This is a result of an incomplete fix by CVE-2021-29477. The problem is fixed in version 6.2.4 and 6.0.14. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to use ACL configuration to prevent clients from using the STRALGO LCS command. On 64 bit systems which have the fixes of CVE-2021-29477 (6.2.3 or 6.0.13), it is sufficient to make sure that the proto-max-bulk-len config parameter is smaller than 2GB (default is 512MB). CVE-2021-32559An integer overflow exists in pywin32 prior to version b301 when adding an access control entry (ACE) to an access control list (ACL) that would cause the size to be greater than 65535 bytes. An attacker who successfully exploited this vulnerability could crash the vulnerable process. CVE-2021-32491A flaw was found in djvulibre-3.5.28 and earlier. An integer overflow in function render() in tools/ddjvu via crafted djvu file may lead to application crash and other consequences. CVE-2021-32489An issue was discovered in the _send_secure_msg() function of Yubico yubihsm-shell through 2.0.3. The function does not correctly validate the embedded length field of an authenticated message received from the device because response_msg.st.len=8 can be accepted but triggers an integer overflow, which causes CRYPTO_cbc128_decrypt (in OpenSSL) to encounter an undersized buffer and experience a segmentation fault. The yubihsm-shell project is included in the YubiHSM 2 SDK product. CVE-2021-32461Trend Micro Password Manager (Consumer) version 5.0.0.1217 and below is vulnerable to an Integer Truncation Privilege Escalation vulnerability which could allow a local attacker to trigger a buffer overflow and escalate privileges on affected installations. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute low-privileged code on the target system in order to exploit this vulnerability. CVE-2021-31873An issue was discovered in klibc before 2.0.9. Additions in the malloc() function may result in an integer overflow and a subsequent heap buffer overflow. CVE-2021-31872An issue was discovered in klibc before 2.0.9. Multiple possible integer overflows in the cpio command on 32-bit systems may result in a buffer overflow or other security impact. CVE-2021-31871An issue was discovered in klibc before 2.0.9. An integer overflow in the cpio command may result in a NULL pointer dereference on 64-bit systems. CVE-2021-31870An issue was discovered in klibc before 2.0.9. Multiplication in the calloc() function may result in an integer overflow and a subsequent heap buffer overflow. CVE-2021-31807An issue was discovered in Squid before 4.15 and 5.x before 5.0.6. An integer overflow problem allows a remote server to achieve Denial of Service when delivering responses to HTTP Range requests. The issue trigger is a header that can be expected to exist in HTTP traffic without any malicious intent. CVE-2021-31642A denial of service condition exists after an integer overflow in several IoT devices from CHIYU Technology, including BIOSENSE, Webpass, and BF-630, BF-631, and SEMAC. The vulnerability can be explored by sending an unexpected integer (> 32 bits) on the page parameter that will crash the web portal and making it unavailable until a reboot of the device. CVE-2021-31572The kernel in Amazon Web Services FreeRTOS before 10.4.3 has an integer overflow in stream_buffer.c for a stream buffer. CVE-2021-31571The kernel in Amazon Web Services FreeRTOS before 10.4.3 has an integer overflow in queue.c for queue creation. Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives CVE-2021-31426This vulnerability allows local attackers to escalate privileges on affected installations of Parallels Desktop 16.1.2-49151. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute low-privileged code on the target system in order to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the Parallels Tools component. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to escalate privileges and execute arbitrary code in the context of the kernel on the target guest system. Was ZDI-CAN-12791. CVE-2021-31425This vulnerability allows local attackers to escalate privileges on affected installations of Parallels Desktop 16.1.2-49151. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute low-privileged code on the target guest system in order to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the Parallels Tools component. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to escalate privileges and execute arbitrary code in the context of the kernel on the target guest system. Was ZDI-CAN-12790. Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives CVE-2021-31401An issue was discovered in tcp_rcv() in nptcp.c in HCC embedded InterNiche 4.0.1. The TCP header processing code doesn't sanitize the value of the IP total length field (header length + data length). With a crafted IP packet, an integer overflow occurs whenever the value of the IP Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives length is calculated by subtracting the length of the header from the total length of the IP packet. CVE-2021-31319Telegram Android <7.1.0 (2090), Telegram iOS <7.1, and Telegram macOS <7.1 are affected by an Integer Overflow in the LOTGradient::populate function of their custom fork of the rlottie library. A remote attacker might be able to access heap memory out-of-bounds on a victim device via a malicious animated sticker. CVE-2021-31292An integer overflow in CrwMap::encode0x1810 of Exiv2 0.27.3 allows attackers to trigger a heap-based buffer overflow and cause a denial of service (DOS) via crafted metadata. CVE-2021-31227An issue was discovered in HCC embedded InterNiche 4.0.1. A potential heap buffer overflow exists in the code that parses the HTTP POST request, due to an incorrect signed integer comparison, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. This vulnerability requires the attacker to send a malformed HTTP packet with a negative Content-Length, which bypasses the size checks and results in a large heap overflow in the wbs_multidata buffer copy, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2021-30907An integer overflow was addressed through improved input validation. This issue is fixed in iOS 15.1 and iPadOS 15.1, macOS Monterey 12.0.1, iOS 14.8.1 Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives iPadOS 14.8.1, tvOS 15.1, watchOS 8.1, Security Update 2021-007 Catalina, macOS Big Sur 11.6.1. A malicious application may be able to elevate privileges. CVE-2021-30860An integer overflow was addressed with improved input validation. This issue is fixed in Security Update 2021-005 Catalina, iOS 14.8 and iPadOS 14.8, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, macOS Big Sur 11.6, watchOS 7.6.2. Processing a maliciously crafted PDF may lead to arbitrary code execution. Apple is aware of a report that this issue may have been actively exploited. CVE-2021-30760An integer overflow was addressed through improved input validation. This issue is fixed in iOS 14.7, macOS Big Sur 11.5, watchOS 7.6, tvOS 14.7, Security Update 2021-005 Mojave, Security Update 2021-004 Catalina. Processing a maliciously crafted font file may lead to arbitrary code execution. CVE-2021-30663An integer overflow was addressed with improved input validation. This issue is fixed in iOS 14.5.1 and iPadOS 14.5.1, tvOS 14.6, iOS 12.5.3, Safari 14.1.1, macOS Big Sur 11.3.1. Processing maliciously crafted web content may lead to arbitrary code execution. CVE-2021-30354Amazon Kindle e-reader prior to and including version 5.13.4 contains an Integer Overflow that leads to a Heap-Based Buffer Overflow in function CJBig2Image::expand() and results in a memory corruption that leads to code execution when parsing a crafted PDF book. CVE-2021-30261Possible integer and heap overflow due to lack of input command size validation while handling beacon template update command from HLOS in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon IoT, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables CVE-2021-30260Possible Integer overflow to buffer overflow issue can occur due to improper validation of input parameters when extscan hostlist configuration command is received in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer Electronics Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon IoT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking CVE-2021-30022There is a integer overflow in media_tools/av_parsers.c in the gf_avc_read_pps_bs_internal in GPAC 1.0.1. pps_id may be a negative number, so it will not return. However, avc->pps only has 255 unit, so there is an overflow, which results a Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2021-30014There is a integer overflow in media_tools/av_parsers.c in Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives hevc_parse_slice_segment function in GPAC 1.0.1 which results in a crash. CVE-2021-29946Ports Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives were written as an integer overflow above the bounds of a 16-bit integer could have bypassed port blocking restrictions when used in the Alt-Svc header. This vulnerability affects Firefox ESR < 78.10, Thunderbird < 78.10, and Firefox < 88. CVE-2021-29644Hitachi JP1/IT Desktop Management 2 Agent 9 through 12 contains a remote code execution vulnerability because of an Integer Overflow. An attacker with network access to port 31016 may exploit this issue to execute code with unrestricted privileges on the underlying OS. CVE-2021-29605TensorFlow is an end-to-end open source platform for machine learning. The TFLite code for allocating `TFLiteIntArray`s is vulnerable to an integer overflow issue(https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/4ceffae632721e52bf3501b736e4fe9d1221cdfa/tensorflow/lite/c/common.c#L24-L27), Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. An attacker can craft a model such that the `size` multiplier is so large that the return value overflows the `int` datatype and becomes negative, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. In turn, this results in invalid value being given to `malloc`(https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/4ceffae632721e52bf3501b736e4fe9d1221cdfa/tensorflow/lite/c/common.c#L47-L52). In this case, `ret->size` would dereference an invalid pointer. The fix will be included in TensorFlow 2.5.0. We will also cherrypick this commit on TensorFlow 2.4.2, TensorFlow 2.3.3, TensorFlow 2.2.3 and TensorFlow 2.1.4, as these are also affected and still in supported range. CVE-2021-29601TensorFlow is an end-to-end open source platform for machine learning. The TFLite implementation of concatenation is vulnerable to an integer overflow issue(https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/7b7352a724b690b11bfaae2cd54bc3907daf6285/tensorflow/lite/kernels/concatenation.cc#L70-L76). An attacker can craft a model such that the dimensions of one of the concatenation input overflow the values of `int`. TFLite uses Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives to represent tensor dimensions, whereas TF uses `int64`. Hence, valid TF models can trigger an integer overflow when converted to TFLite format. The fix will be included in TensorFlow 2.5.0. We will also cherrypick this commit on TensorFlow 2.4.2, TensorFlow 2.3.3, TensorFlow 2.2.3 and TensorFlow 2.1.4, as these are also affected and still in supported range. CVE-2021-29584TensorFlow is an end-to-end open source platform for machine learning. An attacker can trigger a denial of service via a `CHECK`-fail in caused by Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives integer overflow in constructing a new tensor shape. This is because the implementation(https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/0908c2f2397c099338b901b067f6495a5b96760b/tensorflow/core/kernels/sparse_split_op.cc#L66-L70) builds a dense shape without checking that the dimensions would not result in overflow. The `TensorShape` constructor(https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/6f9896890c4c703ae0a0845394086e2e1e523299/tensorflow/core/framework/tensor_shape.cc#L183-L188) uses a `CHECK` operation which triggers when `InitDims`(https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/blob/6f9896890c4c703ae0a0845394086e2e1e523299/tensorflow/core/framework/tensor_shape.cc#L212-L296) returns a non-OK status. This is a legacy implementation of the constructor and operations should use `BuildTensorShapeBase` or `AddDimWithStatus` to prevent `CHECK`-failures in the presence of overflows, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. The fix will be included in TensorFlow 2.5.0. We will also cherrypick this commit on TensorFlow 2.4.2, TensorFlow 2.3.3, TensorFlow 2.2.3 and TensorFlow 2.1.4, as these are also affected and still in supported range, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2021-29478Redis is an open source (BSD licensed), in-memory data structure store, used as a database, cache, and message broker. An integer overflow bug in Redis 6.2 before 6.2.3 could be exploited to corrupt the heap and potentially result with remote code execution. Redis 6.0 and earlier are not directly affected by this issue. The problem is fixed in version 6.2.3. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the `redis-server` executable is to prevent users from modifying the `set-max-intset-entries` configuration parameter. This can be done using ACL to restrict unprivileged users from using the `CONFIG SET` command. CVE-2021-29477Redis is an open source (BSD licensed), in-memory data structure store, used as a database, cache, and message broker. An integer overflow bug in Redis version 6.0 or newer could be exploited using the `STRALGO LCS` command to corrupt the heap and potentially result with remote code execution. The problem is fixed in version 6.2.3 and 6.0.13. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to use ACL configuration to prevent clients from using the `STRALGO LCS` command. CVE-2021-29338Integer Overflow in Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives v2.4.0 allows remote attackers to crash the application, causing a Denial of Service (DoS). This occurs when the attacker uses the command line option "-ImgDir" on a directory that contains 1048576 files. CVE-2021-29279There is a integer overflow in function filter_core/filter_props.c:gf_props_assign_value in GPAC 1.0.1. In which, the arg const GF_PropertyValue *value,maybe value->value.data.size is a negative number. In result, memcpy in gf_props_assign_value failed. CVE-2021-28879In the standard library in Rust before 1.52.0, the Zip implementation can report an incorrect size due to an integer overflow. This bug can lead to a buffer overflow when a consumed Zip iterator is used again. CVE-2021-28682An issue was discovered in Envoy through 1.71.1. There is a remotely exploitable integer overflow in which a very large grpc-timeout value leads to unexpected timeout calculations, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2021-27665An unauthenticated remote user could exploit a potential integer overflow condition in the exacqVision Server with a specially crafted script and cause denial-of-service condition, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives vulnerability allows local attackers to escalate privileges on affected installations of Parallels Desktop 16.0.1-48919. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute low-privileged code on the target guest system in order to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the Toolgate component. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a buffer, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to escalate privileges and execute arbitrary code in the context of the hypervisor. Was ZDI-CAN-12021. CVE-2021-27243This vulnerability allows local attackers to escalate privileges on affected installations of Parallels Desktop 16.0.1-48919. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute low-privileged code on the target guest system in order to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the Toolgate component. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to escalate privileges and execute arbitrary code in the context of the hypervisor. Was ZDI-CAN-11924. CVE-2021-27219An issue was discovered in GNOME GLib before 2.66.6 and 2.67.x before 2.67.3. The function g_bytes_new has an integer overflow on 64-bit platforms due to an implicit cast from 64 bits to 32 bits. The overflow could potentially lead to memory corruption. CVE-2021-26945An integer overflow leading to a heap-buffer overflow was found in OpenEXR in versions before 3.0.1. An attacker could use this flaw to crash an application compiled with OpenEXR. CVE-2021-26825An integer overflow issue exists in Godot Engine up to v3.2 that can be triggered when loading specially crafted.TGA image files. The vulnerability exists in ImageLoaderTGA::load_image() function at line: const size_t buffer_size = (tga_header.image_width * tga_header.image_height) * pixel_size; Wondershare UniConverter 13.0.3.58 With Crack [Latest] bug leads to Dynamic stack buffer overflow. Depending on the context of the application, attack vector can be local or remote, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, and can lead to code execution and/or system crash. CVE-2021-26329AMD System Management Unit (SMU) may experience an integer overflow when an invalid length is provided which may result in a potential loss of resources. CVE-2021-26260An integer overflow leading to a heap-buffer overflow was found in the DwaCompressor of OpenEXR in versions before 3.0.1, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. An attacker could use this flaw to crash an application compiled with OpenEXR. This is a different flaw from CVE-2021-23215. CVE-2021-24036Passing an attacker controlled size when creating an IOBuf could cause integer overflow, leading to an out of bounds write on the heap with the possibility of remote code execution. This issue affects versions of folly prior to v2021.07.22.00. This issue affects HHVM versions prior to 4.80.5, all versions between 4.81.0 and 4.102.1, all versions between 4.103.0 and 4.113.0, and versions 4.114.0, 4.115.0, 4.116.0, 4.117.0, 4.118.0 and 4.118.1. CVE-2021-24025Due to incorrect string size calculations inside the preg_quote function, a large input string passed to the function can trigger an integer overflow leading to a heap overflow. This issue affects HHVM versions prior to Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, all versions between 4.57.0 and 4.80.1, all versions between 4.81.0 and 4.93.1, and versions 4.94.0, 4.95.0, 4.96.0, 4.97.0, 4.98.0. CVE-2021-23840Calls to EVP_CipherUpdate, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, EVP_EncryptUpdate and EVP_DecryptUpdate may overflow the output length argument in some cases where the input length is close to the maximum permissable length for an integer on the platform. In such cases the return value from the function call will be 1 (indicating success), but the output length value will be negative. This could cause applications to behave incorrectly or crash. OpenSSL versions 1.1.1i and below are affected by this issue. Users of these versions should upgrade to OpenSSL 1.1.1j. OpenSSL versions 1.0.2x and below are affected by this Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. However OpenSSL 1.0.2 is out of support and no longer receiving public updates. Premium support customers of OpenSSL 1.0.2 should upgrade to 1.0.2y. Other users should upgrade to 1.1.1j. Fixed in OpenSSL 1.1.1j (Affected 1.1.1-1.1.1i). Fixed in OpenSSL 1.0.2y (Affected 1.0.2-1.0.2x). CVE-2021-23215An integer overflow leading to a heap-buffer overflow was found in the DwaCompressor of OpenEXR in versions before 3.0.1. An attacker could use this flaw to crash an application compiled with OpenEXR. CVE-2021-22679The affected product is vulnerable to an integer overflow while processing HTTP headers, which may allow an attacker to remotely execute code on the SimpleLink Wi-Fi (MSP432E4 SDK: v4.20.00.12 and prior, CC32XX SDK v4.30.00.06 and prior, CC13X0 SDK versions prior to v4.10.03, CC13X2 and CC26XX SDK versions prior to v4.40.00, CC3200 SDK v1.5.0 and prior, CC3100 SDK v1.3.0 and prior). CVE-2021-22677An integer overflow exists in the APIs of the host MCU while trying to connect to a WIFI network may lead to issues such as a denial-of-service condition or code execution on the SimpleLink Wi-Fi (MSP432E4 SDK: v4.20.00.12 and prior, CC32XX SDK Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives and prior, CC13X0 SDK versions prior to v4.10.03, CC13X2 and CC26XX SDK versions prior to v4.40.00, CC3200 SDK v1.5.0 and prior, CC3100 SDK v1.3.0 and prior). CVE-2021-22675The affected product is vulnerable to integer overflow while parsing malformed over-the-air firmware update files, which may allow an attacker to remotely execute code on SimpleLink Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives (MSP432E4 SDK: v4.20.00.12 and prior, CC32XX SDK v4.30.00.06 and prior, CC13X0 SDK versions prior to v4.10.03, CC13X2 and CC26XX SDK versions prior to v4.40.00, CC3200 SDK v1.5.0 and prior, CC3100 SDK v1.3.0 and prior). CVE-2021-22671Multiple integer overflow issues exist while processing long domain names, which may allow an attacker to remotely execute code on the SimpleLink Wi-Fi (MSP432E4 SDK: v4.20.00.12 and prior, CC32XX SDK v4.30.00.06 and prior, CC13X0 SDK versions prior to v4.10.03, CC13X2 and CC26XX SDK versions prior to v4.40.00, CC3200 SDK v1.5.0 and prior, CC3100 SDK v1.3.0 and prior), Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2021-22455A component of the HarmonyOS has a Integer Overflow or Wraparound vulnerability. Local attackers may exploit this vulnerability to cause the memory which is not released. CVE-2021-22451A component of the HarmonyOS has a Integer Overflow or Wraparound vulnerability, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Local attackers may exploit this vulnerability to cause memory overwriting. CVE-2021-22423A component of the HarmonyOS has a Out-of-bounds Write Vulnerability. Local attackers may exploit this vulnerability to cause integer overflow. CVE-2021-22422A component of the HarmonyOS has a Integer Overflow or Wraparound vulnerability. Local attackers may exploit this vulnerability to cause memory overwriting. CVE-2021-22418A component of the HarmonyOS has a Integer Overflow or Wraparound vulnerability. Local attackers may exploit this vulnerability to cause memory overwriting. CVE-2021-22413There is an Integer Overflow Vulnerability in Huawei Smartphone.Successful exploitation of this vulnerability may cause the system to reset. CVE-2021-22412There is an Integer Overflow Vulnerability in Huawei Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives exploitation of this vulnerability may cause Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives kernel address access. CVE-2021-22388There is an Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives Overflow Vulnerability in Huawei Smartphone.Successful exploitation of this vulnerability may cause certain codes to be executed. CVE-2021-22323There is an Integer Overflow Vulnerability in Huawei Smartphone. Successful exploitation of these vulnerabilities may escalate the permission to that of the root user. CVE-2021-22156An integer overflow vulnerability in the calloc() function of the C runtime library of affected versions of BlackBerry® QNX Software Development Platform (SDP) version(s) 6.5.0SP1 and earlier, QNX OS for Medical 1.1 and earlier, and QNX OS for Safety 1.0.1 and earlier that could allow an attacker to potentially perform a denial of service or execute arbitrary code. CVE-2021-21862Multiple exploitable integer truncation vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an improper memory allocation resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption The implementation of the parser used for the &#8220;Xtra&#8221; FOURCC code is handled. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21861An exploitable integer truncation vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. When processing the 'hdlr' FOURCC code, a specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an improper memory allocation resulting Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21860An exploitable integer truncation vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an improper memory allocation resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. The FOURCC code, 'trik', is parsed by the function within the library. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. axure rp 9.0.0 license key txt Archives exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked addition arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21857Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked addition arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21856Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked addition arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21855Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked addition arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21854Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked addition arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21853Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked addition arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21852Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input at &#8220;stss&#8221; decoder can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21851Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input at &#8220;csgp&#8221; decoder sample group description indices can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2021-21850An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow when the library encounters an atom using the &#8220;trun&#8221; FOURCC code due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives vulnerability. CVE-2021-21849An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow when the library encounters an atom using the &#8220;tfra&#8221; FOURCC code due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21848An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. The library will actually reuse the parser for atoms with the &#8220;stsz&#8221; FOURCC code when parsing atoms that use the &#8220;stz2&#8221; FOURCC code and can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21847Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input in &#8220;stts&#8221; decoder can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21846Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input in &#8220;stsz&#8221; decoder can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21845Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input in &#8220;stsc&#8221; decoder can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21844Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input when encountering an atom using the &#8220;stco&#8221; FOURCC code, can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21843Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. After validating the number of ranges, at [41] the library will multiply the count by the size of the GF_SubsegmentRangeInfo structure. On a 32-bit platform, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, this multiplication can result in an integer overflow causing the space of the array being allocated to be less than expected. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21842An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow when processing an atom using the 'ssix' FOURCC code, due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21841An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input when reading an atom using the 'sbgp' FOURCC code can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21840An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input used to process an atom using the &#8220;saio&#8221; FOURCC code cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21839Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21838Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21837Multiple exploitable integer overflow vulnerabilities exist within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21836An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input using the &#8220;ctts&#8221; FOURCC code can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21835An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input when decoding the atom associated with the &#8220;csgp&#8221; FOURCC can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21834An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists within the MPEG-4 decoding functionality of the GPAC Project on Advanced Content library v1.0.1. A specially crafted MPEG-4 input when decoding the atom for the &#8220;co64&#8221; FOURCC can cause an integer overflow due to unchecked arithmetic resulting in a heap-based buffer overflow that causes memory corruption. An attacker can convince a user to open a video to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21807An integer overflow vulnerability exists in the DICOM parse_dicom_meta_info functionality of Accusoft ImageGear 19.9. A specially crafted malformed file can lead to a stack-based buffer overflow. An attacker can provide a malicious file to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21795A heap-based buffer overflow vulnerability exists in the PSD read_icc_icCurve_data functionality of Accusoft ImageGear 19.9. A specially crafted malformed file can lead to an integer overflow that, in turn, leads to a heap buffer overflow. An attacker can provide a malicious file to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2021-21309Redis is an open-source, in-memory database that persists on disk. In affected versions of Redis an integer overflow bug in 32-bit Redis version 4.0 or newer could be exploited to corrupt the heap and potentially result with remote code execution. Redis 4.0 or newer uses a configurable limit for the maximum Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives bulk input size. By default, it is 512MB which is a safe value for all platforms. If the limit is significantly increased, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, receiving a large request from a client may trigger several integer overflow scenarios, which would result with buffer overflow and heap corruption. We believe this could in certain conditions be exploited for remote code execution. By default, authenticated Redis users have access to all configuration parameters and can therefore use the &#8220;CONFIG SET proto-max-bulk-len&#8221; to change the safe default, making the system vulnerable. **This problem only affects 32-bit Redis (on a 32-bit system, or as a 32-bit executable running on a 64-bit system).** The problem is fixed in version 6.2, and the fix is back ported to 6.0.11 and 5.0.11. Make sure you use one of these versions if you are running 32-bit Redis. An additional workaround to mitigate the problem without patching the redis-server executable is to prevent clients from directly executing `CONFIG SET`: Using Redis 6.0 or newer, ACL configuration can be used to block the command. Using older versions, the `rename-command` configuration directive can be used to rename the command to a random string unknown to users, rendering it inaccessible. Please note that this workaround may have an additional Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives on users or operational systems that expect `CONFIG SET` to behave in certain ways. CVE-2021-21223Integer overflow in Mojo in Google Chrome prior to 90.0.4430.85 allowed a remote attacker who had compromised the renderer process to potentially perform a sandbox escape via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2021-21036Acrobat Reader DC versions versions 2020.013.20074 (and earlier), 2020.001.30018 (and earlier) and 2017.011.30188 (and earlier) are affected by an Integer Overflow vulnerability. An unauthenticated attacker could leverage this vulnerability to achieve arbitrary code execution in the context of the current user. Exploitation of this issue requires user interaction in that a victim must open a malicious file. CVE-2021-20312A flaw was found in ImageMagick in versions 7.0.11, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, where an integer overflow in WriteTHUMBNAILImage of coders/thumbnail.c may trigger undefined behavior via a crafted image file that is submitted by an attacker and processed by an application using ImageMagick. The highest threat from this vulnerability is to system availability. CVE-2021-20308Integer overflow in the htmldoc 1.9.11 and before may allow attackers to execute arbitrary code and cause a denial of service that is similar to CVE-2017-9181. CVE-2021-20203An integer overflow issue was found in the vmxnet3 NIC emulator of the QEMU for versions up to v5.2.0. It may occur if a guest was to supply invalid values for rx/tx queue size or other NIC parameters. A privileged guest user may use this flaw to crash the QEMU process on the host resulting in DoS scenario. CVE-2021-20110Due to Manage Engine Asset Explorer Agent 1.0.34 not validating HTTPS certificates, an attacker on the network can statically configure their IP address to match the Asset Explorer's Server IP address, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. This will allow an attacker to send a NEWSCAN request to a listening agent on the network as well as receive the agent's HTTP request verifying its authtoken. In httphandler.cpp, the agent reaching out over HTTP is vulnerable to an Integer Overflow, which can be turned into a Heap Overflow allowing for remote code execution as NT AUTHORITY/SYSTEM on the agent machine. The Integer Overflow occurs when receiving POST response from the Manage Engine server, and the agent calling "HttpQueryInfoW" in order to get the "Content-Length" size from the incoming POST request. This size is taken, but multiplied to a larger amount. If an attacker specifies a Content-Length size of 1073741823 or larger, this integer arithmetic will wrap the value back around to smaller integer, then calls "calloc" with this size to allocate memory. The following API "InternetReadFile" will copy the POST data into this buffer, which will be too small for the contents, and cause heap overflow. CVE-2021-1949Possible integer overflow due to improper check of batch count value while sanitizer is enabled in Snapdragon Auto, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables CVE-2021-1913Possible integer overflow due to improper length check while updating grace period and count record in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking CVE-2021-1912Possible integer overflow can occur due to Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives length check while calculating count and grace period in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile CVE-2021-1895Possible integer overflow due to improper length check while flashing an image in Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Voice & Music CVE-2021-1878An integer overflow was addressed with improved input validation. This issue is fixed in macOS Big Sur 11.3, Security Update 2021-002 Catalina, Security Update 2021-003 Mojave. An attacker in a privileged network position may be able to leak sensitive user information. CVE-2021-1059NVIDIA vGPU manager contains a vulnerability in the vGPU plugin, in which an input index is not validated, which may lead to integer overflow, which in turn may cause tampering of data, information disclosure, or denial of service. This affects vGPU version 8.x (prior to 8.6) and version 11.0 (prior to 11.3). CVE-2021-0627In OMA DRM, there is a possible memory corruption due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Patch ID: ALPS05722434; Issue ID: ALPS05722434. CVE-2021-0623In asf extractor, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Patch ID: ALPS05489178; Issue ID: ALPS05585817. CVE-2021-0621In asf extractor, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Patch ID: ALPS05489178; Issue ID: ALPS05561383. CVE-2021-0615In flv extractor, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Patch ID: ALPS05561369; Issue ID: ALPS05561369. CVE-2021-0610In memory management driver, there is a possible memory corruption due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Patch ID: ALPS05403499; Issue ID: ALPS05411456. CVE-2021-0557In setRange of ABuffer.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-179046129 CVE-2021-0543In phNxpNciHal_process_ext_rsp of phNxpNciHal_ext.cc, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with System execution privileges needed, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-169258743 CVE-2021-0510In decrypt_1_2 of CryptoPlugin.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-9 Android-10 Android-11 Android-8.1Android ID: A-176444622 CVE-2021-0494In memory management driver, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android SoCAndroid ID: A-183461318 CVE-2021-0471In decrypt_1_2 of CryptoPlugin.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-9 Android-10 Android-11 Android-8.1Android ID: A-176444786 CVE-2021-0460In the FingerTipS touch screen driver, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android kernelAndroid ID: A-156739245 CVE-2021-0458In the FingerTipS touch screen driver, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android kernelAndroid ID: A-157156744 CVE-2021-0436In CryptoPlugin::decrypt of CryptoPlugin.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds read due to integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-8.1 Android-9 Android-10 Android-11Android ID: A-176496160 CVE-2021-0411In flv extractor, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Patch ID: ALPS05561362; Issue ID: ALPS05561362. CVE-2021-0393In Scanner::LiteralBuffer::NewCapacity of scanner.cc, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution if an attacker can supply a malicious PAC file, with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11 Android-8.1 Android-9 Android-10Android ID: A-168041375 CVE-2021-0355In kisd, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Product: Android; Versions: Android-11; Patch ID: ALPS05425581. CVE-2021-0354In ged, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Product: Android; Versions: Android-8.1, Android-9, Android-10, Android-11; Patch ID: ALPS05431161. CVE-2021-0312In WAVSource::read of WAVExtractor.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: Android; Versions: Android-8.1, Android-9, Android-10, Android-11, Android-8.0; Android ID: A-170583712, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2020-9875An integer overflow was addressed through improved input validation. This issue is fixed in iOS 13.6 and iPadOS 13.6, macOS Catalina 10.15.6, tvOS 13.4.8, watchOS 6.2.8, iTunes 12.10.8 for Windows, iCloud for Windows 11.3, iCloud for Windows 7.20. Processing a maliciously crafted image may lead to arbitrary code execution. CVE-2020-9852An integer overflow was addressed through improved input validation, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. This issue is fixed in iOS 13.5 and iPadOS 13.5, macOS Catalina 10.15.5, tvOS 13.4.5, watchOS 6.2.5. A malicious application may be able to execute arbitrary code with kernel privileges. CVE-2020-9841An integer overflow was addressed through improved input validation. This issue is fixed in macOS Catalina 10.15.5. An application may be able to execute arbitrary code with kernel privileges. CVE-2020-9095HUAWEI P30 Pro smartphone with Versions earlier than 10.1.0.160(C00E160R2P8) has Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives integer overflow vulnerability. Some functions are lack of verification when they process some messages sent from other module. Attackers can exploit this vulnerability by send malicious message to cause integer overflow. This can compromise normal service. CVE-2020-8874This vulnerability allows local attackers to escalate privileges on affected installations of Parallels Desktop 15.1.2-47123. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute high-privileged code on the target guest system in order to exploit this vulnerability, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. The specific flaw exists within the xHCI component. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to escalate privileges and execute code in the context of the hypervisor. Was ZDI-CAN-10032. CVE-2020-8844This vulnerability allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code on affected installations of Foxit Reader 9.6.0.25114. User interaction is required to exploit this vulnerability in that the target must visit a malicious page or open a malicious file. The specific flaw exists within the parsing of JPEG files within CovertToPDF. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before writing to memory. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to execute code in the context of the current process. Was ZDI-CAN-9102. CVE-2020-8760Integer overflow in subsystem for Intel(R) AMT versions before 11.8.80, 11.12.80, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, 11.22.80, 12.0.70, 14.0.45 may allow a privileged user to potentially enable escalation of privilege via local access. CVE-2020-8746Integer overflow in subsystem for Intel(R) AMT versions before 11.8.80, 11.12.80, 11.22.80, 12.0.70 and 14.0.45 may allow an unauthenticated user to potentially enable denial of service via adjacent access. CVE-2020-7872DaviewIndy v8.98.7.0 and earlier versions have a Integer overflow vulnerability, triggered when the user opens a malformed format file that is mishandled by DaviewIndy. Attackers could exploit this and arbitrary code execution. CVE-2020-7860UnEGG v0.5 and eariler versions have a Integer overflow vulnerability, triggered when the user opens a malformed specific file that is mishandled by UnEGG. Attackers could exploit this and arbitrary code execution. This issue affects: Estsoft UnEGG 0.5 versions prior to 1.0 on linux. CVE-2020-6569Integer overflow in WebUSB in Google Chrome prior to Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives allowed a remote Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives who had compromised the renderer process to potentially exploit heap corruption via a Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives HTML page. CVE-2020-6381Integer overflow in JavaScript in Google Chrome on ChromeOS and Android prior to 80.0.3987.87 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2020-6113An exploitable vulnerability exists in the object stream parsing functionality of Nitro Software, Inc.&#8217;s Nitro Pro 13.13.2.242 when updating its cross-reference table. When processing an object stream from a PDF document, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, the application will perform a calculation in order to allocate memory for the list of indirect objects. Due to an error when calculating this size, an integer overflow may occur which can result in an undersized buffer being allocated, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Later when initializing this buffer, the application can write outside its bounds which can cause a memory corruption that can lead to code execution. A specially crafted document can be delivered to a victim in order to trigger this vulnerability, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2020-6092An exploitable code execution vulnerability exists in the way Nitro Pro 13.9.1.155 parses Pattern objects. A specially crafted PDF file can trigger an integer overflow that can lead to arbitrary code execution. In order to trigger this vulnerability, victim must open a malicious file. CVE-2020-6073An exploitable denial-of-service vulnerability exists in the TXT record-parsing functionality of Videolabs libmicrodns 0.1.0. When parsing the RDATA section in a TXT record in mDNS messages, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, multiple integer overflows can be triggered, leading to a denial of service. An attacker can send an mDNS message to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2020-5310libImaging/TiffDecode.c in Pillow before 6.2.2 has a TIFF decoding integer overflow, related to realloc. CVE-2020-4030In FreeRDP before version 2.1.2, there is an out of bounds read in TrioParse. Logging might bypass string length checks due to an integer overflow. This is fixed in version 2.1.2. CVE-2020-3990VMware Workstation (15.x) and Horizon Client for Windows (5.x before 5.4.4) contain an information disclosure vulnerability due to an integer overflow issue in Cortado ThinPrint component. A malicious actor with normal access to a virtual machine may be able to exploit this issue to leak memory from TPView process running on the system where Workstation or Horizon Client for Windows is installed. Exploitation is only possible if virtual printing has been enabled. This feature is not enabled by default on Workstation but it is enabled by default on Horizon Client. CVE-2020-36430libass 0.15.x before 0.15.1 has a heap-based buffer overflow in decode_chars (called from decode_font and process_text) because the wrong integer data type is used for subtraction. CVE-2020-3641Integer overflow may occur if atom size is less than atom offset as there is improper validation of atom size in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables in APQ8009, APQ8053, APQ8096AU, APQ8098, Kamorta, MDM9206, MDM9207C, MDM9607, MSM8905, MSM8909W, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, MSM8917, MSM8953, MSM8996AU, MSM8998, QCA6574AU, QCM2150, QCS405, QCS605, QM215, Rennell, SA6155P, Saipan, SDA660, SDM429, SDM429W, SDM439, SDM450, SDM630, SDM632, SDM636, SDM660, SDM845, SDX20, SM6150, SM7150, SM8150, SM8250, SXR2130 CVE-2020-36242In the cryptography package before 3.3.2 for Python, certain sequences of update calls to symmetrically encrypt multi-GB values could result in an integer overflow and buffer overflow, as demonstrated by the Fernet class. CVE-2020-3624u'A potential buffer overflow exists due to integer overflow when parsing handler options due to wrong data type usage in operation' in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer Electronics Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking in APQ8009, APQ8017, APQ8053, APQ8096AU, APQ8098, Kamorta, MDM9150, MDM9205, MDM9206, MDM9207C, MDM9607, MDM9615, MDM9625, MDM9635M, MDM9640, MDM9645, MDM9650, MDM9655, MSM8905, MSM8909, MSM8909W, MSM8917, MSM8920, MSM8937, MSM8940, MSM8953, MSM8996AU, MSM8998, Nicobar, QCM2150, QCN7605, QCS605, QCS610, QM215, Rennell, SA415M, SA515M, Saipan, SC7180, SC8180X, SDA660, SDA845, SDM429, SDM429W, SDM439, SDM450, SDM630, SDM632, SDM636, SDM660, SDM670, SDM710, SDM845, SDM850, SDX20, SDX24, SDX55, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, SM6150, SM7150, SM8150, SXR1130 CVE-2020-3620CVE-2020-35738WavPack 5.3.0 has an out-of-bounds write in WavpackPackSamples in pack_utils.c because of an integer overflow in a malloc argument. NOTE: some third-parties claim that there are later "unofficial" releases through 5.3.2, which are also affected. CVE-2020-35523An integer overflow flaw was found in libtiff that exists in the tif_getimage.c file. This flaw allows an attacker to inject and execute arbitrary code when a user opens a crafted TIFF file. The highest threat from this vulnerability is to confidentiality, integrity, as well as system availability. CVE-2020-35457** DISPUTED ** GNOME GLib before 2.65.3 has an integer overflow, that might lead to an out-of-bounds write, in g_option_group_add_entries. NOTE: the vendor's position is "Realistically this is not a security issue. The standard pattern is for callers to provide a static list of option entries in a fixed number of calls to g_option_group_add_entries()." The researcher states that this pattern is undocumented. CVE-2020-35230Multiple integer overflow parameters were found in the web administration panel on NETGEAR JGS516PE/GS116Ev2 v2.6.0.43 devices. Most of the integer parameters sent through the web server can be abused to cause a denial of service attack. CVE-2020-35198An issue was discovered in Wind River VxWorks 7. The memory allocator has a possible integer overflow in calculating a memory block's Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives to be allocated by calloc(). As a result, the actual memory allocated is smaller than the buffer size specified by the arguments, leading to memory corruption. CVE-2020-29384An issue was discovered in PNGOUT 2020-01-15. When compressing a crafted PNG file, it encounters an integer overflow. CVE-2020-29361An issue was discovered in p11-kit 0.21.1 through 0.23.21. Multiple integer overflows have been discovered in the array allocations in the p11-kit library and the p11-kit list command, where overflow checks are missing before calling realloc or calloc. CVE-2020-29238An integer buffer overflow in the Nginx webserver of ExpressVPN Router version 1 allows remote attackers to obtain sensitive information when the server running as reverse proxy via specially crafted request. CVE-2020-28371** UNSUPPORTED WHEN ASSIGNED ** An issue was discovered in ReadyTalk Avian 1.2.0 before 2020-10-27. The FileOutputStream.write() method in FileOutputStream.java has a boundary check to prevent out-of-bounds memory read/write operations. However, an integer overflow leads to bypassing this check and achieving the out-of-bounds access. NOTE: This vulnerability only affects products that are no longer supported by the maintainer. CVE-2020-28248An integer overflow in the PngImg::InitStorage_() function of png-img before 3.1.0 leads to an under-allocation of heap memory and subsequently an exploitable heap-based buffer overflow when loading a crafted PNG file. CVE-2020-28020Exim 4 before 4.92 allows Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow, in Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives an unauthenticated remote attacker can execute arbitrary code by leveraging the mishandling of continuation lines during header-length restriction. CVE-2020-28017Exim 4 before 4.94.2 allows Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow in receive_add_recipient via an e-mail message with fifty million recipients. NOTE: remote exploitation may be difficult because of resource consumption. CVE-2020-28009Exim 4 before 4.94.2 allows Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow because get_stdinput allows unbounded reads that are accompanied by unbounded increases in a certain size variable. NOTE: exploitation may be impractical because of the execution time needed to overflow (multiple days). CVE-2020-27945An integer overflow was addressed with improved input validation. This issue is fixed in macOS Big Sur 11.2, Security Update 2021-001 Catalina, Security Update 2021-001 Mojave, macOS Big Sur 11.0.1. Processing maliciously crafted web content may lead to arbitrary code execution. CVE-2020-27911An integer overflow was addressed through improved input validation. This issue is fixed in macOS Big Sur 11.0.1, watchOS 7.1, iOS 14.2 and iPadOS 14.2, iCloud for Windows 11.5, tvOS 14.2, iTunes 12.11 for Windows. A remote attacker may be able to cause unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution. CVE-2020-27906Multiple integer overflows were addressed with improved input validation. This issue is fixed in macOS Big Sur Kaspersky Internet Security 2020 Crack Activation {macOS} Free Premium Key Archives. A remote attacker may be able to cause unexpected application termination or heap corruption. CVE-2020-27813An integer overflow vulnerability exists with the length of websocket frames received via a websocket connection. An attacker would use this flaw to cause a denial of service attack on an HTTP Server allowing websocket connections. CVE-2020-27484Garmin Forerunner 235 before 8.20 is affected by: Integer Overflow. The component is: ConnectIQ TVM. The attack vector is: To exploit the vulnerability, the attacker must upload a malicious ConnectIQ application to the ConnectIQ store. The ConnectIQ program interpreter fails to check for overflow when allocating the array for the NEWA instruction. This a constrained read/write primitive across the entire MAX32630 address space. A successful exploit Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives allow a ConnectIQ app store application to escape and perform activities outside the restricted application execution environment, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2020-27350APT had several integer overflows and underflows while parsing .deb packages, aka GHSL-2020-168 GHSL-2020-169, in files apt-pkg/contrib/extracttar.cc, apt-pkg/deb/debfile.cc, and apt-pkg/contrib/arfile.cc. This issue affects: apt 1.2.32ubuntu0 versions prior to 1.2.32ubuntu0.2; 1.6.12ubuntu0 versions prior to 1.6.12ubuntu0.2; 2.0.2ubuntu0 versions prior to 2.0.2ubuntu0.2; 2.1.10ubuntu0 versions prior to 2.1.10ubuntu0.1; CVE-2020-27051In NFA_RwI93WriteMultipleBlocks of nfa_rw_api.cc, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-157650338 CVE-2020-26682In libass 0.14.0, the `ass_outline_construct`'s call to `outline_stroke` causes a signed integer overflow. CVE-2020-25693A flaw was found in CImg in versions prior to 2.9.3. Integer overflows leading to heap buffer overflows in load_pnm() can be triggered by a specially crafted input file processed by CImg, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, which can lead to an impact to application availability or data integrity. CVE-2020-25676In CatromWeights(), MeshInterpolate(), InterpolatePixelChannel(), InterpolatePixelChannels(), and InterpolatePixelInfo(), which are all functions in /MagickCore/pixel.c, there were multiple unconstrained pixel offset calculations which were being used with the floor() function. These calculations produced undefined behavior in the form of out-of-range and integer overflows, as identified by UndefinedBehaviorSanitizer. These instances of undefined behavior could be triggered by an attacker who Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives able to supply a crafted input file to be processed by ImageMagick. These issues could impact application availability or potentially cause other problems related to undefined behavior, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. This flaw affects ImageMagick versions prior to 7.0.9-0. CVE-2020-25675In the CropImage() and CropImageToTiles() routines Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives MagickCore/transform.c, rounding calculations performed on unconstrained pixel offsets was causing undefined behavior in the form of integer overflow and out-of-range values as reported by UndefinedBehaviorSanitizer. Such issues could cause a negative impact to application Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives or other problems related to undefined behavior, in cases where ImageMagick processes untrusted input data. The upstream patch introduces functionality to constrain the pixel offsets and prevent these issues. This flaw affects ImageMagick versions prior to 7.0.9-0. CVE-2020-25666There are 4 places in HistogramCompare() in MagickCore/histogram.c where an integer overflow is possible during simple math calculations. This occurs in the rgb values and `count` value for a color. The patch uses casts to `ssize_t` type for these calculations, instead of `int`. This flaw could impact application reliability in the event that ImageMagick processes a crafted input file. This flaw affects ImageMagick versions prior to 7.0.9-0. CVE-2020-25574An issue was discovered in the http crate before 0.1.20 for Rust. An integer overflow in HeaderMap::reserve() could result in denial of service (e.g., an infinite loop). CVE-2020-24838An integer overflow has been found in the the latest version of Issuer. The total issuedCount can be zero if the parameter is overly large. An attacker can obtain the private key of the owner issued with a certain 'amount', and the issuedCount can be zero if there is an overflow. CVE-2020-24397An issue was discovered in the Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives side of Zoho ManageEngine Desktop Central 10.0.0.SP-534, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. An attacker-controlled server can trigger an integer overflow in InternetSendRequestEx and InternetSendRequestByBitrate that leads to a heap-based buffer overflow and Remote Code Execution with SYSTEM privileges. Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives CVE-2020-24213An integer overflow was discovered in YGOPro ygocore v13.51. Attackers can use it to leak the game server thread's memory. CVE-2020-22875Integer overflow vulnerability in function Jsi_ObjSetLength in jsish before 3.0.6, allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code. CVE-2020-22874Integer overflow vulnerability in function Jsi_ObjArraySizer in jsish before 3.0.8, allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code. CVE-2020-20898Integer Overflow vulnerability in function filter16_prewitt in libavfilter/vf_convolution.c in Ffmpeg 4.2.1, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or other unspecified impacts. CVE-2020-19497Integer overflow vulnerability in Mat_VarReadNextInfo5 in mat5.c in tbeu matio (aka MAT File I/O Library) 1.5.17, allows attackers to cause a Denial of Service or possibly other unspecified impacts, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2020-19490tinyexr 0.9.5 has a integer overflow over-write in tinyexr::DecodePixelData in tinyexr.h, related Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives OpenEXR code. CVE-2020-1916An incorrect size calculation in ldap_escape may lead to an integer overflow when overly long input is passed in, resulting in an out-of-bounds write. This issue affects HHVM prior to 4.56.2, all versions between 4.57.0 and 4.78.0, 4.79.0, 4.80.0, 4.81.0, 4.82.0, 4.83.0. CVE-2020-18684Floodlight through 1.2 has an integer overflow in checkFlow in StaticFlowEntryPusherResource.java via priority or port number. CVE-2020-17752Integer overflow vulnerability in payable function of a smart contract implementation for an Ethereum token, as demonstrated by the smart contract implemented at address 0xB49E984A83d7A638E7F2889fc8328952BA951AbE, an implementation for MillionCoin (MON). CVE-2020-17396This vulnerability allows local attackers to escalate privileges on affected installations of Parallels Desktop 15.1.4. An attacker must first obtain the ability to execute low-privileged code on the target system in order to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the prl_hypervisor module. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to escalate privileges and execute code in the context of the kernel. Was ZDI-CAN-11217. CVE-2020-17360** UNSUPPORTED WHEN ASSIGNED ** An issue was discovered in ReadyTalk Avian 1.2.0. The vm::arrayCopy method defined in classpath-common.h contains multiple boundary checks that are performed to prevent out-of-bounds memory read/write. However, two of these boundary checks contain an integer overflow that leads to a bypass of these checks, and out-of-bounds read/write. NOTE: This vulnerability only affects products that are no longer supported by the maintainer. CVE-2020-16124Integer Overflow or Wraparound vulnerability in the XML RPC library of OpenRobotics ros_comm communications packages allows unauthenticated network traffic to cause unexpected behavior. This issue affects: OpenRobotics ros_comm communications packages Noetic and prior versions. Fixed in https://github.com/ros/ros_comm/pull/2065. Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives CVE-2020-15986Integer overflow in media in Google Chrome prior to 86.0.4240.75 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2020-15975Integer overflow in SwiftShader in Google Chrome prior to 86.0.4240.75 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2020-15974Integer overflow in Blink in Google Chrome prior to 86.0.4240.75 allowed a remote attacker to bypass site isolation via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2020-15707Integer overflows were discovered in the functions grub_cmd_initrd and grub_initrd_init in the efilinux component of GRUB2, as shipped in Debian, Red Hat, and Ubuntu (the functionality is not included in GRUB2 upstream), leading to a heap-based buffer overflow. These could be triggered by an extremely large number of arguments to the initrd command on 32-bit architectures, or a crafted filesystem with very large files on any architecture. An attacker could use this to execute arbitrary code and bypass UEFI Secure Boot restrictions. This issue affects GRUB2 version 2.04 and prior versions. CVE-2020-15588An issue was discovered in the client side of Zoho ManageEngine Desktop Central 10.0.552.W. An attacker-controlled server can trigger an integer overflow in InternetSendRequestEx and InternetSendRequestByBitrate that leads to a heap-based buffer overflow and Remote Code Execution with SYSTEM privileges, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. This issue will occur only when untrusted communication is initiated with server. In cloud, Agent will always connect with trusted communication. CVE-2020-15202In Tensorflow before versions 1.15.4, 2.0.3, 2.1.2, 2.2.1 and 2.3.1, the `Shard` API in TensorFlow expects the last argument to be a function taking two `int64` (i.e., `long long`) arguments. However, there are several places in TensorFlow where a lambda taking `int` or `int32` arguments is being used. In these cases, if the amount of work to be parallelized is large enough, integer truncation occurs. Depending on how the two arguments of the lambda are used, this can result in segfaults, read/write outside of heap allocated arrays, stack overflows, or data corruption. The issue is patched in commits 27b417360cbd671ef55915e4bb6bb06af8b8a832 and ca8c013b5e97b1373b3bb1c97ea655e69f31a575, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, and is released in TensorFlow versions 1.15.4, 2.0.3, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, 2.1.2, 2.2.1, or 2.3.1. CVE-2020-15158In libIEC61850 before version 1.4.3, when a message with COTP message length field with value < 4 is received an integer underflow will happen leading to heap buffer overflow, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. This can cause an application crash or on some platforms even the execution of remote code. If your application is used in open networks or there are untrusted nodes in the network it is highly recommend to apply the patch. This was patched with commit 033ab5b. Users of version 1.4.x should upgrade to version 1.4.3 when available. As a workaround changes of commit 033ab5b can be applied to older versions. CVE-2020-15137All versions of HoRNDIS are affected by an integer overflow in the RNDIS packet parsing routines. A malicious USB device can trigger disclosure of unrelated kernel memory to userspace applications on the host, or can cause the kernel to crash. Kernel memory disclosure is especially likely on 32-bit kernels; 64-bit kernels are more likely to crash on attempted exploitation, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. It is not believed that kernel memory corruption is possible, or that unattended kernel memory disclosure without the collaboration of a userspace program running on the host is possible. The vulnerability is in `HoRNDIS::receivePacket`. `msg_len`, `data_ofs`, and `data_len` can be controlled by an attached USB device, and a negative value of `data_ofs` can bypass the check for `(data_ofs + data_len + 8) > msg_len`, and subsequently can cause a wild pointer copy in the `mbuf_copyback` call. The software is not maintained and no patches are planned. Users of multi-tenant systems with HoRNDIS installed should only connect trusted USB devices to their system. CVE-2020-15103In FreeRDP less than or equal to 2.1.2, an integer overflow exists due to Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives input sanitation in rdpegfx channel. All FreeRDP clients are affected. The input rectangles from the server are not checked against local surface coordinates and blindly accepted. A malicious server can send data that will crash the client later on (invalid length arguments to a `memcpy`) This has been fixed in 2.2.0. As a workaround, stop using command line arguments /gfx, /gfx-h264 and /network:auto CVE-2020-14966An issue was discovered in the jsrsasign package through 8.0.18 for Node.js. It allows a malleability in ECDSA signatures by not checking overflows in the length of a sequence and '0' characters appended or prepended to an integer. The modified signatures are verified as valid. This could have a security-relevant impact if an application relied on a single canonical signature. CVE-2020-14409SDL (Simple DirectMedia Layer) through 2.0.12 has an Integer Overflow (and resultant SDL_memcpy heap corruption) in SDL_BlitCopy in video/SDL_blit_copy.c via a crafted .BMP file. CVE-2020-14401An issue was discovered in LibVNCServer before 0.9.13. libvncserver/scale.c has a pixel_value integer overflow. CVE-2020-14363An integer overflow vulnerability leading to a double-free was found in libX11. This flaw allows a local privileged attacker to cause an application compiled with libX11 to crash, or in some cases, result in arbitrary code execution. The Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives threat from this flaw is to confidentiality, integrity as well as system availability. CVE-2020-14362A flaw was found in X.Org Server before xorg-x11-server 1.20.9. An Integer underflow leading to heap-buffer overflow may lead to a privilege escalation vulnerability. The highest threat from this vulnerability is to data confidentiality and integrity as well as system availability. CVE-2020-14361A flaw was found in X.Org Server before xorg-x11-server 1.20.9. An Integer underflow leading to heap-buffer overflow may lead to a privilege escalation vulnerability. The highest threat from this vulnerability is to data confidentiality and integrity as well as system availability. CVE-2020-14344An integer overflow leading to a heap-buffer overflow was found in The X Input Method (XIM) client was implemented in libX11 before version 1.6.10. As per upstream this is security relevant when setuid programs call XIM client functions while running with elevated privileges. No such programs are shipped with Red Hat Enterprise Linux. CVE-2020-14155libpcre in PCRE before 8.44 allows an integer overflow via a large number after a (?C substring. CVE-2020-14147An integer overflow in the getnum function in lua_struct.c in Redis before 6.0.3 allows context-dependent attackers with permission to run Lua code in a Redis session to cause a denial of service (memory corruption and application crash) or possibly bypass intended sandbox restrictions via a large number, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, which triggers a stack-based buffer overflow. NOTE: this issue exists because of a CVE-2015-8080 regression. CVE-2020-13999ScaleViewPortExtEx in libemf.cpp in libEMF (aka ECMA-234 Metafile Library) 1.0.12 allows an integer overflow and denial of service via a crafted EMF file. CVE-2020-13995U.S. Air Force Sensor Data Management System extract75 has a buffer overflow that leads to code execution. An overflow in a global variable (sBuffer) leads to a Write-What-Where outcome. Writing beyond sBuffer will clobber most global variables until reaching a pointer such as DES_info or image_info. By controlling that pointer, one achieves an arbitrary write when its fields are assigned. The data written is from a potentially untrusted NITF file in the form of an integer. The attacker can gain control of the instruction pointer. CVE-2020-13988An issue was discovered in Contiki through 3.0. An Integer Overflow exists in the uIP TCP/IP Stack component when parsing TCP MSS options of IPv4 network packets in uip_process in net/ipv4/uip.c. CVE-2020-13974An issue was discovered in the Linux kernel 4.4 through 5.7.1. drivers/tty/vt/keyboard.c has an integer overflow if k_ascii is called Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives times in a row, aka CID-b86dab054059. NOTE: Members in the community argue that the integer overflow does not lead to a security issue in this case. CVE-2020-13822The Elliptic package 6.5.2 for Node.js allows ECDSA signature malleability via variations in encoding, leading '\0' bytes, or integer overflows. This could conceivably have a security-relevant impact if an application relied on a single canonical signature. CVE-2020-13603Integer Overflow in memory allocating functions. Zephyr versions >= 1.14.2, >= 2.4.0 contain Integer Overflow or Wraparound (CWE-190). For more information, see https://github.com/zephyrproject-rtos/zephyr/security/advisories/GHSA-94vp-8gc2-rm45 CVE-2020-13579An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists in the PlanMaker document parsing functionality of SoftMaker Office 2021&#8217;s PlanMaker application. A specially crafted document can cause the document parser perform arithmetic that may overflow which can result in an undersized heap allocation. Later when copying data from the file into this allocation, a heap-based buffer overflow will occur which can corrupt memory. These types of memory corruptions can allow for code execution under the context of the application. An attacker can entice the victim to open a document to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2020-13434SQLite through 3.32.0 has an integer overflow in sqlite3_str_vappendf in printf.c. CVE-2020-12887Memory leaks were discovered in the CoAP library in Arm Mbed OS 5.15.3 when using the Arm mbed-coap library 5.1.5. The CoAP parser is responsible for parsing received Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives packets. The function sn_coap_parser_options_parse() parses the CoAP option number field of all options present in the input packet. Each option number is calculated as a sum of the previous option number and a delta of the current option. The delta and the previous option number are expressed as unsigned 16-bit integers. Due to lack of overflow detection, it is possible to craft a packet that wraps the option number around and results in the same option number being processed again in a single packet. Certain options allocate memory by calling a memory allocation function. In the cases of COAP_OPTION_URI_QUERY, COAP_OPTION_URI_PATH, COAP_OPTION_LOCATION_QUERY, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, and COAP_OPTION_ETAG, there is no check on whether memory has already been allocated, which in conjunction with the option number integer overflow may lead to multiple assignments of allocated memory to a single pointer. This has been demonstrated to lead to memory leak by buffer orphaning. As a result, the memory is never freed. CVE-2020-12829In QEMU through 5.0.0, an integer overflow was found in the SM501 display driver implementation. This flaw occurs in the COPY_AREA macro while handling MMIO write operations through the sm501_2d_engine_write() callback. A local attacker could abuse this flaw to crash the QEMU process in sm501_2d_operation() in hw/display/sm501.c on the host, resulting in a denial of service, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2020-12826A signal access-control issue was discovered in the Linux kernel before 5.6.5, aka CID-7395ea4e65c2. Because exec_id in include/linux/sched.h is only 32 bits, an integer overflow can interfere with a do_notify_parent protection mechanism. A child process can send an arbitrary signal to a parent process in a different security domain. Exploitation limitations include the amount of elapsed time before an integer overflow occurs, and the lack of scenarios where signals to a parent process present a substantial operational threat. CVE-2020-12762json-c through 0.14 has an integer overflow and out-of-bounds write via a large JSON file, as demonstrated by printbuf_memappend. CVE-2020-12761modules/loaders/loader_ico.c in imlib2 1.6.0 has an integer overflow (with resultant invalid memory allocations and out-of-bounds reads) via an icon with many colors in its color map. CVE-2020-12651SecureCRT before 8.7.2 allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code via an Integer Overflow and a Buffer Overflow because a banner can trigger a line number to CSI functions that exceeds INT_MAX. CVE-2020-12368Integer overflow in some Intel(R) Graphics Drivers before version 26.20.100.8141 may allow a privileged user to potentially enable an escalation of privilege via local access. CVE-2020-12367Integer overflow in some Intel(R) Graphics Drivers before version 26.20.100.8476 may allow a privileged user to potentially enable an escalation of privilege via local access. CVE-2020-12362Integer overflow in the firmware for some Intel(R) Graphics Drivers for Windows * before version 26.20.100.7212 and before Linux kernel version 5.5 may allow a privileged user to potentially enable an escalation of privilege via local access. CVE-2020-12135bson before 0.8 incorrectly uses int rather than size_t for many variables, parameters, and return values. In particular, the bson_ensure_space() parameter bytesNeeded could have an integer overflow via properly constructed bson input, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2020-11945An issue was discovered in Squid before 5.0.2. A remote attacker can replay a sniffed Digest Authentication nonce to gain access to resources that are otherwise forbidden. This occurs because the attacker can overflow the nonce reference counter (a short integer). Remote code execution may occur if the pooled token credentials are freed (instead of replayed as valid credentials). CVE-2020-11939In nDPI through 3.2 Stable, the SSH Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives dissector has multiple KEXINIT integer overflows that result in a controlled remote heap overflow in concat_hash_string in ssh.c. Due to the granular nature of the overflow primitive and the ability to control both the contents and layout of the nDPI library's heap memory through Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives input, this vulnerability may be abused to achieve full Remote Code Execution against any network inspection stack that is linked against nDPI and uses it to perform network traffic analysis. CVE-2020-11904The Treck TCP/IP stack before 6.0.1.66 has an Integer Overflow during Memory Allocation that causes an Out-of-Bounds Write. CVE-2020-11869An integer overflow was found in QEMU 4.0.1 through 4.2.0 in the way it implemented ATI VGA emulation. Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives flaw occurs in the ati_2d_blt() routine in hw/display/ati-2d.c while handling MMIO write operations through the ati_mm_write() callback. A malicious guest could abuse this flaw to crash the QEMU process, resulting in a denial of service. CVE-2020-11759An issue was discovered in OpenEXR before 2.4.1. Because of integer overflows in CompositeDeepScanLine::Data::handleDeepFrameBuffer and readSampleCountForLineBlock, an attacker can write to an out-of-bounds pointer. CVE-2020-11523libfreerdp/gdi/region.c in FreeRDP versions > 1.0 through 2.0.0-rc4 has an Integer Overflow. CVE-2020-11306Possible integer overflow in RPMB counter due to lack of length check on user provided data in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking CVE-2020-11305Integer overflow in boot due to improper length check on arguments received in Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Voice & Music CVE-2020-11205u'Possible integer overflow to heap overflow while processing command due to lack of check of packet length received' in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Mobile in QSM8350, SA6145P, SA6150P, SA6155, SA6155P, SA8150P, SA8155P, SA8195P, SDX55M, SM8250, SM8350, SM8350P, SXR2130, SXR2130P CVE-2020-11197Possible integer overflow can occur when stream info update is called when total number of streams detected are zero while parsing TS clip with invalid data in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables CVE-2020-11169u'Buffer over-read while processing received L2CAP packet due to lack of integer overflow check' in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer Electronics Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking in APQ8009, APQ8053, QCA6390, QCN7605, QCN7606, SA415M, SA515M, SA6155P, SA8155P, SC8180X, SDX55 CVE-2020-11137Integer multiplication overflow resulting in lower buffer size allocation than expected causes memory access out of bounds resulting in possible device instability in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon IoT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking CVE-2020-11131u'Possible buffer overflow in WMA message processing due to integer overflow occurs when processing command received from user space' in Snapdragon Auto, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music in APQ8009, APQ8053, APQ8096AU, MDM9206, MDM9250, MDM9628, MDM9640, MDM9650, MSM8996AU, QCS405, SDA845, SDX20, SDX20M, WCD9330 CVE-2020-11039In FreeRDP less than or equal to 2.0.0, when using a manipulated server with USB redirection enabled (nearly) arbitrary memory can be read and written due to integer overflows in length checks. This has been patched in 2.1.0. CVE-2020-11038In FreeRDP less than or equal to 2.0.0, an Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow exists. When using /video redirection, a manipulated server can instruct the client to allocate a buffer with a smaller size than requested due to an integer overflow in size calculation. With later messages, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, the server can manipulate the client to write data out of bound to the previously allocated buffer. This has been patched in 2.1.0. CVE-2020-10938GraphicsMagick before 1.3.35 has an integer overflow and resultant heap-based buffer overflow in HuffmanDecodeImage in magick/compress.c. CVE-2020-10929This vulnerability allows network-adjacent attackers to execute arbitrary code on affected installations of NETGEAR R6700 V1.0.4.84_10.0.58 routers. Authentication is not required to exploit this vulnerability. The specific flaw exists within the handling of string table file uploads. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before allocating a buffer. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to execute code in the context of the admin user, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Was ZDI-CAN-9768. CVE-2020-10878Perl before 5.30.3 has an integer overflow related to mishandling of a "PL_regkind[OP(n)] == NOTHING" situation. A crafted regular expression could lead to malformed bytecode with a possibility of instruction injection. CVE-2020-10722A vulnerability was found in DPDK versions 18.05 and above. A missing check for an integer overflow in vhost_user_set_log_base() could result in a smaller memory map than requested, possibly allowing memory corruption. CVE-2020-10543Perl before 5.30.3 on 32-bit platforms allows a heap-based buffer overflow because nested regular expression quantifiers have an integer overflow. CVE-2020-10531An issue was discovered in International Components for Unicode (ICU) for C/C++ through 66.1. An integer overflow, leading to a heap-based buffer overflow, exists in the UnicodeString::doAppend() function in common/unistr.cpp. CVE-2020-10067A malicious userspace application can cause a integer overflow and bypass security checks performed by system call handlers, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. The impact would depend on the underlying system call and can range from denial of service to information leak to memory corruption resulting in code execution within the kernel. See NCC-ZEP-005 This issue affects: zephyrproject-rtos zephyr version 1.14.1 and later versions. version 2.1.0 and later versions. CVE-2020-0545Integer overflow in subsystem for Intel(R) CSME versions before 11.8.77, 11.12.77, 11.22.77 and Intel(R) TXE versions before 3.1.75, 4.0.25 and Intel(R) Server Platform Services (SPS) versions before SPS_E5_04.01.04.380.0, SPS_SoC-X_04.00.04.128.0, SPS_SoC-A_04.00.04.211.0, SPS_E3_04.01.04.109.0, SPS_E3_04.08.04.070.0 may allow a privileged user to potentially enable denial of service via local access. CVE-2020-0495In decode_Huffman of JBig2_SddProc.cpp, there is Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-155473137 CVE-2020-0458In SPDIFEncoder::writeBurstBufferBytes and related methods of SPDIFEncoder.cpp, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-9 Android-10 Android-8.0 Android-8.1Android ID: A-160265164 CVE-2020-0452In exif_entry_get_value of exif-entry.c, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution if a third party app used this library to process remote image data with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-8.1 Android-9 Android-10 Android-11 Android-8.0Android ID: A-159625731 CVE-2020-0432In skb_to_mamac of networking.c, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android kernelAndroid ID: A-143560807 CVE-2020-0409In create of FileMap.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10 Android-8.0 Android-8.1 Android-9Android ID: A-156997193 CVE-2020-0408In remove of String16.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11 Android-8.0 Android-8.1 Android-9 Android-10Android ID: A-156999009 CVE-2020-0381In Parse_wave of eas_mdls.c, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote information disclosure in a highly constrained process with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-8.0 Android-8.1 Android-9 Android-10 Android-11Android ID: A-150159669 CVE-2020-0369In libavb, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-130231426 CVE-2020-0346In Mediaserver, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege if integer sanitization were not enabled (which it is by default), with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-147002762 CVE-2020-0328In the camera, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-150156131 CVE-2020-0309In the Bluetooth server, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with System privileges and a Firmware compromise needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-147227320 CVE-2020-0264In libstagefright, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-11Android ID: A-116718596 CVE-2020-0240In NewFixedDoubleArray of factory.cc, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-150706594 CVE-2020-0216In phNciNfc_RecvMfResp of phNxpExtns_MifareStd.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-126204073 CVE-2020-0198In exif_data_load_data_content of exif-data.c, there is a possible UBSAN Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote denial of service with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-146428941 CVE-2020-0194In ihevcd_parse_slice_header of ihevcd_parse_slice_header.c, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-143826590 CVE-2020-0181In exif_data_load_data_thumbnail of exif-data.c, there is a possible denial of service due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote denial of service with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-145075076 CVE-2020-0167In load of ResourceTypes.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-129475100 CVE-2020-0139In NDEF_MsgValidate of ndef_utils.c, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure if a malformed NFC tag is provided by the firmware. System execution privileges are needed and user interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-145520471 CVE-2020-0136In multiple locations of Parcel.cpp, there is a possible out-of-bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege in the system server with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-120078455 CVE-2020-0128In addPacket of AMPEG4ElementaryAssembler, there is an out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote information disclosure with no additional execution privileges required. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-123940919 CVE-2020-0117In aes_cmac of aes_cmac.cc, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution in the bluetooth server with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: AndroidVersions: Android-8.1 Android-9 Android-10 Android-8.0Android ID: A-151155194 CVE-2020-0086In readCString of Parcel.cpp, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to arbitrary code execution if IntSan were not enabled, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, which it is by default. No additional execution privileges are required. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Product: Android Versions: Android-10 Android ID: A-131859347 CVE-2020-0068In crus_afe_get_param of msm-cirrus-playback.c, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with System execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation.Product: Android. Versions: Android kernel. Android ID: A-139354541 CVE-2019-9959The JPXStream::init function in Poppler 0.78.0 and earlier doesn't check for negative values of stream length, leading to an Integer Overflow, thereby making it possible to allocate a large memory chunk on the heap, with a size controlled by an attacker, as demonstrated by pdftocairo. CVE-2019-9930Various Lexmark products have an Integer Overflow. CVE-2019-9865When RPC is enabled in Wind River VxWorks 6.9 prior to 6.9.1, a specially crafted RPC request can trigger an integer overflow leading to an out-of-bounds memory copy. It may allow remote attackers to cause a denial of service (crash) or possibly execute arbitrary code. CVE-2019-9755An integer underflow issue exists in ntfs-3g 2017.3.23, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. A local attacker could potentially exploit this by running /bin/ntfs-3g with specially crafted arguments from a specially crafted directory to cause a heap buffer overflow, resulting in a crash or the ability to execute arbitrary code. In installations where /bin/ntfs-3g is a setuid-root binary, this could lead to a local escalation of privileges. CVE-2019-9421In libandroidfw, there is a possible OOB read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local information disclosure with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-111215250 CVE-2019-9420In libhevc, there is a possible out of bounds read due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives of service with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-111272481 CVE-2019-9405In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112890225 CVE-2019-9357In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112662995 CVE-2019-9311In Bluetooth, there is a possible crash due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote denial of service on incoming calls with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-79431031 CVE-2019-9310In libFDK, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112891546 CVE-2019-9308In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661742 CVE-2019-9307In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661893 CVE-2019-9306In libMpegTPDec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661348 CVE-2019-9305In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661835 CVE-2019-9304In libMpegTPDec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112662270 CVE-2019-9303In libFDK, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661057 CVE-2019-9302In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661356 CVE-2019-9301In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112663384 CVE-2019-9300In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112661610 CVE-2019-9299In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112663886 CVE-2019-9298In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112892194 CVE-2019-9297In libAACdec, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112890242 CVE-2019-9278In libexif, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote escalation of privilege in the media content provider with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-112537774 CVE-2019-9262In MPEG4Extractor, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution in the media extractor with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-111792351 CVE-2019-9257In Bluetooth, there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to local escalation of privilege with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is not needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-113572342 CVE-2019-9256In libmediaextractor there is a possible out of bounds write due to an integer overflow. This could lead to remote code execution with no additional execution privileges needed. User interaction is needed for exploitation. Product: AndroidVersions: Android-10Android ID: A-111921829 CVE-2019-9210In AdvanceCOMP 2.1, png_compress in pngex.cc in advpng has an integer overflow upon encountering an invalid PNG size, which results in an attempted memcpy to write into a buffer that is too small. (There is also a heap-based buffer over-read.) CVE-2019-9183An issue was discovered in Contiki-NG through 4.3 and Contiki through 3.0. A buffer overflow is present due to an integer underflow during 6LoWPAN fragment processing in the face of truncated fragments in os/net/ipv6/sicslowpan.c. This results in accesses of unmapped memory, crashing the application. An attacker can cause a denial-of-service via a crafted 6LoWPAN frame. CVE-2019-9139DaviewIndy 8.98.7 and earlier versions have a Integer overflow vulnerability, triggered when the user opens a malformed PDF file that is mishandled by Daview.exe. Attackers could exploit this and arbitrary code execution. CVE-2019-9138DaviewIndy 8.98.7 and earlier versions have a Integer overflow vulnerability, triggered when the user Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives a malformed PhotoShop file that is mishandled by Daview.exe. Attackers could exploit this and arbitrary code execution. CVE-2019-9137DaviewIndy 8.98.7 and earlier versions have a Integer overflow vulnerability, triggered when the user opens a malformed Image file that is mishandled by Daview.exe. Attackers could exploit this and arbitrary code execution. CVE-2019-9112The msm gpu driver for custom Linux kernels on the Xiaomi perseus-p-oss MIX 3 device through 2018-11-26 has an integer overflow and OOPS because of missing checks of the count argument in _sde_debugfs_conn_cmd_tx_write in drivers/gpu/drm/msm/sde/sde_connector.c. This is exploitable for a device crash via a syscall by a crafted application on a rooted device. CVE-2019-9111The msm gpu driver for custom Linux kernels on the Xiaomi perseus-p-oss MIX 3 device through 2018-11-26 has an integer overflow and OOPS because of missing checks of the count argument in sde_evtlog_filter_write in drivers/gpu/drm/msm/sde_dbg.c. This is exploitable for a device crash via a syscall by a crafted application on a rooted device, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2019-9098An issue was discovered on Moxa MGate MB3170 and MB3270 devices before 4.1, MB3280 and MB3480 devices before 3.1, MB3660 devices before 2.3, and MB3180 devices before 2.1. An Integer overflow in the built-in web server allows remote attackers to initiate DoS. CVE-2019-8355An issue was discovered in SoX 14.4.2. In xmalloc.h, there is an integer overflow on the result of multiplication fed into the lsx_valloc macro that wraps malloc. When the buffer is allocated, it is smaller than expected, leading to a heap-based buffer overflow in channels_start in remix.c. CVE-2019-8354An issue was discovered in SoX 14.4.2. lsx_make_lpf in effect_i_dsp.c has an integer overflow on the result of multiplication fed into malloc. When the buffer is allocated, it is smaller than expected, leading to a heap-based buffer overflow. CVE-2019-8101Adobe Acrobat and Reader versions 2019.012.20035 and earlier, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, 2019.012.20035 and earlier, 2017.011.30142 and earlier, 2017.011.30143 and earlier, 2015.006.30497 and earlier, and 2015.006.30498 and earlier have an integer overflow vulnerability. Successful exploitation could lead to information disclosure. CVE-2019-8099Adobe Acrobat and Reader versions Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives and earlier, 2019.012.20035 and earlier, 2017.011.30142 and earlier, 2017.011.30143 and earlier, 2015.006.30497 and earlier, and 2015.006.30498 and earlier have an integer overflow vulnerability. Successful exploitation could lead to information disclosure. CVE-2019-7733In Live555 0.95, there is a buffer overflow via a large integer in a Content-Length HTTP header because handleRequestBytes has an unrestricted memmove. CVE-2019-7030Adobe Acrobat and Reader versions 2019.010.20069 and earlier, 2019.010.20069 and earlier, 2017.011.30113 and earlier version, and 2015.006.30464 and earlier have an integer overflow vulnerability. Successful exploitation could lead to information disclosure. CVE-2019-6983An issue was discovered in Foxit 3D Plugin Beta before 9.4.0.16807 for Foxit Reader and PhantomPDF. The application could encounter an Integer Overflow and crash during the handling of certain PDF files that embed specifically crafted 3D content, because of a free of valid memory. CVE-2019-6753This vulnerability allows remote attackers to disclose sensitive information on vulnerable installations of Foxit Reader 9.3.0.10826. User interaction is required to exploit this vulnerability in that the target must visit a malicious page or open a malicious file. The specific flaw exists within the handling of the Stuff method. The issue results from the lack of proper validation of user-supplied data, which can result in an integer overflow before writing to memory. An attacker can leverage this in conjunction with other vulnerabilities to execute code in the context of the current process. Was ZDI-CAN-7561. CVE-2019-6250A pointer overflow, with code execution, was discovered in ZeroMQ libzmq (aka 0MQ) 4.2.x and 4.3.x before 4.3.1. A v2_decoder.cpp zmq::v2_decoder_t::size_ready integer overflow allows an authenticated attacker to overwrite an arbitrary amount of bytes beyond the bounds of a buffer, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, which can be leveraged to run arbitrary code on the target system. The memory layout allows the attacker to inject OS commands into a data structure located immediately after the problematic buffer (i.e., it is not necessary to use a typical buffer-overflow exploitation technique that changes the flow of control). CVE-2019-6114An issue was discovered in Corel PaintShop Pro 2019 21.0.0.119. An integer overflow in the jp2 parsing library allows an attacker to overwrite memory and to execute arbitrary code. CVE-2019-6010Integer overflow vulnerability in LINE(Android) from 4.4.0 to the version before 9.15.1 allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (DoS) condition or execute arbitrary code via a specially crafted image. CVE-2019-6007Integer overflow vulnerability in apng-drawable 1.0.0 to 1.6.0 allows an attacker to cause a denial of service (DoS) condition or execute arbitrary code via unspecified vectors, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2019-5855Integer overflow in PDFium in Google Chrome prior to 76.0.3809.87 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted PDF file. CVE-2019-5854Integer overflow in PDFium in Google Chrome prior to 76.0.3809.87 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted PDF file. CVE-2019-5829Integer overflow in download manager in Google Chrome prior to 75.0.3770.80 allowed a remote attacker to potentially perform out of bounds memory access via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2019-5827Integer overflow in SQLite via WebSQL in Google Chrome prior to 74.0.3729.131 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2019-5821Integer overflow in PDFium in Google Chrome prior Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives 74.0.3729.108 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted PDF file. CVE-2019-5820Integer overflow in PDFium in Google Chrome prior to 74.0.3729.108 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted PDF file. CVE-2019-5806Integer overflow in ANGLE in Google Chrome on Windows prior to 74.0.3729.108 allowed a remote attacker to potentially exploit heap corruption via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2019-5795Integer overflow in PDFium in Google Chrome prior to 73.0.3683.75 allowed a remote attacker to potentially perform out of bounds memory access via a crafted PDF file. CVE-2019-5792Integer overflow in PDFium in Google Chrome prior to 73.0.3683.75 allowed a remote attacker Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives potentially perform out of bounds memory access via a crafted PDF file. CVE-2019-5790An integer Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives leading to an incorrect capacity of a buffer in JavaScript in Google Chrome prior to 73.0.3683.75 allowed a remote attacker to execute arbitrary code inside a sandbox via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2019-5789An integer overflow that leads to a use-after-free in WebMIDI in Google Chrome on Windows prior to 73.0.3683.75 allowed a remote attacker who had compromised the renderer process to execute arbitrary code via a crafted Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives page. CVE-2019-5788An integer overflow that leads to a use-after-free in Blink Storage in Google Chrome on Linux prior to 73.0.3683.75 allowed a remote attacker who had compromised the renderer process to execute arbitrary code via a crafted HTML page. CVE-2019-5435An integer overflow in curl's URL API results in a buffer overflow in libcurl 7.62.0 to and including 7.64.1, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. CVE-2019-5288P30 smart phones with versions earlier than ELLE-AL00B 9.1.0.193(C00E190R2P1) have an integer overflow vulnerability due to insufficient check on specific parameters. An attacker tricks the user into installing a malicious application, obtains the root permission and constructs specific parameters to the camera program to exploit this vulnerability. Successful exploit could cause the program to break down or allow for arbitrary code execution. CVE-2019-5287P30 smart phones with versions earlier than ELLE-AL00B 9.1.0.193(C00E190R2P1) have an integer overflow vulnerability due to insufficient check on specific parameters. An attacker tricks the user into installing a malicious application, obtains the root Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives and constructs specific parameters to the camera program to exploit this vulnerability. Successful exploit could cause the program to break down or allow for arbitrary code execution. CVE-2019-5100An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists in the BMP header parsing functionality of LEADTOOLS 20. A specially crafted BMP image file can cause an integer overflow, potentially resulting in code execution. An attacker can specially craft a BMP image to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5093An exploitable code execution vulnerability exists in the DICOM network response functionality of LEADTOOLS libltdic.so version 20.0.2019.3.15. A specially crafted packet can cause an integer overflow, resulting in heap corruption. An attacker can send a packet to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5087An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists in the flattenIncrementally function in the xcf2png and xcf2pnm binaries of xcftools 1.0.7. An integer overflow can occur while calculating the row's allocation size, that could be exploited to corrupt memory and eventually execute arbitrary code. In order to trigger this vulnerability, a victim would need to open a specially crafted XCF file. CVE-2019-5086An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists in the flattenIncrementally function in the xcf2png and xcf2pnm binaries of xcftools, version 1.0.7. An integer overflow can occur while walking through tiles that could be exploited to corrupt memory and execute arbitrary code. In order to trigger this vulnerability, a victim would need to open a specially crafted XCF file. CVE-2019-5085An exploitable code execution vulnerability exists in the DICOM packet-parsing functionality of LEADTOOLS libltdic.so, version 20.0.2019.3.15. A specially crafted packet can cause an integer overflow, resulting in heap corruption. An attacker can send a packet to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5060An exploitable code execution vulnerability exists in the XPM image rendering function of SDL2_image 2.0.4. A specially crafted XPM image can cause an integer overflow in the colorhash function, allocating too small of a buffer. This buffer can then be written out of bounds, resulting in a heap overflow, ultimately ending in code execution. An attacker can display a specially crafted image to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5059An exploitable code execution vulnerability exists in the XPM image rendering functionality of SDL2_image 2.0.4. A specially crafted XPM image can cause an integer overflow, allocating too small of a buffer. This buffer can then be written out of bounds resulting in a Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives overflow, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, ultimately ending in code execution. An attacker can display a specially crafted image to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5052An exploitable integer overflow vulnerability exists when loading a PCX file in SDL2_image 2.0.4. A specially crafted file can cause an integer overflow, resulting in too little memory being allocated, which can lead to a buffer overflow and potential code execution. An attacker can provide a specially crafted image file to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5040An exploitable information disclosure vulnerability exists in the Weave MessageLayer parsing of Openweave-core version 4.0.2 and Nest Cam IQ Indoor version 4620002, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. A specially crafted weave packet can cause an integer overflow to occur, resulting in PacketBuffer data reuse. An attacker can send a packet to trigger this vulnerability. CVE-2019-5037An exploitable denial-of-service vulnerability exists in the Weave certificate loading functionality of Nest Cam IQ Indoor camera, version 4620002. A specially crafted weave packet can cause an integer overflow and an out-of-bounds read on unmapped memory to occur, resulting in a denial of service. An attacker can send a specially crafted packet to trigger. CVE-2019-3946Fuji Electric V-Server before 6.0.33.0 is vulnerable to denial of service via a crafted UDP message sent to port 8005. An unauthenticated, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, remote attacker can crash vserver.exe due to an integer overflow in the UDP message handling logic. CVE-2019-3857An integer overflow flaw which could lead to an out of bounds write was discovered in libssh2 before 1.8.1 in the way SSH_MSG_CHANNEL_REQUEST packets with an exit signal are parsed. A remote attacker who compromises a SSH server may be able to execute code on the client system when a user connects to the server. CVE-2019-3856An integer overflow flaw, which could lead to an out of bounds write, was discovered in libssh2 before 1.8.1 in the way keyboard prompt requests are parsed. A remote attacker who compromises a SSH server may be able to execute code on the client system when a user connects to the server. CVE-2019-3855An integer overflow flaw which could lead to an out of bounds write was discovered in libssh2 before 1.8.1 in the way packets are read from the server. A remote attacker who compromises a SSH server may be able to execute code on the client system when a user connects to the server. CVE-2019-25039** DISPUTED ** Unbound before 1.9.5 allows an integer overflow in a size calculation in respip/respip.c, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. NOTE: The vendor disputes that this is a vulnerability. Although the code may be vulnerable, a running Unbound installation cannot be remotely or locally exploited. CVE-2019-25038** DISPUTED ** Unbound before 1.9.5 allows an integer overflow in a size calculation in dnscrypt/dnscrypt.c. NOTE: The vendor disputes that this is a vulnerability. Although the code may be vulnerable, a running Unbound installation cannot be remotely or locally exploited. CVE-2019-25034** DISPUTED ** Unbound before 1.9.5 allows an integer overflow in sldns_str2wire_dname_buf_origin, leading to an out-of-bounds write, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives. NOTE: The vendor disputes that this is a vulnerability. Although the code may be vulnerable, a running Unbound installation cannot be remotely or locally exploited. CVE-2019-25033** DISPUTED ** Unbound before 1.9.5 allows an integer overflow in the regional allocator via the ALIGN_UP macro. NOTE: The vendor disputes that this is a vulnerability. Although the code may be vulnerable, a running Unbound installation cannot be remotely or locally exploited. CVE-2019-25032** DISPUTED ** Unbound before 1.9.5 allows an integer overflow in the regional allocator via regional_alloc. NOTE: The vendor disputes that this is a vulnerability. Although the code may be vulnerable, a running Unbound installation cannot be remotely or locally exploited. CVE-2019-2331Possible Integer overflow because of subtracting two integers without checking if the result would overflow or not in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Compute, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon IoT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wearables in MDM9150, MDM9206, MDM9607, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, MDM9615, MDM9640, MDM9650, MSM8909W, MSM8996AU, QCS405, QCS605, Qualcomm 215, SD 210/SD 212/SD 205, SD 425, SD 427, SD 430, SD 435, SD 439 / SD 429, SD 450, SD 600, SD 615/16/SD 415, SD 625, SD 632, SD 636, SD 665, SD 675, SD 712 / SD 710 / SD 670, SD 730, SD 820, SD 820A, SD 835, SD 845 / SD 850, SD 855, SDA660, SDM439, SDM630, SDM660, SDX20, SDX24 CVE-2019-2309While storing calibrated data from firmware in cache, An integer overflow may occur since data length received may exceed real data length. in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Consumer Electronics Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music in MDM9150, MDM9206, MDM9607, MDM9640, MDM9650, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, MSM8996AU, QCA6174A, QCA6574AU, QCA9377, QCA9379, SD 210/SD 212/SD 205, SD 425, SD 625, SD 636, SD 712 / SD 710 / SD 670, SD 820A, SD 845 / SD 850, SDM660, SDX20 CVE-2019-2304Integer overflow to buffer overflow due to lack of validation of event arguments received from firmware. in Snapdragon Auto, Snapdragon Consumer Electronics Connectivity, Snapdragon Consumer IOT, Snapdragon Industrial IOT, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, Snapdragon Mobile, Snapdragon Voice & Music, Snapdragon Wired Infrastructure and Networking in IPQ4019, IPQ8064, IPQ8074, MDM9607, MSM8917, MSM8920, MSM8937, MSM8940, QCN7605, QCS405, QCS605, SDA845, SDM660, Privacy Eraser Pro 4.56.3 latest Archives, SDM845, SDX24, SDX55, SM6150, SM7150, SM8150, SXR1130 CVE-2019-2302
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